SSP Overview for School Leaders and Curriculum Planners, with Research Focus
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SSP Overview for School Leaders and Curriculum Planners, with Research Focus

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The Speech Sound Pics Approach has been created by the Reading Whisperer for Australian schools. This presentation shows the research on which SSP is based, as well as an overview regarding HOW to ...

The Speech Sound Pics Approach has been created by the Reading Whisperer for Australian schools. This presentation shows the research on which SSP is based, as well as an overview regarding HOW to teach any child to read and spell before year 2.
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SSP Overview for School Leaders and Curriculum Planners, with Research Focus Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Say the word (grass) Listen for the speech sounds ____ _____ _____ _____ 1 2 3 4 Imagine you are taking a picture of each of the 4 speech sounds with your speech sound camera – what might each one look like? Which sound pic shall we choose?The children imagine they are taking pictures of the 4 speech sounds, and choosesound pics (representations) When you talk about letters these are simply lettersof the alphabet – and also have their own name. So, yes, this is an ‘es’ but what speechsound is it a picture of? It’s one (there are 8 or 9) of the pictures for the speech sound ‘ssss’
  • 2. Neuroscientist perspective (video) Dr Tallai
  • 3. Key Research Findings About Phonemic Awareness:Research has identified phonemic awareness as the most potent predictor of success in learning to read. It is more highly related to reading than tests of general intelligence, reading readiness, and listening comprehension (Stanovich, 1986,1994). The lack of phonemic awareness is the most powerful determinant of thelikelihood of failure to learn to read because of its importance in learning the English alphabetic system or how print represents spoken words. If children cannot hear and manipulate the sounds in spoken words, they have an extremely difficult time learning how to map those sounds to letters and letter patterns - the essence of decoding. (Adams, 1990). It is the most important core and causal factor separating normal and disabled readers (Adams, 1990). It is central in learning to read and spell (Ehri, 1984).
  • 4. Phonemic awareness can be developed in children by providing them with rich language experiences that encourage active exploration and manipulation of sounds. These activities lead to significant gains in subsequent reading and spellingperformance. Most children will learn basic phonemic awareness from these activities. Some children need more extensive assistance. Children should be diagnosed mid- kindergarten to see if they are adequately progressing, and if not, given more intensive phonemic awareness experiences. For all children, the more complex phonemic awareness abilities are learned in the context of learning letter/sound correspondences. A close relationship exists between a childs control over sounds and his reading ability. Some quick test instruments that reliably assess development of phonemic awareness in about five minutes include the Rosner, the Yopp-Singer tests, and the Roswell-Chall.In numerous studies, correlations between a kindergarten test of phonemic awarenessand performance in reading years later are extremely high. Thus, phonemic awareness has been identified by researchers in replicated studies in many countries as a very potent predictor of success in reading and spelling achievement. In fact, Professor Yopp indicates that such high correlations remain even after controlling for intelligence and socio-economic status.
  • 5. In case you were wondering why SSP assessments, and monitoring tasks have been created in this way (see slideshare.net/readingwhisperer to download) Hallie Kay Yopp, Ph.D, Professor, Dept. of Elementary and Bilingual Education,CSU FullertonProfessor Yopp addresses the critical role of phonemic awareness in the early stages of reading acquisition. She defines phonemic awareness as "the awareness that phonemes exist as abstractable and manipulable components ofspoken language. It is the ability to reflect on speech and experiment (play) with its smallest components (phonemes). Phonemic awareness is not phonics and not auditory discrimination.“ The research outlines a progression of phonemic awareness development in pre- school, kindergarten, and early first grade that includes the ability: to hear rhymes or alliteration to blend sounds to make a word (e.g., /a/-/t/ = at) to count phonemes in words ( how many sounds do you hear in "is"?) to identify the beginning, middle, and final sounds in words to substitute one phoneme for another (e.g., change the /h/ in "hot" to /p/) to delete phonemes from words (e.g., omit the /c/ from "cat")
  • 6. http://www.csus.edu/ier/reading.htmlExcellent paper that shows why SSP is being developed in this way by the Reading Whisperer Emma Hartnell-Baker
  • 7. Australian Inquiry into the Teaching of Reading (2005)The Inquiry found that in the first three years of school – andbeyond if necessary – all children learn to read most effectivelythrough an approach to reading that explicitly teaches:phonics (or the relationship between letters and sounds)phonemic awareness (or the ability to hear and manipulate the sounds in oral language)fluency (or the ability to read quickly and naturally, recognise words automatically, andgroup words quickly)vocabulary knowledge (or understanding new words and what they mean)text comprehension (or understanding what is being read and developinghigher-order thinking skills)http://www.curriculum.edu.au/leader/report_of_the_national_inquiry_into_the_teaching_o,12633.html?issueID=9803
