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Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
Chapter 10   respiration
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Chapter 10 respiration

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Chapter 10 respiration

Chapter 10 respiration

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  • 1. RESPIRATION
  • 2. What Is Respiration? We know that living cells need food in order to sustain life. Food provides energy for the cell. The process of breaking down food molecules to RELEASE energy in living cells is called respiration.
  • 3. The main food substance used to provide energy is glucose Anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen. From these equations, we can see why living things take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen.
  • 4. Oxygen is taken in from the surroundings, and carbon dioxide is given out. This is called gaseous exchange. In simple organisms like the Amoeba, which consists of only one cell, the process is very simple. Gaseous Exchange
  • 5. Why Do We Need To Breathe? Humans are large organisms made up of millions of cells. It is not practical for oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse freely between the environment and all our cells. We have evolved a special system of organs to bring these gases in and out of our bodies. The mechanism of this exchange of gases is also known as external respiration to distinguish it from what happens in the cells, which is called cellular respiration. This exchange of gases by the body is known as breathing. The need for a respiratory system
  • 6. The Human Respiratory System Trachea (‘windpipe’) Lungs Diaphragm - separates chest from abdomen Nasal cavity Larynx (‘voice box’) Pharynx
  • 7. Structures of Chest in Context The expanded lungs fit neatly into the thoracic cavity, against the ribcage with its intercostal muscles, and the diaphragm below. The pulmonary arteries bring deoxygenated blood from the right heart, and oxygenated blood returns to the left heart via the pulmonary veins larynx right pulmonary vein branches of right pulmonary artery right lung cut open to show structures inside trachea ribs intercostal muscles diaphragm right bronchus left lung location of heart (removed)
  • 8. A Look at Mr Q’s beautiful rib cage! WoW!
  • 9. The Human Respiratory System Trachea (‘windpipe’) which is supported by C-shaped rings of cartilage Inside the lungs the bronchi divide further into a network of progressively smaller ‘tubes’ called bronchioles Each bronchiole ends in a cluster of grape-like structures called alveoli Branches into 2 Right main bronchus leading to right lung Left main bronchus leading to left lung Passage of inspired air
  • 10. The Human Respiratory System Lung tissue is like a ‘sponge’, made up of thousands of tiny air sacs called alveoli. The alveolus is where gaseous exchange actually takes place. The bronchioles leads to clusters of alveoli which look like grapes. The whole structure of the lungs is designed to provide a very large surface area for gaseous exchange.
  • 11. The wall of each alveolus is only one cell thick. The inner surface is coated with a thin film of moisture. It is supplied by a capillary whose wall is also only one cell thick. This is the site where exchange of gases takes The Human Respiratory System
  • 12. 3D Look at Alveolus!
  • 13. A model of the breathing mechanism The jar is sealed tight to create a vacuum, like the chest cavity. When the rubber diaphragm is pulled down, the balloons expand, sucking in air from the outside due to negative pressure. glass tube (trachea) glass tube (bronchus) balloon (lung) rubber sheet (diaphragm) bell jar (thoracic wall)
  • 14. A model of the breathing mechanism To take this example further, imagine each alveolus like a tiny balloon so the lung is a collection of many, many balloons all connected to the same network of tubes Full expiration very little air left in lungs. Alveoli collapse, lung is shrunken, diaphragm pulled upwards Equilibrium Some air in lungs Full inspiration -lungs (alveoli) fully inflated, diaphragm pushed down
  • 15. vertebral column stemum Internal intercostal muscles rib external intercostal muscles A model of the breathing mechanism This model is not perfect because the rib cage is not represented Unlike the rigid gas jar, the rib cage can move to a certain extent, expanding and contracting the thoracic cavity with each breath These diagrams illustrate how the ribs are able to move position when breathing in position when breathing out stemum external intercostal muscles
  • 16. Mechanism of Breathing rib sternum vertebral column Front view Side view When you breathe in or inspire, the following events take place: Movement of rib cage during inspiration rib cage
  • 17. Mechanism of Breathing rib sternum vertebral column Front view Side view • Your diaphragm contracts and flattens. Movement of rib cage during inspiration diaphragm contracts and flattens rib cage
  • 18. Mechanism of Breathing rib sternum vertebral column Front view Side view • Your external intercostal muscles contract while your internal intercostal muscles relax. Movement of rib cage during inspiration rib cage diaphragm contracts and flattens
  • 19. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum raised rib sternum vertebral column Front view Side view Ribs swing up • Your ribs move upwards and outwards. Your sternum also moves up and forward. Movement of rib cage during inspiration rib cage diaphragm contracts and flattens ribs and sternum raised
  • 20. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum raised rib sternum vertebral column Front view Side view Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax • The volume of your thoracic cavity increases. Movement of rib cage during inspiration rib cage diaphragm contracts and flattens ribs and sternum raised volume of thorax increases
