4 r introduction to comm mba - ruchi jaggi

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4 r introduction to comm mba - ruchi jaggi

  1. 2. <ul><li>Communication always takes place in a context </li></ul><ul><li>Context could be social, cultural, political, technological….. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization of communication is context specific </li></ul><ul><li>In a nutshell, contexts give perspective to communication </li></ul>Communication Perspectives
  2. 3. <ul><li>Academically the following communication perspectives are identified </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Development Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Information & Communication Technology </li></ul><ul><li>International Communication& Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Management </li></ul><ul><li>Business Communication Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Research </li></ul>Communication Perspectives
  3. 4. <ul><li>Complexity and constant change mark the communication process </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze the structure and function of these changes and complications, a generalized and simple representation becomes imperative. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Models offer this simplification. </li></ul>Models of Communication – WHY?
  4. 5. <ul><li>Organize the various elements and processes of communication in a more structured way </li></ul><ul><li>Help in discovery of new facts about communication (generate research functions) </li></ul><ul><li>Help focus on ‘patterns’ rather than ‘individual messages’ and on ‘interactions’ rather than ‘movement of messages’ from one place to the other </li></ul>Functions of communication models
  5. 6. <ul><li>Can lead to oversimplification </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to confusion between the model and the behavior it portrays </li></ul>Limitations of communication models
  6. 7. <ul><li>Communication reduced to a question of transmitting information </li></ul><ul><li>Source-Message/Channel-Receiver as the basic process of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional social-scientific paradigm/ process school </li></ul>Linear or Transmission Models
  7. 8. Aristotle’s Model
  8. 9. <ul><li>Laswell’s research area – Political Communication and propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Takes for granted that communicator intends to influence receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Treats communication as a persuasive process </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that messages always have effects </li></ul><ul><li>Raises issue of effect rather than meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Omits the feedback element </li></ul>Laswell’s Formula – explanation
  9. 10. <ul><li>Very significant in the technical side of communication research </li></ul><ul><li>Applied to human communication though a bit misleading </li></ul><ul><li>Came out of research at the Bell telephone Laboratory </li></ul>Shannon and Weaver’s Mathematical Model
  10. 11. <ul><li>Level A. The Technical Problem Concerned with the accuracy of transference of symbols of communication from sender to receiver, the accuracy depending on the technical efficacy of the medium (e.g. a telephone set) and of the channel (e.g. a telephone cable). Level B. The Semantic Problem It is concerned with identity or satisfactorily close approximation of the intended meaning of the sender and the interpretation of meaning by the receiver. Level C. The Effectiveness Problem It is concerned with the extent to which the received meaning affects the conduct of the receiver in the way desired by the sender </li></ul>Explanation
  11. 12. <ul><li>To reduce noise and increase capacity requires – </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased entropy (uncertainty) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased redundancy (predictability) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication needs right balance between entropy and redundancy – Shannon and Weaver </li></ul>Concepts of entropy and redundancy
  12. 13. Towards non-linearity <ul><li>Communication process is not one way in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Human communication consists of mutual causation rather than one-way mechanistic causation. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of interaction, self-generation, mutual exchange and sharing characterize communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of communication network circuits indeed! </li></ul><ul><li>In nutshell, communication is about information, feedback, networks and purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Various loops lend non-linearity. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Non-linear models <ul><li>Schramm’s Model of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Gerbner’s Model </li></ul><ul><li>The triangular model of Newcomb </li></ul><ul><li>Westley and Mc Lean’s Model </li></ul>
  14. 15. Wilbur Schramm’s Model <ul><li>1. Schramm provided the additional notion of a “field of experience,” or the psychological frame of reference. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Communication is reciprocal, two-way, even though the feedback may be delayed. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Limitation: Doesn’t go beyond the bilateral interactions in communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Image Source: http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/Communication%20Models.htm#SchrammsInteractiveModel1954 </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD OF EXPERIENCE </li></ul>
  15. 16. Osgood- Schramm Model (Image Source: eldar.cz/mishutka/mn/%9Akola/.../Osgood.doc) <ul><li>Evolved from the previous model. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Field of Experience’ is substituted with PERSONALITY </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Model to be read from left to right beginning at ‘E’. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ E’: event (reality) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ M’: Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>‘ E 1’: Perceptual Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>‘ SE’: Communicating Dimension </li></ul>Image Source: http://madanmaniadhikary.blogspot.com/2008/08/gerbners-general-model-1956.html GERBNER’S MODEL
  17. 18. Gerbner’s Model: An Analysis <ul><li>Insight into media institutions, messages, and impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledges media (hence a mass communication model) </li></ul><ul><li>Comments on media’s role as both a perceiver and communicator of an event. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights the gatekeeping function of the media. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Newcomb’s Model : Co-orientation Model for Relational analysis <ul><li>A&B: </li></ul><ul><li>Communicators </li></ul><ul><li>X: Object of communication </li></ul>
  19. 20. Features of Newcomb’s Model <ul><li>Based on psychological view of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication restores balance in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier models to introduce the role of community in society or a social relationship. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Model of Public Service Programming
  21. 22. Westley and Mc Lean’s Conceptual Model for Communication Research <ul><li>Developed with the intention to order existing findings of research </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a more systematic treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Originates from social psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Based on ideas of cognitive dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Predecessor – Newcomb’s Model of Communication </li></ul>
  22. 23. Basic Concepts <ul><li>C stands for Channel roles - Gatekeeper </li></ul><ul><li>B represents the &quot;behavioral system roles“ </li></ul><ul><li>A stands for advocacy roles, or those people, institutions, or organizations that have something to say </li></ul><ul><li>X's represent all the events, topics or ideas that Advocates might want to want to make a message about </li></ul>X1 A2 X2    A1 >>>>> C >>>>>B X 3    A3    < fca <<        << fbc < (FEEDBACK LOOPS)
  23. 24. What does it mean? <ul><li>Several selection stages </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulating character of channel </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction between purposive and non-purposive communication </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of feedback </li></ul>
  24. 25. Applications of the model <ul><li>Helps to pose several research questions like – </li></ul><ul><li>What criteria is applied by C to choose from X’s or A’s? </li></ul><ul><li>How adequately are needs of B interpreted? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways are messages from X altered as they pass vis C? </li></ul><ul><li>‘ This model has been cited in several gatekeeping and other empirical/conceptual studies’. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Limitations <ul><li>Practically the relationship between the three main participants can be very imbalanced. </li></ul><ul><li>Political relationship between A and C sometimes – so A can have a control over C – hence may not be non-purposive </li></ul><ul><li>Similar relationship between C and B – the model overstates the independence of communicator from society </li></ul><ul><li>Model bit more idealist and normative than the reality </li></ul>

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