WFD and Upland management:a regulatory perspectiveHarriet OrrResearch Expert, Climate Change, Evidence Directorate9th May 2012Input from: Robert Brotherton, Zoe Frogbrook, Stacey Roe, Kate Gamble, Simon Hildon
Introduction Good Ecological Status: reasons for failure Pressures, impacts and measures How we’re addressing issues and evidence gaps
Reasons for Failure
Water BodyFailures due toagriculture and landmanagementNorthern England
Wales Reasons For WFD Failures - Wales 19% Unknown (investigation to be completed) 3% 1% Agricultural pollution 1% Artificial barriers to fish migration 2% Abandoned mines and contaminated land2% 16% Forestry 3% Acidification4% Sewage discharges Impoundments7% Flood protection & land drainage Urban & transport development 11% Surface water abstraction 7% Natural conditions Industrial discharges 7% 10% Septic tanks 7% Other
Reasons for Failure Wales Agricultural Pollution 132 of Wales’ water bodies (16% of failures) fail Good Status because of pollution from agricultural activities Abandoned mines & contaminated land 84 of Wales’ water bodies (10% of failures) fail Good Status because of diffuse and point source pollution from abandoned mines and contaminated land
Reasons for Failure Forestry 60 of Wales’ water bodies (7% of failures) fail Good Status because of forestry activities This may drop to around 20 with further investigations Map of surface water failures for forestry
Reasons for Failure Wales Acidification in Wales 59 water bodies (7% of failures) fail Good Status because of the deposition of acidifying pollutants from combustion on sensitive environments. Map of surface water failures due to acidification
Upland issues Failures due to upland condition are few Looking for cost effective multiple benefits from measures Holistic approach in uplands e.g. riparian management to reduce sediment and nutrient delivery
Evidence gaps for pressure/impacts Risks of deterioration Efficacy of measures Value for money of measures esp. sediment/morphology lag time between implementation and ecological recovery.
Existing mechanisms Voluntary agreements e.g. safeguard zones for drinking water Pilot studies: learning by doing NE, moorland condition and fish (non SSSI) 13 water bodies to be improved through moorland restoration (> 900 water bodies in the region) Effectiveness of catchment sensitive farming methods “Taking a quality rather than quantity approach”
Implementing measures: Safeguard zones Drinking Water Protected Areas for water supply – designated in WFD DrWPAs provide safe drinking water (Drinking Water Directive) Protected from deterioration in quality (reduce treatment) Key variables colour, pesticides, algae and nitrate. In England, DrWPAs protected through defining Safeguard Zones. Voluntary Safeguard Zone Action Plans – to focus actions. Safeguard Zone action plan can link PR09/PR14 programmes.
Drinking Water Protected Areas at risk of failure due tocolour 25 DrWPAs at risk in NW feeding into 10 Safeguard Zone action plans 18 DrWPAs at risk inYorkshire & North East Region, feeding into 5 Safe guard Zone action plans WPZ/ product restrictions Water Company catchment Safeguard zones schemes CoGAP/cross compliance/NVZs/CFE
Significant Water Management Issues Addressing national scale issues in post 2015 Consultation: opportunity to raise issues Inform evidence development
Conclusions Upland condition not big reason for failure Future deterioration unclear (incl peat) Evidence about measures needed Channel issues/evidence through SWMI and UHGImproving the evidence base “learning from doing”