Media consumption 2

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Media consumption 2

  1. 1. By Prof. IndraniSen<br />SIMC<br />21.7.2o11<br />Research On Media Consumption <br />
  2. 2. Research on Media Consumption<br />Cultural and social studies form a large part of the research on media consumption <br />There are broadly three areas of research done on media consumption <br />Audience research<br />Cultural studies and reception studies based on content analysis, effect of communication content on audiences and culture <br />Done by academics <br />By market research and advertising agencies related to only the effect of the advertising content<br />Professional research <br />Based on analysis of programming and content <br />Done by media organizations<br />Commercial research<br />Based on analysis of media habits and other demographics of the audience<br />Done by market research agencies for marketers and media <br />
  3. 3. Audience Research<br />The process school<br />Concerned with the acts of communication(messages), with what happens in the process of communicating<br />Assumes that the meaning is fixed, and inherent in the message, put there by the sender (encoder), and decoded by the receiver (with the possibility of multiple stages along the route, and of feedback from the decoder to the encoder)<br />Considers that communication can fail as a result of noise (for instance when there is no shared code or too many similar codes in parallel communication) <br />Uses qualitative / quantitative research methods<br />
  4. 4. Audience Research<br />The semiotic school<br />Concerned primarily with the works of communication (texts, spoken or written words) and with how as well as what they mean<br />Assumes that meaning is constructed in the process of signification, by the interaction of text and reader/ producer within a context, so it is always negotiated and never absolute<br />Considers that communication always happens, that signification produces meanings, even when the meanings generated are not shared by participants in the communication event<br />Uses qualitative research methods<br />
  5. 5. Map of Audience Research<br />Mass audience passively acted upon by media<br />Effect studies<br />Linear communication models<br />Socially differentiated mass audience using media actively<br />Uses and gratification studies<br />Linear communication models<br />Individual & social groups engaged in meaning of construction within cultural contexts<br />Cultural/ reception studies<br />Semiotic communication model<br />
  6. 6. Map of Audience Research<br />Individual readers activating texts within parameters established by the creative artist/ encoder<br />Reader response analysis<br />Semiotic model of communication<br />Individual readers constructed by the text (narratively or ideologically) or passive consumers<br />Literally criticism, little or no interest in audience<br />Linear model of communication<br />
  7. 7. Professional Research<br />Follows the similar principles as audience research<br />May not go in depth to research on the cause of the effect of communication<br />Concerned more with the final outcome or the effect<br />Uses both qualitative as well as quantitative research methods<br />Audience Research Unit of AIR and Doordarshan has been engaged in such professional research for many years<br />Large media houses have in-house research department who carry out such research on regular basis<br />Uses and gratification studies are often carried out to understand the way the audience is consumed the message and the gratifications they received from the same<br />
  8. 8. Commercial Research: Readership/ Viewership / Listenership<br />M&E industry is more concerned with commercial research on media consumption<br />Large scale syndicated survey<br />Media habits of consumers by <br />Socio economic classifications<br />Demographic criteria<br />Geographic segmentations<br />Lifestyle parameters<br />Psychographic profiles<br />Media and product linkage<br />Uses quantitative research methods<br />
  9. 9. Commercial Research: Ratings<br />Ratings <br />Estimating the audience <br />Media houses compete with each other to head the ratings table <br />They collectively fund the research which produces the ratings information<br />Functions of Ratings<br />Determines the rate which media houses will charge the advertisers<br />Help advertisers to decide where they should advertise and estimate the reach and frequency of advertising schedules<br />Programmers decide whether to continue with a particular programme<br />Network schedulers decide how to schedule different programmes<br />Academic researchers study historical trends<br />
