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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Interesting tool, but the terminologies appear to be quite different; specifically the Discreet & Cum. Distribution. Can we call them Reach Curve or Reach (+) Build?
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1 media planning 1 media planning Presentation Transcript

  • Media Planning & Buying
    An Indian Perspective
  • Communication is the key to marketing and media is the key to communication
    What drives media choices
    Reach
    Cost Effectiveness
    Relevance
    Making the right choices
    Reach
    Frequency
    Reach * Frequency
    Media Classes
    Static
    Broadcast
    New Media
    Media
    As a vehicle
    As the medium
    As the message
    An overview of how a media agency functions
    A Quick Recap
  • The Agenda This Semester:
    Roles within a media agency
    Media Basics
    Media Strategy
    TG Definition
    Market Prioritization
    Setting Media Weights
    Media Mix Decision
    Scheduling
    Building a Media Plan
  • So what exactly is media planning??
    A series ofdecisions
    Which conclude with a strategy which will help a brand
    Deliver it’s communication in the most efficient manner
    to the right set of audiences
    Using the most appropriate media options in the best possible manner
  • The Agenda This Semester:
    Roles within a media agency
    Media Basics
    Media Strategy
    TG Definition
    Market Prioritization
    Setting Media Weights
    Media Mix Decision
    Scheduling
    Building a Media Plan
  • Roles within a media agency
    If everyone is moving forward together, then success takes care of itself
  • The following specialists form a team:
    Strategic Media Planners
    Implementation Planners
    Media Research
    Media Buyers
    Consolidation & Benchmarking
    Interactive Cell (Mobile, Internet etc)
    Out of Home (OOH) – Can also be a separate agency by itself
    Activation (Events / Retail/ On-ground)
    Entertainment (Program syndication, Films)
    Monitoring
    Operations / Implementation
    Billing & Collections
  • The Agenda This Semester:
    Roles within a media agency
    Media Basics
    Media Strategy
    TG Definition
    Market Prioritization
    Setting Media Weights
    Media Mix Decision
    Scheduling
    Building a Media Plan
  • Media Basics
    TVR
    GRP
    Frequency
    TRP
    Reach
    TAM
    IRS
    ADEX
    A journey of a thousand miles must being with a single step – Lao Tzu
  • Reach
    % of people exposed to a particular vehicle at least once in the period under consideration
    Unduplicated Measure
    • Eg. Times of India Reach in Mumbai – 45%
    Mid-Day (Mumbai) – 25%
    • Reach in Mumbai?
  • Remember: Reach is unduplicated
    P(A U B) is P(A)+P(B) – P(A Π B)
    • Combined Reach will not be a straight mathematical addition of 45% + 25%
    • We need to discount all people who read both Times of India as well as Mid-
    Day (to use a media term: the duplicated audience)
    • Easier to understand with Set theory:
    Mid-Day (25%)
    Duplication (10%)
    TOI (45%)
    Reach in Mumbai is therefore 60%
    Duplication with those who read both
  • Remember: Reach is unduplicated
    P(A)+P(B)+P(C)-P(AB)-P(AC)-P(BC)+P(AΠB ΠC)
    • Lets take it a step further. Let’s add one more publication (Economic Times)
    Mid-Day (25%)
    Duplication (10%)
    TOI (45%)
    Duplication (2%)
    Duplication (1%)
    ET
    (10%)
    Reach in Mumbai is therefore 67%
  • Cumulative Reach
    Reach accumulates across media vehicles or a period of time or across different issues of the same vehicle
    Cumulates quickly in the initial stages but the build-up starts plateauing once we have already reached the heavy & medium users
    This means we need to start adding light users to build reach
    Not an impossible task but an extremely expensive one
    Incremental Publications
    2nd Publication
    Market Leader
  • Frequency Distribution
    In a campaign the ad. is exposed a number of times
    Which results in the reach build up
    However all people in the audience are not exposed uniformly
    Most likely that heavy viewers see the ad. more often while light viewers might not see it at all
    This spread is called frequency distribution
  • Frequency Distribution
    Reach
    Of the 100 People who form the audience 26 have not seen the campaign (f=0)
    They are said to have not been ‘reached’ by the campaign