  • 21. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum raised rib sternum vertebral column Front view Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax • Air pressure in your lungs causes them to expand to fill up the enlarged space in your thorax. Movement of rib cage during inspiration Side view rib cage diaphragm contracts and flattens ribs and sternum raised volume of thorax increases and lungs expand
  • 22. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum raised rib sternum vertebral column Front view Side view Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax • Expansion of your lungs causes the air pressure inside them to decrease. Movement of rib cage during inspiration Side view rib cage diaphragm contracts and flattens ribs and sternum raised lungs expand, causing air pressure inside lungs to decrease
  • 23. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum raised rib sternum vertebral column Front view Ribs swing up and increase volume of thorax • Atmospheric pressure is now higher than the pressure within your lungs. This causes air to rush into your lungs. Movement of rib cage during inspiration rib cage diaphragm contracts and flattens ribs and sternum raised lungs expand, causing air pressure inside lungs to decrease air enters lungs Side viewSide view
  • 24. Mechanism of Breathing When you breathe out or expire, the following events take place: rib sternum vertebral column Side viewFront view Movement of rib cage during expiration rib cage
  • 25. Mechanism of Breathing • Your diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards. rib sternum vertebral column Side viewFront view Movement of rib cage during expiration rib cage diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
  • 26. Mechanism of Breathing • Your internal intercostal muscles contract while your external intercostal muscles relax. rib sternum vertebral column Side viewFront view Movement of rib cage during expiration rib cage diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
  • 27. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum lowered rib sternum vertebral column Ribs swing down • Your ribs move downwards and inwards. Your sternum also moves down to its original position. Front view Movement of rib cage during expiration Side view rib cage diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards ribs and sternum returned to original position
  • 28. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum lowered rib sternum vertebral column Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax • The volume of your thoracic cavity decreases. volume of thorax decreases Front view Movement of rib cage during expiration Side view rib cage diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards ribs and sternum returned to original position
  • 29. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum lowered rib sternum vertebral column Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax • Your lungs are compressed and air pressure inside them increases as the volume decreases. Front view Movement of rib cage during expiration lungs are compressed, causing air pressure inside lungs to increase Side view rib cage diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards ribs and sternum returned to original position
  • 30. Mechanism of Breathing ribs and sternum lowered rib sternum vertebral column Front view Ribs swing down and decrease volume of thorax Movement of rib cage during expiration • Air pressure within the lungs is now higher than atmospheric pressure. The air is forced out of your lungs to the exterior. lungs are compressed, causing air pressure inside lungs to increase Side view rib cage diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards air expelled from lungs
  • 31. Mechanism of Breathing What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing?
  • 32. Mechanism of Breathing When you inhale, you… Relax your Internal intercostal muscles and Contract your External intercostal muscles R I C E What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing?
  • 33. Mechanism of Breathing When you inhale, you… Relax your Internal intercostal muscles and Contract your External intercostal muscles R I C E & E R I C What happens to your intercostal muscles when you are breathing? When you exhale, your… External intercostal muscles Relax and your Internal intercostal muscles Contract
  • 34. The Mechanics of Breathing Side view of movements in the thorax during inspiration and expiration air in rib cage is raised volume of thorax increases, so air is drawn into the lungs diaphragm contracts and flattens down spinal column Inspiration Expiration rib cage drops dow volume of thorax decreases, forcing air out of the lungs diaphragm relaxes and arches up air out spinal column
  • 35. Inspired and Expired air Inspired Air Expired Air Oxygen 21% 16.4% Carbon dioxide 0.03% 4.0% Nitrogen 78.0% 78.0% Water vapour Variable Saturated Temperature Variable Body temperature Dust Variable Little, if any
  • 36. Gaseous Exchange in the Alveolus Deoxygenated blood carrying carbon dioxide Oxygen-rich blood Oxygen Carbon dioxide (which will go back to the heart and enter the systemic circulation) Inhaled oxygen Carbon dioxide to be exhaled capillary alveolus
  • 37. Oxygen dissolved in mucous layer diffuses through alveolar and capillary walls capillary alveolus Carbon dioxide gas to be exhaled Binds to haemoglobin in red blood cells to form oxyhaemoglobin HCO3 - ions in plasma of blood converted back to CO2 which diffuses across barrier Gaseous Exchange in the Alveolus
  • 38. Gaseous Exchange in the Alveolus
  • 39. Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood Oxygen is transported by haemoglobin in red blood cells. Haemoglobin is a protein which contains iron. Each Hb molecule can bind up to 4 oxygen molecules in a reversible reaction. Carbon dioxide is transported in the plasma. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase converts the dissolved CO2 to form hydrogen carbonate ions, also in a reversible reaction.