  10. 10. Commercial Research: Ratings<br />Strengths<br />Reliable sample procedures<br />Demographic data helps in decision making process<br />Raw data can be used to develop academic research<br />Weakness<br />No method to ensure absolute reliability of data collected<br />Limited conclusions linked with popularity of programmes <br />
  11. 11. Syndicated Media Research<br />Large scale syndicated survey on media consumption conducted on regular basis<br />India Readership Survey<br />TAM <br />RAM<br />Small scale survey focusing on specific media consumption of specific TG<br />Corporate Decision Makers’ Survey<br />Commissioned large /small scale survey as per the need of the advertiser/ medium<br />
  12. 12. Syndicated Media Research<br />Large Scale<br />Indian Readership Survey<br />Conducted by Hansa Research for MRUC<br />2,14,486 individuals distributed over 70 cities, 1178 towns and 2894 villages<br />Ongoing survey with results published twice a year for round 1 and round 2<br />Provides information on consumption of all media as well as demographics and product usage data for households as well as individuals <br />Some IRS findings have been used in the session on Indian Media Industry<br />
  13. 13. Syndicated Media Research<br />Large Scale<br />TAM <br />“Television Audience Measurement” <br />Based on People meter <br />aMap<br />TV Ratings based on People Meter<br />RAM<br />Radio listenership study <br />Based on dairy methods<br />
  14. 14. Syndicated Media Research<br />Indian Outdoor Survey<br />By Hansa Research spearheaded by MRUC<br />An one time survey <br />Outdoor industry has intention for conducting it on regular basis in metro cities<br />comScore<br />The global third party Internet Audience Measurement<br />Conducted on regular basis <br />
  15. 15. comScore- The Third party Internet Audience Measurement<br />comScore is a global Internet information and internet audience measurement company <br />comScore recruits panelists online through a variety of recruitment methods<br />Recruited members identify themselves before logging on to internet to help capture demographics <br />comScore passively monitors and report all internet activities of member panel month on month<br />comScore reports only those users who have accessed internet from either home or work computer in the past 30 days<br />comScore estimates the extended universe for online population to be 50.03 Mn for Oct 09-which includes access from public/shared/cybercafe<br />In India, the panel size is around 16,000 users<br />
  16. 16. Syndicated Media Research<br />Small Scale <br />Initiated by market research agencies and then sold to interested parties in the M&E industry<br />Examples<br />Online Media Survey 2009<br />Decision Makers Survey 200<br />Commissioned surveys <br />
  17. 17. BY Ac Nielsen<br />2008<br />An Online Media Survey<br />
  18. 18. Methodology<br />The purpose was to do an online survey on multimedia consumption and ownership patterns <br />In all, 501 respondents, including 409 males and 92 females, from India participated in the survey, and 266 of them were aged below 30 year<br />The survey was conducted in last quarter of 2008<br />
  19. 19. The Findings<br />Traditional Media <br />94% owned TVs, and 84% of them actually use their TVs.<br />Ownership of CDs was at 70%, with usage at 55%<br />Ownership of DVD player was at 65%, with usage at 49%<br />63% of respondents had personally bought a DVD in the last 6 months, while 59% bought CDs<br />New Media <br />82% claimed that they owned personal computers, and only 78% of them used their PCs<br />9% of the them own a console video game system, while only 7% own handheld video game systems<br />Mobile <br />36% of the respondents own video and web-enable mobile handsets<br /> 67% own mobile phones without GPRS or capability to browse the web<br />
  20. 20. The Findings<br />Music<br />85% of them spent some time listening to music on a PC, portable device or mobile device<br />Almost 75% listened to music on CDs<br />63% streamed or downloaded content/ music on a PC or portable device<br />Games <br />Respondents preferred playing games on PC or mobile device as against a game console<br /> This is expected as the number of people owning game consoles is very low<br /> 59% spent time playing games on PC, while 29% spent time on game consoles<br />
