Interactive Media: Persuasive Interaction Design Session 5 Tom MacTavish Institute of Design Course 545, Room514
Today’s Agenda• Schedule• Session 4, Quick Review• Assignment #3• Fallacies• Digital Engagement – Marketing – Social Networking – Social Media
Course ScheduleDate Topic17 Jan Captology: Definition, Framework, Tools24 Jan Functional Triad: Tools, Media, Social Actors31 Jan Credibility, Behavioral and Evaluation Models07 Feb Aristotle’s Rhetorical Devices14 Feb Aristotle’s Fallacies, Digital Engagement21 Feb Groundswell, Social Technographics28 Feb Student Presentations
Quick Review• Forms of Influence• Taking Control of the Issue• Rhetorical Triangle
• Ethos – Argument by Character • Decorum • Virtue • Practical Wisdom • Disinterest• Pathos – Argument by Emotion • Sympathy • Belief • Persuasive Emotions • Figures of Speech• Logos – Argument by Logic • Deduction • Induction • Concession • Framing • Logical Fallacies• Kairos – Seizing the moment • Persuadable Moment • Style • Delivery
Forms of InfluencePersuasion Inducements Coercion Deception Exchange of Force and A pop-up money, possibly window or a goods, or economic hyperlink services for sanctions may be actions by the purposely person being deceitful influenced “Behavior Change Support Systems: A Research Model and Agenda,” Harri Oinas-Kukkonen, University of Oulu, at Persuasive 2010, Denmark
Taking Control of the Issue• Past by using blame and discussing guilt and innocence (forensic).• Present by discussing praise or blame of their values (demonstrative)• Future by describing the advantages that will accrue for you audience (possibilities)
Rhetorical Arguments• Ethos – Argument by Character• Pathos – Argument by Emotion• Logos – Argument by Logic• Kairos – Seizing the moment From: Thank You for Arguing, Jay Heinrichs, Three Rivers Press, 2007
Ethos – Argument by CharacterStrategy DefinitionDecorum Your ability to fit in with the audience’s expectationsVirtue The appearance of living up to your audience’s values.Practical Wisdom Practical thought derived from experienceDisinterest An apparent willingness to sacrifice your own interests for the greater good. From: Thank You for Arguing, Jay Heinrichs, Three Rivers Press, 2007
Pathos – Argument by EmotionStrategy DefinitionSympathy Registering concern for your audience’s emotionsBelief Engage the audience by referring to their own experienceBackfire Overplay your emotion to calm an individual’s reaction.Persuasive Emotions Appeal to the emotional reaction of your audience.Figures of Speech Use specific rhetorical devices for calculated effect. From: Thank You for Arguing, Jay Heinrichs, Three Rivers Press, 2007
Logos – Argument by LogicStrategy DefinitionDeduction Applying a general principle to a particular matter.Induction Argument by example. It starts with the specific and moves to the general. Concession Using your opponent’s own argument to your advantage. Framing Shaping the bounds of an argument. Logical Fallacies Incorrect logic.Bad Proof The argument’s commonplace or principle is unacceptable, or the examples are bad. Bad Conclusion We’re given too many choices, or not enough, or the conclusion is irrelevant to the argument. Rhetorical Fouls Mistakes or intentional offenses that stop an argument dead or make it fail to reach a consensus. From: Thank You for Arguing, Jay Heinrichs, Three Rivers Press, 2007
Which is Abductive?• All men die• Socrates is a man• Therefore, Socrates will die• Socrates, Aristotle and Cicero were all humans• They are all dead• All humans will die.• Socrates and Aristotle are men• All men die.• I will die.
Kairos – Seizing the momentStrategy DefinitionPersuadable Moment When the audience is ripest for your argument.Style Proper language, Clarity, Vividness, Decorum, OrnamentDelivery Attitude and Pitch From: Thank You for Arguing, Jay Heinrichs, Three Rivers Press, 2007
Assignment #4• For your class project, consider a user situation in which MAT can be applied: – Identify motivational opportunities – Identify ability improvement opportunities – Discuss a ‘trigger’ strategy – No more than 2 slides. Post to SeeID• Due Date: February 14rd
Enthymeme A logical deduction based on a commonplace, assumed premiseWhat is Natural?
FallaciesDevice ExampleThe False Comparison Made with all natural ingredientsThe Bad Example The intern from Yale was great. Let’s get another Yalie.Ignorance as Proof The tests were all negative. So there is nothing wrong with you.The Tautology You can trust our candidate because he’s an honest man.The False Choice When did you stop kicking your dog?The Red Herring If the glove fits, you must acquit!The Wrong Ending If I let you miss class, I have to let everyone miss class.
