Buddhist concepts.pptx [autosaved]Presentation Transcript
Religions of South Asia
Buddhism in the Subcontinent
The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.” 2,500 year old tradition. The 3 jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, the teacher. Dharma, the teachings. Sangha, the community.
Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 Born in NE India BCE) (Nepal). Raised in great luxury to be a king. At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering. Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs. Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana. Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
Four Noble Truths1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha) The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
Four Noble Truths2. The cause of suffering is self- centered desire and attachments. (Tanha)
Four Noble Truths3. The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”)
Four Noble Truths4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path Nirvana The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. The “Way of the Elders” or the “Small Vehicle.” Found in southern Asia. The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana. Focus on wisdom and meditation. Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.” Over 100,000,000 followers today.
Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.” Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). Buddhism “for the masses.” Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings. Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self- sacrifice of those enlightened few.
Seated Boddhisatva – 16c Bhutan
Tibetan Buddhism The “Diamond Vehicle.” [Vajrayana] Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE. A mix of Theravada and Mahayana. Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Book of the Dead [Bardo Thodol].
zen Buddhism The “Meditation School.” Seeks sudden enlightenment [satori] through meditation, arriving at emptiness [sunyata]. Use of meditation masters [Roshi]. Beauty, art, and aesthetics: Gardens. Archery. Tea ceremony. Calligraphy.
Relieve Stress & Meditate: Get a Mantra !Ohm...mani...padme...h Hail to the jewel in the lotus! ung...
* Attachments and Liberation* Bodhisattva* Bodhisattva Never Disparaging* Buddhism and Human Dignity* Buddhist Unity (Itai Doshin)* Changing Poison into Medicine* Courage* Desires and Enlightenment* Dialogue in Buddhism* Discussion Meetings *
* Emptiness* The Enlightenment of Women* The Eternity of Life* Faith and Reason* The Gohonzon - Observing the Mind* Good and Evil* Good Friends* Gratitude* The Greater Self *
* Karma* Kosen-rufu* The Life of Nichiren* The Life of Shakyamuni* The Lotus Sutra* The Meaning of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo* The Middle Way* The Nine Consciousnesses* Observing the Precepts* The Oneness of Body and Mind* The Oneness of Mentor and Disciple *
* The Oneness of Self and Environment* Prayer in Buddhism* Rissho Ankoku - Securing Peace for the People* Ten Factors* Ten Worlds* Three Poisons - the Source of the Problem* Three Thousand Realms in a Single Moment of Life* Youthfulness* Who is a Buddha?* Win or Lose* The World of Anger *
* Work of transforming our lives at the very core.* Involves identifying and challenging those things which inhibit the full expression of our positive potential and humanity. *
* break through our "lesser self," bound by self- concern and the ego* growing in altruism toward a "greater self" capable of caring and taking action for the sake of others--ultimately all humanity. *
* Most fundamental, most necessary revolution of humankind.* To create a human society based on compassion and respect for the dignity of all peoples lives.* world will never get any better as long as people themselves...remain selfish and lacking in compassion…… *
* “When we realize the extent of the myriad interconnections which link us to all other life, we realize that our existence only becomes meaningful through interaction with, and in relation to, others." *
* Nothing exists in isolation, independent of other life.* Relationship between---humankind and its environment---Individual and society---Parents and children---Husband and wife. *
* "Compassion is often thought of as akin to pity, but whereas pity may be condescending, compassion springs from a sense of the equality and interconnectedness of life. Genuine compassion is about empowering others, helping them unlock strength and courage from within their lives in order to overcome their problems." *
*Buddhist compassion could besuccinctly described then as thedesire to relieve suffering andto give joy *
* "When wisdom is functioning in our life, it has the effect of enabling us to overcome the ingrained perspectives of our habitual thinking and arrive at a fresh and holistic view of a given situation. We are able to make a broad assessment of the facts, perceive the essence of an issue and steer a sure course toward happiness. *
* Wisdom dispels our delusions of separateness and awakens in us a sense of empathetic equality with all living things.* Encouraging and sharing hope with others awakens us to a larger, freer identity beyond the narrow confines of our ego.* Wisdom and compassion are thus inseparable. *
• The History of Buddhism spans the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of Buddha Siddhartha Gautama on the Indian subcontinent, in what is now Lumbini, Nepal. This makes it one of the oldest religions practiced today.• Siddhārtha Gautama was the historical founder of Buddhism• Siddhartha Gautama attained enlightenment sitting under a pipal tree, now known as the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India. Gautama, from then on, was known as "The Enlightened One ," the Samyaksambuddha.• Indian Buddhism consists of two which is Mahayana Buddhism and Vajrayana (Esoteric Buddhism)
Early Buddhism• remained centered around the Ganges valley and is spreading gradually from its ancient heartland• 1st Buddhist council (5th c. BCE)- held just after Buddhas Parinirvana, and presided over by Gupta Mahākāśyapa, one of His most senior disciples.- The objective of the council was to record all of Buddhas teachings into the doctrinal teachings (sutra) and Abhidhamma and to codify the monastic rules (vinaya). These became the basis of the Tripiṭaka (Three Baskets), which is preserved only in Pāli.• 2nd Buddhist council (4th c. BCE)- held at Vaisali following a dispute that had arisen in the Saṅgha over a relaxation by some monks of various points of discipline.- It was held because original Vinaya texts that had been preserved at the first Council were cited to show that these relaxations went against the recorded teachings of the Buddha.