  • 8. The evidence is clear ... that direct systematic instruction in phonics duringthe early years of schooling is an essential foundation for teaching children toread. (p. 11)The attention of the Inquiry Committee was drawn to a dichotomy betweenphonics and whole-language approaches to the teaching of reading. Thisdichotomy is false. (p. 11)Members of the Committee found it a moment of awe to observe an effectiveteacher, with a full range of skills to teach reading, working with a whole classand having each child productively develop their literacy skills. Such teachingis highly skilled and professional. (p. 11)The Inquiry found strong evidence that a whole-language approach to theteaching of reading on its own is not in the best interests of children,particularly those experiencing reading difficulties. (p. 12)Whereas the ‘starting levels of children from less advantaged backgrounds islower than those from more advantaged backgrounds, findings from a largebody of evidence-based research consistently indicate that quality teachinghas significant positive effects on students achievement progress regardlessof their backgrounds. (p. 12)The quality of teaching provided is fundamental to childrens success inreading ... this report places a major emphasis on teacher quality, and onbuilding capacity in teachers towards quality, evidence-based teachingpractices that are demonstrably effective in meeting the developmental andlearning needs of all students. (p. 12)
  • 9. 20 key recommendations from the National Inquiry into theTeaching of Literacy (Australia) include;That teachers be equipped with teaching strategies based onfindings from rigorous, evidence-based research that are shownto be effective in enhancing the literacy development of allchildren.That teachers provide systematic, direct and explicit phonicsinstruction so that children master the essential alphabetic code-breaking skills required for foundational reading proficiency.Equally, that teachers provide an integrated approach to readingthat supports the development of oral language, vocabulary,grammar, reading fluency, comprehension and the literacies ofnew technologies..Read The Australian Jan 2013 http://www.theaustralian.com.au/opinion/rowe-inquiry-spelled-out-how-children-can-be-taught-to-excel-in-reading/story-e6frg6zo-1226556959946
  • 10. Rose Report 2006 (UK) specified what the curriculum needs to includeeg In the UK Foundation Stage (aged 3 – 5) they should include within ‘communication, language and literacy’:• hearing and saying initial and final sounds in words, and short vowelsounds within words• linking sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet• using phonic knowledge to write simple regular words and make phonetically plausible attempts at morecomplex wordsIn the programme of study for Key Stage 1 (P-2) for speaking and listening, pupils should be taught to:• identify and respond to sound patterns in language (for example, alliteration, rhyme, word play).The programme of study for reading includes work on ‘phonemic awareness and phonic knowledge’.Pupils should be taught to:• hear, identify, segment and blend phonemes in words• sound and name the letters of the alphabet• link sound and letter patterns, exploring rhyme, alliteration and other sound patterns• identify syllables in words• recognise that the same sounds may have different spellings and that the same spellings may relate to differentsoundsand in writing, should be taught to:• write each letter of the alphabet• use their knowledge of sound-symbol relationships and phonological patterns (for example, consonantclusters and vowel phonemes) as well as to:• write familiar words and attempt unfamiliar ones.https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/0201-2006PDF-EN-01.pdf
  • 11. Also see the US review from the National Reading PanelTEACHING CHILDREN TO READ: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific ResearchLiterature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading InstructionIn April 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released its research-based findings in two reports and a video entitled, "Teaching Children to Read."Written materials may be viewed online in HTML format or downloaded in PDF format. You may also order NRP publications and materials, including thefull-length 20-minute video, from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Clearinghouse.Taken from reportTeachers must understand that systematic phonics instruction is only one component—albeit a necessary component—of a total reading program; systematic phonics instructionshould be integrated with other reading instruction in phonemic awareness, fluency, andcomprehension strategies to create a complete reading program.While most teachers and educational decision makers recognize this, there may be a tendencyin some classrooms, particularly in 1st grade, to allow phonics to become the dominantcomponent, not only in the time devoted to it, but also in the significance attached. It isimportant not to judge children’s reading competence solely on the basis of their phonics skillsand not to devalue their interest in books because they cannot decode with complete accuracy.It is also critical for teachers to understand that systematic phonics instruction can be providedin an entertaining, vibrant, and creative manner.
