COLD WATER SUPPLY
Mrs. Izyan Wahida Binti Zainuddin
Civil Engineering Department
Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak
RAIN / HYDROLOGY CYCLE
evaporation transpiration condensation
• Change of state in a substance from liquid to a gas.
• Evaporation of water from plants
• Process whereby vapor in the atmosphere is
returned to its original liquid state.
• Tiny condensation particles grow too large and fall to
• Occurs when there is excessive precipitation and the
ground is saturated.
SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY
WATER SAMPLE EXAMINATION
Acid – litmus paper turns red
•A substance containing hydrogen which
can be replaced by other elements.
Alkali – litmus paper turns blue
•A substance which will neutralize acid
by accepting its hydrogen ion
• Hardeness means it is difficult to obtain with a
• Hard water is water that has high mineral
content which are high concentrations of Ca2+
and Mg2+ ions.
• Not harmful to one’s health but can pose
serious problem is industrial settings.
• Lead galvanic corrosion in plumbing system
• Reduction of concentration of calcium,
magnesium and other ions in hard water.
• Taste salty
• Reverse osmosis, distillation and deionization.