• 3rd Buddhist council (c.250 BCE)- King Aśoka convened the third Buddhist council around 250 BCE at Pataliputra (todays Patna). It was held by the monk Moggaliputtatissa. The objective of the council was to purify the Saṅgha, particularly from non-Buddhist ascetics who had been attracted by the royal patronage. Following the council, Buddhist missionaries were dispatched throughout the world.• The fourth council was held in Sri Lanka, in the Aloka Cave, in the first century bc. During this time as well, and for the first time, the entire set of Sutras were recorded in the Pali language on palm leaves.• In Sri Lanka, their monks may be credited with saving the Theravada tradition: Although it had spread once from India all over southeast Asia, it had nearly died out due to competition from Hinduism and Islam, as well as war and colonialism. Theravada monks spread their tradition from Sri Lanka to Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, and Laos, and from these lands to Europe and the west generally.• In late Buddhism, It was spread throughout the world in places such as Sri Lanka, China, Central Asia, Korea, Japan, Tibet, Southeast Asia and even to the west.
Mahayana Buddhism• formed between 100 BCE and 100 AD• The earliest views of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the West assumed that it existed as a separate school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna" schools.• Much of the early extant evidence for the origins of Mahāyāna comes from early Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahāyāna teachings were first propagated into China by Lokakṣema.• During the period of Late Mahayana Buddhism, four major types of thought developed: Madhyamaka, Yogacara, Tathagatagarbha, and Buddhist Logic as the last and most recent.
Vajrayana (Esoteric Buddhism)• Scholarly research concerning Esoteric Buddhism is still in its early stages and has a number of problems which make research difficult, which is:- Vajrayana Buddhism was influenced by Hinduism, and therefore the research has to include research on Hinduism as well.- The scriptures of Vajrayana have not yet been put in any kind of order.- Ritual has to be examined as well, not just doctrine.
Demographics(人口统计学)• Demographics are current statistical characteristics of a population. These types of data are used widely in sociology, public policy, and marketing.• Commonly examined demographics include gender, race, age, disabilities, mobility, home ownership, employment status, and even location.
Demographics of Buddhist• According to one analysis, Buddhism is the fourth-largest religion in the world behind Christianity, Islam and Hinduism.• The monks order (Sangha), which began during the lifetime of the Buddha, is among the oldest organizations on earth.• Buddhism was the first world religion and was the worlds largest religion in the first half of the 20th century.
Theravada Buddhism (小乘佛教)• They are using Sanskrit and Pāli as its scriptural languages.• It is the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Burma.• The Dalit Buddhist movement in India also practices Theravada.• Approximately 124 million adherents.
Mahayana Buddhism(大乘佛教)• East Asian forms of Mahayana Buddhism(大乘佛教) that use Chinese scriptures.• It is dominant in most of China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam as well as such communities within Indochina, Southeast Asia and the West.• Approximately 500 million to one billion.
Tibetan Buddhism (藏传佛教)• It is mainly found in Bhutan, Nepal, Mongolia, areas of India, China and Russia.• Approximately 20 million believer.