  21. 21. The Findings<br />The increasing penetration of internet had led to an increase in the usage of streaming content from the web including <br />music or audio tracks (66%)<br />music videos(59%)<br />ads or movie trailers (57%)<br />TV shows or TV clippings (46%)<br />full length movies or movie clips (42%)<br />video games (32%)<br />The findings show a skew towards media consumption in digital format <br />
  22. 22. Pros & Cons of Methodology Used<br />The method of generating consumer response to a pre designed questionnaire placed in a particular category of media (internet) or in a particular media vehicle does not allow selection of samples according to demographic distribution<br />The self prompted response from consumers of media can not be used to create a profile of the media vehicle<br />However, such research throws insight into the media consumption pattern which is useful for both the media owners as well as the advertisers and ad agencies<br />
  23. 23. HOW Yahoo uses Research FINDINGS ON Media Consumption for MARKETING <br />October 2009<br />Lets Yahoo!<br />
  24. 24. Internet in India- A growing phenomenon<br />Over 30 Mn Internet Users in 2007<br />Over 49 Mn Internet Users in 2008<br />More than 28 Mn internet users online EVERYDAY<br />60% of the internet users have been using the net for MORE THAN TWO YEARS<br />Percentage of users from emerging towns and urban uptowns higher than <br />Metros<br />Source: JuxtConsult India Online 2008<br />
  25. 25. Internet in India- A growing phenomenon<br />Over 30 Mn Internet Users in 2007<br />70% of the users accessing internet from home though Broadband connection<br />89% of home internet users access at least once a day<br />The prime time for internet access from home is from 6pm-12 midnight (49% users)<br />Heavy Internet users spend more time on Internet as compared to other media<br />Source: JuxtConsult India Online 2008<br />
  26. 26. Internet Users are heavy on internet than on any other offline media<br />Internet Vs Offline Medium<br />Source: Juxt Consult India Online 2008<br />
  27. 27. Yahoo! – A chartbuster!<br />If Yahoo! were a country, our 26 MM users would make us bigger than Australia! <br />Source: comScore Media Metrix Oct 2009 Categories as classified by comScore<br />*Sports category Cricket sites<br />
  28. 28. 23 world properties in 15 languages <br />With a reach more than 72% * and user base of over 29 million ^<br />Yahoo! Truly dominates the online landscape in India. <br />*comScore October’ 09<br />^Yahoo! Internal Data –October 09<br />
  29. 29. The Demographic profile for Y! Properties<br />Source :Y internal data- Oct 09<br />
  30. 30. 91% of internet users access emails *<br />Yahoo! <br />The most popular website for emailing *<br />Email- the most popular activity on the Internet*<br />Source: JuxtConsult India Online 2008<br />
  31. 31. Y! Mail –# 1 for email service!<br />*Source: ComScore data- Oct‘09<br />
  32. 32. Demographic profile of Yahoo! Mail Users<br />^Source: Y! internal data- Oct 09<br />
  33. 33. Yahoo! Homepages- The starting point online! <br />Yahoo! India Homepages reaches 2X the audience on rediff.com<br />*Source: ComScore data – Oct 2009<br />
  34. 34. Close to 60% of Yahoo! FP users below 18-30 years of age!<br />^Source: Y! internal data- Oct 09<br />*Source: ComScore data – Oct 2009<br />
  35. 35. Over 70% of IM users use Yahoo! Messenger*<br />Yahoo! Messenger has more users than Gtalk, Windows live and Rediff Bol put together! <br />And over 65% of the time spent on IM is on Yahoo! Messenger! *<br />1 Mn Unique User Logins and over 1.5 Mn Page Views everyday^<br />*Source: ComScore data- Oct‘09<br />
  36. 36. Demographic Split of Y! Messenger users<br />Age group of 21 - 29 most active on Y! Messenger<br />^Source: Y! internal data- Oct ‘09<br />*Source: ComScore data – Oct 2009<br />
  37. 37. By AC NIELSEN ORG MARG<br />Decision Makers Survey 4<br />
  38. 38. DMS study is conducted by AC Nielsen ORG-MARG<br />DMS is a syndicated survey which gives a peek into the media habits and lifestyle of Decision-makers of Corporate India <br />DMS helps understand the target group and also identify ideal channels for communicating to this very high profile group of people<br />DMS also explains <br />Media Habits <br />Readership <br />TV viewership <br />Radio Listenership <br />Internet Usage <br />Lifestyle and product ownership<br />Background<br />