  • 12. In 2009 Victoria had a great framework – teachers just needed to more guidance about ‘how’http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/keycharliteracyp6.pdf…effective literacy teachers:• use students’ oral language competencies as the starting point for teaching reading and writing• teach English language and conventions using relevant and authentic texts and contexts• engage students in speaking and listening tasks in English to consolidate and expand studentunderstanding of the social and learning contexts and purposes for which English is used - telling apersonal story, responding to and asking simple questions, retelling stories, listening to stories, givingand following simple instructions, participating in social interactions• teach phonological knowledge and phonemic awareness –awareness of the sounds in spoken languageincluding individual sounds within words• teach reading of a range of simple texts, including multimedia texts–comprehension of texts; includingprediction based on semantic and syntactic information, identifying the storyline, the use of pictures,vocabulary, fluency and letters-sound relationships (phonics)• teach early concepts about print in reading and writing including spatial and directional conventions ofwriting, one-to-one matching, concept of a word and a letter and locating initial and final letters• teach writing –composition of brief texts about topics of personal interest in print and digital settings,introducing basic punctuation including full stops and capital letters, the formation of upper and lowercase letters, spelling of frequently used vocabulary and strategies to attempting to spell words by writingone or more of the letters in words and matching letters with their common sounds.
  • 13. • In 2010 NSW had developed strategies in line with the Inquiry, addressing the recommendations… http://auspeld.org.au/2010/10/14/only-nsw/……FOUR years after the national inquiry into teaching reading, one Australiangovernment has finally embraced the key recommendation that children be taught thesounds that make up words as an essential first step in learning to read.The NSW government has released literacy teaching guides incorporating the latestresearch evidence on the best way to teach reading.The guides mandate that children from the first years of school be explicitly taught thesounds of letters and how to blend and manipulate sounds to form words in daily 10to 20-minute sessions.The guides set out key principles for teachers to follow in readinginstruction, stipulating that phonics need to be taught to a level where children canautomatically recall the knowledge…..Professor Coltheart, said he understood the new national English curriculum being writtenwould include extensive material on the teaching of phonics in the early years of school,including phonemic awareness in the first year.“This alignment between the national curriculum and the NSW guides for teachers isgoing to be of enormous benefit for the state’s young children. I hope other states willbe following in NSW’s footsteps,” he said.
  • 14. The new National Curriculum does NOT recognise these important elements.Phonemic awareness- the biggest predictor of reading difficulties – is difficult to find there. The way in which phonics is included will make theteaching of reading and spelling very difficult, not only for many students, but also teachers.Teachers are being asked to teach spelling in ways that start from print, not speech.
  • 15. In fact International comparisons of studentreading levels released at the end of last yearranked Australia 27th of 50 countries.The Australian – article Jan 2013http://www.theaustralian.com.au/opinion/rowe-inquiry-spelled-out-how-children-can-be-taught-to-excel-in-reading/story-e6frg6zo-1226556959946
  • 16. • Despite the confusion, Read Australia aims to give teachers and parents what we have known they need, even before the Inquiry in 2005, through SSP. In order to reach as many people as possible this is offered for free, funded by school PD training funds. These funds go back into creating more and more resources. We can keep moving forwards….. So let’s put it all into perspective, and get started..…
  • 17. “ Oh how much they miss, whenthey cant read, can read but dontwant to read, or a combinationof the two! Its not just thefoundation for academicachievement but for discoveryand wonder ! “Miss Emma
  • 18. SSP breaks it down into specific skills* Children won’tunderstand Theseconcepts if they can’thear the speech sounds
  • 19. * Children won’t understand these concepts/ skills if they can’t hear the speech sounds (phonemic awareness) Marilyn Adams, Ph.d., Senior Scientist, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.• Dr. Adams focuses on the need for children to develop automatic word recognition and the system to achieve this. Dr. Adams supports Dr. Yopps conclusion that training in phonemic awareness is the foundation for learning to recognize words. Such training is necessary because most children enter kindergarten without the conscious awareness that words are made up of distinct sounds; rather they hear words as complete units. Dr. Adams discusses the value of whole language in encouraging flexible class organization, the use of quality literature, and the emphasis on early writing. However, she faults the methodology of whole language for operating under the mistaken assumption that skillful readers "skip, skim, and guess" instead of reading whats on the page.