Point of view of the world.• At the present time, the teachings of all three branches of Buddhism have spread throughout the world, and Buddhist texts are increasingly translated into local languages.• While in the West Buddhism is often seen as exotic and progressive,• in the East it is regarded as familiar and traditional. Buddhists in Asia are frequently well organized and well funded. In a number of countries, it is recognized as an official religion and receives state support.
Schools and traditions ofBuddhism
Timeline: Development and propagation of Buddhist traditions (ca. 450 BCE – ca. 1300 CE) 1200 450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE CE Early Mahayana Vajrayana Early Buddhist schoolsIndia Sangh aSri Lanka & TheravadaSoutheast Asia Buddhism Greco-BuddhismCentral Tibetan BuddhismAsia Silk Road BuddhismEast Asia Chán, Tiantai, Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Shingon 700 800 1200 450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE CE CE CE Legend = Theravada = Mahayana = Vajrayana : tradition traditions traditions
Theravada The earliest form of Buddhism. Thera means old and Vada means school. Theravada is sometimes translated as the Teaching of the Elders. Emphasis on bringing perfection into ones life to attain enlightenment.
Theravadin Buddhists think that personal effort is required to realize rebirth. Meditation is done by forest monks for the most part Village monks teach and serve their lay communities. Laypersons can perform good actions, producing merit which can be traded to the gods who may reward it with material benefits.
Origin and Spread of Theravada Was spread to Sri Lanka by the Indian emperor Ashokas son, Mahindra, who was also a Buddhist monk. The school of Theravada became a national dogma in Sri Lanka . Also spread as far as Myanmar(Previous Burma), Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.
Theravada school Is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. Generally known to be analytical and monastic. Is relatively conservative, and generally closest to early Buddhism. Consists of the teachings of the Buddha, rules for monastic life and philosophical and psychological analysis. Gradually declined on the Indian subcontinent, but its branch in Sri Lanka and South East Asia continues to survive.
One of the first Buddhist schools to commit the complete set of its canon into writing. The Sutta collections and Vinaya texts of the Pāli Canon are generally considered by modern scholars to be the earliest Buddhist literature. Primarily practiced today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, small portions of China, Vietnam, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Has a growing presence in Europe and America.
Mahayana Flourished in India from the 5th century CE onwards. During the dynasty of the Guptas, Mahāyāna centres of learning were established. Nālandā University in north-eastern India.
Is practiced today in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, parts of Russia and most of Vietnam ("Eastern Buddhism"). The Buddhism practiced in Tibet, the Himalayan regions, and Mongolia is also Mahayana in origin. (“Northern Buddhism“).
In Japan in particular, they form separate denominations. In Korea, nearly all Buddhists belong to the Chogye school, but with substantial elements from other traditions.
Mahayana School Emphasizes compassion and tends to be democratic. Recognize all or part of the Mahayana Sutras. Some of these sutras became for Mahayanists a manifestation of the Buddha himself, and faith in and veneration of those texts are stated in some sutras to lay the foundations for the later attainment of Buddhahood itself.
Vajrayana Spread to China, Mongolia, and Tibet. In Tibet, has always been a main component of Tibeta Buddhism Became extinct in China but survived in elements of Japans Shingon and Tendai sects. Recognise a large body of Buddhist Tantras, some of which are also included in Chinese and Japanese collections of Buddhist literature, and versions of a few even in the Pali Canon.
Festivals and Special Days
Vesak or Visakah Puja ("Buddha Day") Traditionally, Buddhas Birthday is known as Vesak or Visakah Puja (Buddhas Birthday Celebrations). Is the major Buddhist festival of the year as it celebrates the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha on the one day, the first full moon day in May. This celebration is called Vesak being the name of the month in the Indian calendar.
Loy Krathong (Festival of FloatingBowls) At the end of the Kathin Festival season, when the rivers and canals are full of water, the Loy Krathong Festival takes place in all parts of Thailand on the full moon night of the Twelfth Lunar month. People bring bowls made of leaves (which contain flowers) candles and incense sticks, and float them in the water. As they go, all bad luck is suppose to disappear. The traditional practice of Loy Krathong was meant to pay homage to the holy footprint of the Buddha on the beach of the Namada River in India.
Avalokitesvara’s (Kuan Yin) Birthday Is a festival which celebrates the Bodhisattva ideal represented by Avalokitesvara. Who represents the perfection of compassion in the Mahayana traditions of Tibet and China. Occurs on the full moon day in March.