  39. 39. Field Work & Sample<br />Field Work : August through November 2005 <br />Target Group: <br />Covered in the survey are Senior Executives (General Managers and above) <br />The top 500 private sector companies <br />Largest 100 public sector companies <br />Leading 100 companies in the financial sector including banks, merchant bankers, FIIs etc.<br />The ET 500 list was used to select the top 500 private sector companies in India. Other sources were used to draw the list of public sector co.’s, banks etc. <br />The data that is reported is the representative of the constructed universe of the corporate elite in the country<br />
  40. 40. Sample Composition<br />Other Cities<br />26%<br />Mumbai<br />(291)<br />43%<br />Chennai<br />10%<br />(65)<br />Delhi<br />Kolkata<br />(44)<br />(95)<br />14%<br />7%<br />(170)<br />
  41. 41. Sample Composition<br />(124)<br />(162)<br />(184)<br />(145)<br />
  42. 42. Sample Composition<br />(52)<br />(116)<br />(342)<br />(155)<br />
  43. 43. Sample Findings: General Interest Dailies <br />Base: All Respondents – 665<br />Figures % to base<br />The Times Of India emerges as a clear leader amongst CDMs with 77% readership <br />Hindu (18%)and Hindustan Times (16%) take 2nd & 3rd spot resp<br />
  44. 44. Key Findings - Lifestyle<br />Corporate Decision Maker Profile<br />The avg. age is 46 yrs old, suggesting that the senior leadership is today younger. (The CDM was older by 3 yrs i.e. 49 yrs when we reported in DMS-3) <br />Average salary Rs. 17 lakhs, earning more than what we reported in DMS-3 <br />Two thirds of the crème de la crème are based in the four major metropolitan cities in India, Mumbai is the home to little under than half the sample (43%)<br />
  45. 45. Credit Card Ownership<br />Base : Credit Cards (617) <br />Figs in % to Base<br /><ul><li>On an avg. a CDM owns two Credit Cards
  46. 46. Every third CDM has a Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) card
  47. 47. Citibank is the most popular credit card issuing bank – every 2nd CDM has a Citibank card </li></li></ul><li>Banking<br />Base : Having personal preferred banks (647) <br />Figs in % to Base<br /><ul><li>ICICI is the most preferred bank followed by HDFC
  48. 48. Citibank which headed as the preferred credit card has a much lower share as the preferred bank</li></li></ul><li>Most Used Cars<br />Base : All Car Owners (643) <br />Figs in % to Base<br /><ul><li>Maruti Udyog with its wide portfolio of Cars stand way ahead of all cars that are owned by CDMs
  49. 49. Hyundai Motors and Honda Cars take the 2nd and 3rd position</li></li></ul><li>Commissioned Media Research<br />Large Scale<br />Indian Youth Survey <br />Conducted by NCAER for National Book Trust in 2009<br />In the age group of 13-35 years, a sample of over 3,11,431 literate youth (1,02,021 rural and 2,09,410 urban) covering 432 villages in 207 districts as rural and 753 urban blocks in 199 towns as urban<br />One time survey for working out long term strategy of NBT to make all youths in 15-25 years active readers<br />The findings are available in the net<br />Small Scale<br />There are many examples of commissioned small scale studies using quantitative as well as qualitative techniques<br />Focus Group Discussions and individual depth interviews are often used for understanding media consumption pattern of a selected group of media vehicles <br />
  50. 50. Use of Commercial Research Data<br />Commercial Research data is used in the advertiser market by the advertisers and their agencies for taking media investment decisions <br />Such information is also used by media for <br />Marketing their space/ time to the advertisers<br />Improving their content in order to attract more audience in the competitive market <br />
  51. 51. Choice of Media<br />Based On Media Consumption Pattern<br />
  52. 52. Understanding media consumption across markets<br />Reach / Fragmentation Analysis<br />
  53. 53. The Methodology...<br />Client : Peerless<br />TG Male BCD Adults<br />Analysis only in urban ( 1L+ ) markets<br />Regular press reach >= 75% : High reach<br />Regular press reach < 75% : Low reach<br />
