3 4 cameras


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3 4 cameras

  1. 1. Evolution
  2. 2. Camera Obscura
  3. 3.  The camera obscura (Lat. dark chamber) was an optical device used in drawing, and one of the ancestral threads leading to the invention of photography. In English, todays photographic devices are still known as "cameras"
  4. 4.  The principle of the camera obscura can be demonstrated with a rudimentary type, just a box (which may be room-sized, or even hangar sized) with a hole in one side. Light from only one part of a scene will pass through the hole and strike a specific part of the back wall. The projection is made on paper on which an artist can then copy the image. The advantage of this technique is that the perspective is accurate, thus greatly increasing the realism of the image
  5. 5.  In camera terms, the light converges into the room through the hole transmitting with it the object(s) facing it. The object will appear in full colour but upside down on the projecting screen/wall opposite the hole inside the dark room. The explanation is that light travels in a straight line and when some of the rays reflected from a bright subject pass through the small hole in thin material they do not scatter but cross and reform as an upside down image on a flat white surface held parallel to the hole
  6. 6. Pinhole Camera
  7. 7.  A pinhole camera is a camera in which the lens is replaced by an extremely small hole, pierced in very thin material. Light from a scene passes through this single point, producing a more-or-less sharp image on the rear of a light-proof box. The image is upside-down, as in a conventional camera with a lens
  8. 8.  do - is the distance of the object (from the pinhole) di - is the distance of the image (from the pinhole) ho - is the height of the object, hi - is the height of the image
  9. 9.  The smaller the hole, the sharper the image, but the longer the exposure required. Optimally, the size of the pinhole, or aperture, should be 1/100 or less of the distance between it and the screen
  10. 10.  A pinhole cameras shutter is usually manually operated because of the lengthy exposure times, and consists of a flap of some light- proof material to cover and uncover the pinhole. Typical exposures range from 5 seconds to hours and sometimes days
  11. 11. Box Cameras
  12. 12.  The box camera is, with the exception of the pin hole camera, a camera in its simplest form. The classic box camera is shaped more or less like a box
  13. 13.  A box camera has a simple optical system, often only in the form of a simple meniscus lens. It usually lacks a focusing system (fix-focus) as well as control of aperture and shutter speeds. This makes it suitable for daylight photography only
  14. 14.  The box cameras are the oldest class of photographic cameras. The first camera ever used for making persistent photographic images was the big wooden box camera used for experimental photography in the mid-1820s
  15. 15.  From the beginning amateurs were participating in the photography business, at least as customers for photographic material. But traveling was expensive, and camera equipment was heavy, so that a camera was even not in the luggage of many rich travelers. Circumstances had changed at the end of the 19th century. Dry plates, roll film, drugstores with darkrooms to rent, material and infrastructure were given to support a wider spreading of amateur photography
  16. 16.  The Kodak introduced in 1888, the first commercially successful box camera for roll film -- the advertising slogan being ‘You press the button - we do the rest’ The Kodak Brownie, a long lasting series of classical box cameras using roll film
  17. 17. SLR CamerasSingle Lens Reflex Camera
  18. 18.  ‘SLR’ – Single lens reflex means that the same lens is used for viewing and taking pictures
  19. 19.  A camera where the photographer sees exactly the same image that is exposed to the film and can adjust everything by turning dials and clicking buttons. Since it doesnt need any electricity to take a picture, a manual SLR camera provides an excellent illustration of the fundamental processes of photography
  20. 20.  A still film camera is made of three basic elements: an optical element (the lens), a chemical element (the film) and a mechanical element (the camera body itself). As well see, the only trick to photography is calibrating and combining these elements in such a way that they record a crisp, recognizable image
  21. 21.  Most point-and-shoot cameras are fully automatic. Conceptually, automatic cameras are pretty much the same as fully manual models, but everything is controlled by a central microprocessor instead of the user
  22. 22.  The central microprocessor receives information from the autofocus system and the light meter. Then it activates several small motors, which adjust the lens and open and close the aperture. In modern cameras, this a pretty advanced computer system
  23. 23.  Traditional photography burdened photographers working at remote locations without easy access to processing facilities, and competition from television pressured photographers to deliver images to newspapers with greater speed. Photo journalists at remote locations often carried miniature photo labs and a means of transmitting images through telephone lines
  24. 24.  In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge- coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital
  25. 25.  The Kodak Professional Digital Camera System (unofficially named the DCS 100) was the first DSLR camera. It was mounted on a Nikon F3 body and released by Kodak in May of 1991
  26. 26.  In the past twenty years, most of the major technological breakthroughs in consumer electronics have really been part of one larger breakthrough. When you get down to it, CDs, DVDs, HDTV, MP3s and DVRs are all built around the same basic process: converting conventional analog information (represented by a fluctuating wave) into digital information (represented by ones and zeros, or bits)