False Comparison/Appeal of Popularity
False Comparison/False Analogy The Govinator
The False ComparisonDevice ExampleEnthymeme fallacy Made with all natural ingredientsThe Appeal to You need to let me do this. All the other kids are.PopularityReductio Ad What if all the other kids went to jail? Would you?AbsurdumAntecedent Fallacy I won’t do my homework; I haven’t gotten a “B” yet.The False Analogy I am a successful movie actor; I will be a great governor.
Other Fallacy DevicesDevice ExampleThe Bad Example Mis‐interpreting the Evidence Hasty GeneralizationIgnorance as Proof The Fallacy of IgnoranceTautology The Repeated ArgumentThe False Choice Many Questions False Dilemma Complex CauseThe Red Herring Alternate Cause The Straw ManThe Wrong Ending The Slipper Slope The Chanticleer Fallacy
Digital Engagement Approaches• Marketing• Social Networking• Social Media
US Online Advertising Spending (Billion Dollars)* http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/forecast-us-online-ad-spending-283333 Digital Engagement, Harden and Heyman, 2009, pg 6.
Web Marketing Basics• Brand building• Lead generation• Online Sales• Customer Support• Market Research• Viral Marketing• Web Publishing Digital Engagement, Harden and Heyman, 2009, pg 6.
The Shift from 1.0 to 2.0Web 1.0 Web 2.0Print Media Video, FlashPage Load at a time InteractivePublisher Model User Generated Content Context Awareness Tailored, Focused Social Networks Really Simple Syndication Personalized Content
Summary Web 1.0 Web 2.0 Static Live Publish Interact Inform Engage Link Tag Sell Socialize Control CollaborateThe Age of Engage, Denise Shiffman, 2008, pg 14
Integration of 1.0 and2.0Web 2.0 Techniques ApplicationsPublish and Inform RSS Google Reader Podcasts iTunes Status Feeds (Weather, WebCams) Weatherbug WidgetsInteract User Generated Content You Tube Blogs Word Press Wikis Wikipedia Sensors (Barcodes, RFIDs) Airline Boarding PassesEngage Surveys Survey Monkey Voting NewsSocialize Link, Tag, Text Message Delicious.com Social BookmarkingCollaborate Multi‐User On‐line Games World of Warcraft
We have not adequately understood these successes.http://www.marketingcharts.com/interactive/top-10-social-networking-websites-forums-february-2011-16414/
Social Networks More Stable CommunityMore DynamicCommunity Based on Financial Goals Based on Social Goals Interactions Magazine, November + December 2009, Volume XVI.6
Social Networks More Stable Community Co‐workers Relationships Services EntertainmentMore DynamicCommunity Based on Financial Goals Based on Social Goals Interactions Magazine, November + December 2009, Volume XVI.6
Interactions Magazine, November + December 2009, Volume XVI.6
Social MediaAny “fansubbers” in the house?
Any “YouTubers” in the house?
Any “Meet Up” people in the house?
Any “Wikipedia Editors” in the house?“Anyone who has edited is known as aWikipedia editor and no matter how trivialthe edit may seem, can be proud that theyhave helped make Wikipedia what it is – allthose edits add up!” …wikipedia.org
Any “lolcats” in the house?
Any “Grobanites” in the house?
Social Media Category Website Task Sharing Linux fansubbing Experience Sharing Youtube.com Vimeo.com Knowledge Sharing Wikipedia.org Meetup.com Creative Outlets Fanfiction.net Lolcat (lolspeak) Recognition GrobanitesForCharityDerived from Cognitive Surplus, Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age, Clay Shirky, 2010
Motivations and Rewards • Intrinsic Self Determination Theory – Knowledge – Validation – Respect – Good will Love Money • Extrinsic – Money – Gift certificates – BooksEdward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, University of Rochester,http://www selfdeterminationtheory org/theory
The Value Spectrum• Personal Sharing• Communal Sharing• Public Sharing• Civic Sharing Derived from Cognitive Surplus, Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age, Clay Shirky, 2010
The Value Spectrum• Personal Sharing Derived from Cognitive Surplus, Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age, Clay Shirky, 2010
The Value Spectrum• Communal SharingDerived from Cognitive Surplus, Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age, Clay Shirky, 2010
The Value Spectrum• Public Sharing Derived from Cognitive Surplus, Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age, Clay Shirky, 2010
The Value Spectrum• Civic Sharing Derived from Cognitive Surplus, Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age, Clay Shirky, 2010
Cairo: A 26-year-old woman worried about the state of her country wroteon Facebook: "People, I am going to Tahrir Square". The message wassoon to snowball into a movement to oust Egyptian President HosniMubarak. The Facebook appeal by Asmaa Mahfouz… http://ibnlive.in.com/news/facebook-post-that-sparked-egypt-revolution/142328-2.html