  • 20. The whole ofthe code can be taught using SSP within Prep and Year 1if every child has good PA
  • 21. This means that screening Prep children forphonemic awareness must be our firstpriority, alongside oral languagedevelopment.It really doesn’t matter if they already knowletter names or even the speech sound theyrepresent when they enter school. We needto test for the way in which their brainprocesses speech sounds. If we get that right,the rest is far easier for everyone.
  • 22. They have been developed by Emma Hartnell-Baker BEd Hons (Early Years Specialism) MA Special Educational Needs (incDyslexia), a former Early Years Education Inspector for UK Education Dept (OFSTED) to offer every parent and teacher the skills needed to help anychild learn to read and spell before they enter yr 2. The aim is the SSP creates a supportive community, all striving to prevent literacy difficulties, and to overcome them if already
  • 23. SSP goes far deeper than ‘teaching reading and spelling’ as children are taught (and guided to discover) the alphabetic code. It is deeply layered, including all necessary elements, andalso allows for children to work at their own pace. Watch Prep aged children reach the Blue Level in less than two terms, and see how effectively they tackleunfamiliar words within reading and spelling activities. www.youtube.com/soundpics
  • 24. Alongside this explicit teachingchildren also investigate the code, and use the Speech Sound Clouds
  • 25. Children discover the code using everyday objects
  • 26. To develop exceptional spelling (encoding) skills we need to start from SPEECH. If children cannot hear the smaller parts in words (phonemic awareness) they will not be able to develop these skills. They need to SEE words as made up ofspeech sound pics (pictures of the speech sounds, not letters)At all times, from term 1 of Prep, those using SSP try to see sound pics in words, and encourage children to do the same. This really helps toshape their reading AND spelling brains and prevent difficulties. It alsoallows teachers to see where there are gaps in PA and code knowledge. Use every opportunity to do this ! Questions? Emma@ReadAustralia.com
  • 27. Practice this yourself!
  • 28. Everything is chosen to shape reading and spelling brains- including letter formation in PrepPlease download the letter formation or home folderpowerpoint www.slideshare.net/readingwhispererChildren need to practice all letters of the alphabet as soon aspossible, regardless of the phonics teaching. However using thephrase will actually also help with the phonics!All RWI letters and phrases are shown, and can be used onwhiteboards.
  • 29. Children meet the Speech SoundFamily within the online lessons www.youtube.com/soundpics
  • 30. New free resources for each level are on slideshare.net/readingwhispererSimply save to your laptop, and the power point presentation (includinganimations) will work in your classroom. Ideal for the whiteboard. For example* Decoding – specific practice using only their sound pics and helpful words* Encoding – specific practice using only their sound pics and helpful wordsIf children are ready for more than the level the class is working on, they canprogress. Children who need additional work to keep up, can also use these withTAs. (Covered in another twilight PD)*Home Folders (again, TAs’ can make good use of these to help monitorindividuals)* Assessments (screening Preps, monitoring progress of eachindividual, assessing new older students) Emma will offer some free training toTAs so that they can undertaken these assessments.* All Speech sound clouds (recently updated)
  • 31. Including fun resources to help children with common issuesShhhhhh ! Don’t tell anyone our tricks! Don’t be a cheeky monkey !!
  • 32. debbed ed No room to sleep ! I need the bed posts the other way around to make a bed __ ____ 1 2
  • 33. When they see this sound pic they say Cuckoo! Cuckoo !! Is it oo as in look or oo as in moon? Put eyes on them when it’s an ‘oo’ as in look ! cook
  • 34. SSP scaffolds learning, with skills and concepts clearly set out within each level. These link with the SSP assessment and monitoring tools.(see slideshare.net/readingwhisperer) Home Folders are created to support the approach at home
  • 35. Teachers/ Parents - ‘helpful words’ list How any words are added to their folders after the first 11 depends on the child. As you progress, point out when the child can now decode the words (as the child learns more sound pics) These are high frequency words, not ‘sight words’ – and most can be decoded when the child has covered those sound pics.