  54. 54. The Methodology...<br />Index of fragmentation = Unduplicated reach <br /> of top 2 publications<br /> Unduplicated reach >= 70% of regular press<br /> reach : low fragmentation market<br />Unduplicated reach < 70% of regular press<br /> reach : high fragmentation market<br />
  55. 55. A look at some markets...<br />%<br />LR / HF<br />HR / HF<br />HR / LF<br />LR / LF<br />
  56. 56. Some strategic implications<br />Low reach markets with high occasional readership<br />More insertions in low reach markets to build up reach <br />Less insertions for high reach markets<br />
  57. 57. Reach/ Fragmentation Matrix<br />Reach<br />H<br />L<br />Less publications<br />Less publications<br />L<br />Less Insertions<br />More Insertions<br />Less Outdoor <br />More Outdoor <br />Fragmentation<br />More publications<br />Less Insertions <br />Less outdoor<br />More publications<br />H<br />More insertions<br />More outdoor <br />
  58. 58. Low reach / high fragmentation<br />Strategy<br />More publications <br />More Insertions <br />Higher Outdoor Support<br />Markets<br />Kolkata<br />Rest of West Bengal<br />Rest of Maharashtra<br />Punjab, Haryana & Chandigarh<br />Bangalore<br />Rest of Karnataka<br />
  59. 59. High reach / high fragmentation<br />Strategy<br />More publications <br />Less Insertions <br />Lower Outdoor Support<br />Markets<br />Mumbai<br />Assam<br />
  60. 60. High reach / low fragmentation<br />Strategy<br />Less publications <br />Less Insertions <br />Lower Outdoor Support<br />Markets<br />Kerala<br />Chennai<br />
  61. 61. Low reach / low fragmentation<br />Strategy<br />Less publications <br />More Insertions <br />Higher Outdoor Support<br />Markets<br />Lucknow<br />Rest of UP<br />Rest of Tamil Nadu<br />Hyderabad<br />Rest of Andhra Pradesh<br />Ahmedabad<br />Rest of Gujarat<br />
  62. 62. Can magazines be used to support newspapers? <br />
  63. 63. A look at some markets<br />Lucknow & Chennai strong magazine markets<br />
  64. 64. A lokk at some more markets<br />Kerala & Assam strong magazine market<br />
  65. 65. Strong magazine markets<br />Markets with 40%+ exposure to magazines<br />Lucknow<br />Kerala<br />Chennai<br />Rest of Tamil Nadu<br />Rest of Karnataka<br />Hyderabad<br />Assam<br />
  66. 66. The case of Assam A Strong magazine market<br />Magazines with 57% reach as against 76% dailies reach among WNC TG<br />Sadin ( a weekly ) with higher readership than any other publication<br />Bismoi ( a monthly ) comes a close second followed by AsomiyaPratidin, the leading daily<br />
  67. 67. Greater role for magazines<br />Magazines not just an OTS builder in strong magazine markets <br />Magazines can help in building up reach along with dailies<br />A lesser emphasis in dailies in such markets<br />
  68. 68. The Vernacular Factor<br />
  69. 69. Kolkata : A strong Bengali market<br />
  70. 70. English dominates upper SEC in Mumbai<br />
  71. 71. English also strong in Bangalore upper SECs<br />
  72. 72. Vernacular strong across SECs in Kerala<br />
  73. 73. Other markets where vernacular is ahead across all SECs<br />Rest of West Bengal<br />Lucknow<br />Rest of UP<br />Rest of Maharashtra<br />Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh<br />Rest of Tamil Nadu<br />Rest of Karnataka<br />Rest of AP<br />Ahmedabad<br />Rest of Gujarat<br />
  74. 74. Other markets where English is strong<br />Chennai <br /> English with same readership as Tamil in SEC A<br />Rest of Karnataka<br />English ahead of Kannada in SEC A<br />Hyderabad<br />English much ahead in SEC A<br />Also ahead in SEC B<br />
  75. 75. Setting Reach / Frequency Objectives<br />
  76. 76. Low reach / high fragmentation<br />Mktg. ObjectiveTarget Media Deliveries<br />Maintenance 50% to 60% 1+ reach<br />Reinforce / Enhance 40% to 50% 3+ reach<br />Launch / Pack change 30% to 40% 4+ reach<br />
  77. 77. High reach / high fragmentation<br />Mktg. ObjectiveTarget Media Deliveries<br />Maintenance 75% to 80% 1+ reach<br />Reinforce / Enhance 55% to 60% 3+ reach<br />Launch / Pack change 45% to 50% 4+ reach<br />
  78. 78. High reach / low fragmentation<br />Mktg. ObjectiveTarget Media Deliveries<br />Maintenance 80% to 90% 1+ reach<br />Reinforce / Enhance 60% to 70% 3+ reach<br />Launch / Pack change 50% to 60% 5+ reach<br />
  79. 79. Low reach / Low fragmentation<br />Mktg. ObjectiveTarget Media Deliveries<br />Maintenance 40% 1+ reach<br />Reinforce / Enhance 35% 2+ reach<br />Launch / Pack change 30% 3+ reach<br />
  80. 80. Thank You<br />

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