  • 40. Oxygen Concentration and Haemoglobin The binding of oxygen to haemoglobin molecules is dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the surroundings. In oxygen-rich areas (such as in the lungs), oxygen binds to Hb to form oxyhaemoglobin. In surroundings where the oxygen concentration is low (other organs eg muscles), the process is reversed and oxygen molecules are released. This allows efficient transporting and distribution of oxygen Low O2 concentration High O2 concentration
  • 41. More about aerobic and anaerobic respiration What is the difference between the 2 equations?  Why does anaerobic respiration produce a smaller amount of energy per glucose molecule?
  • 42. More about aerobic and anaerobic respiration (Explanation) The energy released in respiration comes from the oxidation of glucose. In aerobic respiration, the glucose molecule is completely used up. All 6 carbon atoms are oxidised to carbon dioxide. In anaerobic respiration, the glucose is partially oxidised to ethanol. Not all the energy is released, as ethanol can actually be oxidised further. Why use anaerobic respiration if it is less efficient?
  • 43. The Uses of Anaerobic Respiration Organisms such as yeast and bacteria may predominantly respire anaerobically. This may come about because their habitat contains little oxygen Anaerobic respiration of yeast cells is used in the baking of bread. Mixed in the dough, the yeast cells respire, using up the sugar present, and replicate at high speed. The carbon dioxide gas given off forms ‘pockets’ of gas in the bread, causing it to ‘rise’ and be light and spongy in texture Yeast are also used in alcoholic fermentation to make beer, wine and other alcoholic drinks Lactobaccillus bacteria is added to milk to make yoghurt. The lactic acid produced ‘separates’ the milk solids and gives the characteristic sour taste
  • 44. Anaerobic Respiration in Humans Why do our muscles ache after vigorous exercise? What makes the pain go away after some time? When exercised vigourously, muscles need a lot of energy. Even though we breathe faster and deeper than usual, they may not be able to receive enough oxygen fast enough to meet the demand for aerobic respiration What happens then is that the muscle cells
  • 45. Anaerobic Respiration in Humans Anaerobic respiration in human cells produces lactic acid. Lactic acid builds up in the muscle cells and causes muscle pain (called fatigue) when it reaches a certain concentration. This way of obtaining energy cannot be sustained for long. The lactic acid must be removed by oxidation. This requires oxygen, thus the body is said to have incurred an oxygen debt. During a period of rest, the body cells continue working ‘overtime’ to oxidise all the lactic acid thus ‘repaying’ the ‘debt’ and relieving the pain.
  • 46. Energy is released Energy is stored in carbohydrate molecule Oxygen is used, carbon dioxide and water are given off. Carbon dioxide and water is used, oxygen is given off. Occurs at all times in all cells, independent of chlorophyll and sunlight. Occurs only in cells containing chlorophyll and in the presence of sunlight. Results in a loss in dry masses. Results in a gain of dry masses. Differences between Respiration and Photosynthesis
  • 47. Function of Cilia • Form a lining on the thin epithelium lining • Cilia helps to sweep dust particles and bacteria up the bronchi and trachea into the pharynx  to get swallowed into the oesophagus
  • 48. Harmful Substances in Cigarette Smoke
  • 49. Chronic bronchitis Due to prolonged breathing of irritants
  • 50. Chronic bronchitis Inflammation of trachea, bronchi, bronchioles (airways) Cilia along the epithelium lining being paralysed Irritants are trapped in the mucus lining the airways Leads to inflammation Airways become blocked, making breathing difficult Persistent coughing, in order to clear airways There is an increased risk of getting lung infections
  • 51. Emphysema Due to persistent and violent coughing
  • 52. Emphysema Violent coughing breaks the partition walls between the alveoli Surface area for gaseous exchange will decrease Lungs also lose their elasticity Air is trapped in the lungs Breathing becomes difficult Person will wheeze and suffer from severe breathlessness
  • 53. What happens when a person suffers BOTH chronic bronchitis and emphysema? This person is suffering from COPD! Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease lah!

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