  • 36. The King is one of the main members of the Speech Sound Family
  • 37. Along with the Speech Sound Cow, the Dancing Clowns and the Pesky Speech Sound Frog
  • 38. Why have so much funwhile learning to read ?The premise that literacy is associated with school achievementparticipation in a democracy, and self-fulfillment is widely held.Why then don’t students read more?Some suggest that the way reading is taught is not conducive producing students wholove to read. In a study for UNESCO, Irving (1980) found that most respondents madeno association whatsoever between reading and pleasure. I doubt that haschanged in over 40 years, for a lot of people!Lets change that. Lets bring back reading for pleasure !!To do this we of course need to first ensure that every child CAN read- as quickly andeasily as possible (finding it difficult isnt fun). While learning they are immersed in language and literacy, with a range of books and reading material available.But lets not put the cart before the horse. Teaching children to read (and spell) in Prep would be my number 1 priority if I was a Principal. If teachers are given the opportunity to use SSP (and ideally get training) they are also able to problem solve, explore,develop verbal, personal, social and emotional intelligence and more, within this approach to literacy. Its not just an approach to teach reading, its an approach tosupport young minds, develop great learning skills, a positive approach to learning,self awareness of their strengths and weaknesses, and a desire to READ for PLEASURE !
  • 39. Explicit phoneme teaching order within SSP There are 4 SSP Levels, and within each children not only learn the most commonly used speech sound pics but also how to use them in decoding and encoding activities.There are encoding and decoding activities and also ‘readers’ that follow this order, only showing the sound pics the children are learning, to build confidence. Alongside this explicit teaching they use the Speech Sound Clouds to self-discover other variations.When the levels have been completed the clouds are taughtexplicitly. They have then learnt how all but around 55 words in the English language can be decoded and encoded ! This can be your two year plan – for Prep and Year 1. Older children who struggle need to be taken back, to learn these or they will never crack the code.
  • 40. Student copy Explicit teaching order
  • 41. Decoding and encoding resources for all sound pic levels, along with songs and rhymes eg
  • 42. NO! Seven a is a sound you’ll hear a lotThis isn’t yoursong.. but not in tin or pin or cot you’ll find it in the middle of a word like pat and also hat and mat and rat
  • 43. I doubt that’s its a pterodactyl,but better not leave him on the window sill If you move in haste he might jump out, if he squashes Dad’s tomatoes he’s bound to SHOUT !NO! SevenThis isnt your song..
  • 44. We’re happy hopping - hop, hop, hopWe’re happy hopping - hop, hop, hopWe’re happy hopping - hop, hop, hopGive us some music and we’ll never stop ! NO! Seven This isnt your song..
  • 45. Nick is a gnat who’s keeps saying NO ! Why he does, I just don’t know Perhaps he’s feeling grumpy, as his nose is runny Getting the flu just isn’t funny. Poor Nick thinks he has pneumoniaNO! SevenThis isnt your song..
  • 46. NO! SevenThis isnt yoursong..
  • 47. Why is the King in my bath ?! Does he think it’ll make me laugh? I don’t like it, not one little bitIf you don’t get out I’ll have a ....FIT I climbed too high and landed in a pie My, oh my It made me cry The poor King fell from a great height and had quite a fright.
  • 48. Eg slide from Green level decoding practice power pointNat pants in the sand pit Green Level sound pics s a t p i n
  • 49. the fat cat and the duck sat on the hillExample – purple leveldecoding Green and Purple Level Sound Pics s a t p i n
  • 50. the man had a giggle at the kitten and the frog
  • 51. Tish and Dad took a look in the box at the puppy jumping.Eg Yellow Level decoding(so now using green, purple and yellow levelsound pics within encoding and decodingactivities. No guesswork needed, and you can startteaching grammar. ‘He is a happy’ Dad said. ‘He is jumping so high!’ said Tish Let’s see if we can jump too !
  • 52. blue level sound pics ar or ow oi air ur car for cow tow soil hair purseThe word ‘sale’ is a sound pic sandwich! s a-e l sale If you find any of these sound pics, when you are reading, add in more words !