  27. 27.  This fundamental shift in technology totally changed how we handle visual and audio information -- it completely redefined what is possible The digital camera is one of -the most remarkable instances of this shift because it is so truly different from its predecessor
  28. 28.  Conventional cameras depend entirely on chemical and mechanical processes -- you dont even need electricity to operate them. On the other hand, all digital cameras have a built-in computer, and all of them record images electronically
  29. 29.  Instead of film, a digital camera has a sensor that converts light into electrical charges
  30. 30. CCD CMOS The image sensor employed by most digital cameras is a charge coupled device (CCD). Some cameras use complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology instead. Both CCD and CMOS image sensors convert light into electrons
  31. 31.  Once the sensor converts the light into electrons, it reads the value (accumulated charge) of each cell in the image. This is where the differences between the two main sensor types kick in: A CCD transports the charge across the chip and reads it at one corner of the array. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) then turns each pixels value into a digital value by measuring the amount of charge at each photosite and converting that measurement to binary form CMOS devices use several transistors at each pixel to amplify and move the charge using more traditional wires. The CMOS signal is digital, so it needs no ADC
  32. 32.  Differences between the two types of sensors lead to a number of pros and cons CCD sensors create high-quality, low-noise images. CMOS sensors are generally more susceptible to noise Because each pixel on a CMOS sensor has several transistors located next to it, the light sensitivity of a CMOS chip is lower. Many of the photons hit the transistors instead of the photodiode CMOS sensors traditionally consume little power. CCDs, on the other hand, use a process that consumes lots of power. CCDs consume as much as 100 times more power than an equivalent CMOS sensor CCD sensors have been mass produced for a longer period of time, so they are more mature. They tend to have higher quality pixels, and more of them
  33. 33.  The amount of detail that the camera can capture is called the resolution, and it is measured in pixels. The more pixels a camera has, the more detail it can capture and the pictures can be larger without becoming blurry or ‘grainy’
  34. 34. Some typical resolutions
  35. 35.  256x256 - Found on very cheap cameras, this resolution is so low that the picture quality is almost always unacceptable. This is 65,000 total pixels 640x480 - This is the low end on most "real" cameras. This resolution is ideal for e-mailing pictures or posting pictures on a Web site 1216x912 - This is a "megapixel" image size -- 1,109,000 total pixels -- good for printing pictures 1600x1200 - With almost 2 million total pixels, this is "high resolution." You can print a 4x5 inch print taken at this resolution with the same quality that you would get from a photo lab 2240x1680 - Found on 4 megapixel cameras -- the current standard -- this allows even larger printed photos, with good quality prints upto 5.25x8 inches 4064x2704 - A top-of-the-line digital camera with 11.1 megapixels takes pictures at this resolution. At this setting, you can create 13.5x9 inch prints with no loss of picture quality
  36. 36.  High-end consumer cameras can capture over 12 million pixels. Some professional cameras support over 16 million pixels, or 20 million pixels for large-format cameras For comparison, Hewlett Packard estimates that the quality of 35mm film is about 20 million pixels
  37. 37.  Image sensors used in DSLRs come in a range of sizes  The largest are the ones used in "medium format" cameras, typically via a "digital back" which can be used as an alternative to a film back. Because of the manufacturing costs of these large sensors the price of these cameras is typically over Rs. 10,00,000
  38. 38.  With the exception of medium format DSLRs, the largest sensors are referred to as "full-frame", and are the same size as 35 mm film; these sensors are used in quite expensive DSLRs such as the Canon EOS-1Ds Mark III, the Canon EOS 5D, the Nikon D700, and the Nikon D3
  39. 39.  Most modern DSLRs use a smaller sensor commonly referred to as APS-C sized, that is, approximately 22 mm × 15 mm, or about 40% of the area of a full-frame sensor Other sensor sizes found in DSLRs include the ‘Four Thirds System’ sensor at 26% of full frame, APS-H sensors at around 61% of full frame, and the ‘Foveon X3’ sensor at 33% of full frame
  40. 40.  The sensors used in current DSLRs are much larger than the sensors found in digicam-style cameras, most of which use sensors known as 1/2.5", whose area is only 3% of a full frame sensor. Even high-end digicams such as the Canon PowerShot G9 or the Nikon CoolPix P5000 use sensors that are approximately 5% and 4% of the area of a full frame sensor, respectively
  41. 41.  There is a connection between sensor size and image quality; in general, a larger sensor provides lower noise, higher sensitivity, and increased latitude and dynamic range
  42. 42. According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007, 75 percent ofprofessional photographers say they will continue to use film, eventhough some embrace digital
  43. 43. According to the U.S. survey results, more than two-thirds (68percent) of professional photographers prefer the results of film tothose of digital for certain applications including: Film’s superiority in capturing more information on medium and large format films (48 percent) Capturing shadow and highlighting details (45 percent) The wide exposure latitude of film (42 percent)
  44. 44.  Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording
  45. 45.  Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year
  46. 46.  In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6
  47. 47.  On May 25, 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras
  48. 48. Some pictures
  49. 49. Thank you
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