  • 53. Decoding with Blue Level Sound Picser ay oy ou auperfect play toy out group touch AugustI play with my puppy, he loves it so muchHe’s wriggly, he licks me, he’s silky to touch.He’s perfect when out with just me, or agroup…He tugs on my toys, and runs round in a loopIn November when cold, or August when hotHe just wants to play, he just doesn’t stop!
  • 54. Decoding with Blue Level Sound Pics ir ie ue ea ui eyfirst chief tie blue beat head suit key theyThe first time they told me to get the blue tieI thought it was to go round my head, not surewhy!The key is to loop it, no easy feat,but finishes the ‘suit look’, ready to meetVIP people, perhaps the top chief !Mum said we’re not going, WHAT A RELIEF !
  • 55. Decoding with Blue Level Sound Picsaw wh ph ew oe ure areclaw whip dolphin few toe pure are dareI love the cute dolphin, who kisses my noseShe splashes my fingers, and blows on my toesI ask ‘are you sure?’ I ask, ‘do you dare?’To whip up the water, and make the crab stare!He’ll peep out from under the stone, it’s his door,and wave a few times with his big orange claw !
  • 56. Investigating Blue Level ‘sound picsandwiches’ and listen to the last speech sound. Say the word The Speech Sound Pic Sandwich Maker jumps the last sound from the end, into the sandwich! a-e e-e i-e cake athlete bike o-e u-e coke flute which of these sound pic sandwiches can you see?
  • 57. Free lessons on youtube for children,Cloud Land Storytime, and also online teacher PD training.
  • 58. How are the speech sounds represented within the SSP Approach? Please see all Speech Sound Pics as follows.Children use these to learn all of the spelling variations within the whole of the English alphabetic code.This investigative work helps the brain understand the code, for reading and spelling, for more efficiently
  • 59. Use the clouds to investigate the way in which we represent every speech sound
  • 60. Use the clouds for yourdetective work now,and to work out ALL of thesound pics for all of thespeech sounds you haven’texplored in the levels.
  • 61. Use the clouds to help with spelling. This is a blue level sound pic sandwich
  • 62. Oh my word- have you heard? Miss Emma hurt her nose poor girlChoose a cloud and see if you can create a song, poem, art work or somethingelse to creatively show ALL of the sound pics for that speech sound.
  • 63. Special ending clouds
  • 64. i
  • 65. All of the pieces fit into place for each child when we take the SSP Approach Although all children are being taught all 5 elements, SSP allows teachers to identify which children need more time, different resources etc to make sure that each piece fits. Even though all children need the same skill set, their ability to find each piece and use it correctly may be different. If we leave it until even term 2 of Prep manycan already have decided they don’t like this puzzle, and don’t want to play anymore. Its not a fun game. So YES they need a fantastic phonics program, but FIRST they need good PA. ‘ PREVENTION is key within SSP ‘ !!
  • 66. Daily independent reading sessionsIndependent reading is the kind students choose to do on their own; it is not assigned or assessed, butit has a positive effect on learning and school achievement.My aim is that SSP enables children to learn to read before the end of Year 1 (preferably Prep) so thatthey can all engage in at least 20 minutes of independent reading daily within school, as part of theirroutine- for example after lunch. If any of you saw the Preps I was fortunate enough to work with lastyear in Brisbane you will see that the children quickly went from using the books in the middle of theroom to see how high they could stack them, or to just look at the pictures, to enjoy independentreading time.I commented on one clip about the thrill I felt when I turned to see a boy reading on his own - a childwho was not previously into books at all.After all, why are we giving them literacy instruction if we dont also give them time each day to usethis within reading activities- where they have a choice of material, including books they can actuallydecode at their level. Children were quickly reading to each other, reading to the speech sound family,reading alone, reading to an adult...READING ! Just wonderful.As many children no longer receive books as presents, or go to the library, or see their parents readingfor pleasure this time within school is really important. It sets a foundation in the early years ofdeveloping independent reading, and a desire to read.The amount of free reading done outside of school has also consistently been found to relate to growthin vocabulary, reading comprehension, verbal fluency, and general information (Anderson, Wilson, andFielding 1988; Greaney 1980; Guthrie and Greaney 1991; Taylor, Frye, and Maruyama 1990).Students who read independently become better readers, score higher on achievement tests in allsubject areas, and have greater content knowledge than those who do not (Krashen 1993; Cunninghamand Stanovich 1991; Stanovich and Cunningham 1993).