    Reach of this campaign would be 74% (∑f1-f10)
  • Discreet & Cum. Distribution
    No. of people who saw the ad exactly once, twice, thrice etc. (Discreet Reach)
    Adding up the people who saw the ad atleast once, twice, thrice or more (Reach thus obtained is designated as ‘1+ Reach’)
    If we leave out people who saw the ad. exactly once and plot everyone else it would be ‘2+ Reach’
    Difference between discrete and cum distribution is:
    Seeing the ad. exactly a certain no. of times (Discreet)
    Atleast a certain number of times (Cum distribution)
  • Discreet Distribution
    Cum. Distribution
    ∑ = 1+ = 78%
    ∑-(1)=2+= 62%
    ∑-(1)-(2)=3+= 49%
  • Average OTS (Opportunity To See)
    Average number of exposures amongst those who have been reached
    A derived number hence can be in decimals
    Calculated as the weighted average of the frequency distribution
  • Frequency Distribution
    Average OTS = (1*19)+(2*14)+(3*12)+(4*9)+(5*7)+(6*4)+(7*4)+(8*3)+(9*1)+(10*1)
    19+14+12+9+7+4+4+3+1+1
    = 3.36
    On an average people reached would have seen the ad. 3.36 times
  • Effective Frequency / Reach
    Effective Frequency = The minimum no. of times the TA needs to be exposed to our communication to have the desired effect
    Assume that minimum no. is 4 times
    (Various studies have thrown different results as ideal)
    We would then look at reach only at 4+ (discarding people who have viewed the communication less than 4 times) thus arriving at Effective Reach
  • Effective Frequency-4
    Effective Reach at 4+
  • So what is the ideal effective frequency??
    Extensive research carried out in the area
    Herbert Krugman
    Erwin Ephron
    Gerard Tellis
    One do it yourself method is the FCB Power Grid
    Based on various input parameters
    Rankings on marketing, message (creative) and media
    Overlays inputs on the FCB Grid (High-Low Involvement & Emotion/Rational Product)
  • So what is the ideal effective frequency??
    ((1*9)+(2*2)+(3*2)+(4*1)+(5*0)+(6*1)+(7*5))/SUM(9+2+2+0+1+1+5)
    W.Avg. of
    all scores
  • TV Metrics
  • From Diary to Peoplemeter
    Diary
    A panel would be given a diary with qtr. hour time-slots across rows and channels across columns
    Drawback – not recorded but reported behaviour
    Telescope effect – 1 Shot fill for the wk.
    Big Shows got bigger, small ones got smaller
    Replaced by Peoplemeters in 1996
    2 Units
    Channel Monitoring device (attached to the TV set)
    Remote to register viewer details
    Remote has buttons for each member of the family
    Data collected is mapped to channel telecast frequency
    Currently 2 reporting systems in India: TAM & AMAP
    TAM: 7305 Sample Homes
    2440 in the 8 Metros
  • Video
  • TRP/TVR
    The move from Diary to Peoplemeter also changed TRPs to TVRs
    TRP= % of the audience who viewed a certain programme or time-slot
    Simple headcount
    TVR=Weighted Number which takes Reach & Time-spent into account
  • TVR
    TRP = 4/10*100= 40
    TVR=(10/30 + 5/30 + 6/30 + 24/30)
    X100
    10
    =15
  • TVR
    Better viewing metric however creates some unique situations
    2 shows both rating the same can have very different viewing patterns
    Eg. A daily soap may be pulling in a fairly loyal audience which watches almost the entire show (albeit on a smaller base)
    Alternatively a non-fiction format (like KBC) may have a far larger number of people sampling it for lesser time
    Taking it a step further this would mean the soap is a great device for brands which need to build frequency
    The non-fiction show is a better bet for communication which needs to build higher reach than frequency
    Classical Media Conundrum: Reach Or Frequency
  • Program Reach & TS (Time-Spent)On the People-meter System
    Reach = A viewer who watched atleast 1 minute of the program
    TS = Number of minutes the viewer saw the program
    2 Ways to look at TS
    As an average of the total time spent by the universe
    (10+5+6+24=45)/10
    Per Viewer
    45/4=11.25 Minutes
  • Ad. Viewership
    Viewership is collected at seconds level
    However reported data at the minute level
    Viewership gets attributed to the minute
    If you were changing channels in the minute under consideration the entire viewership of the minute get attributed to the channel viewed for the maximum seconds in that minute
    • Mr. M’s viewership attributed to NDTV Imagine in that minute
  • Ad. Viewership (Cont’d)
    Ad. Viewership too gets reported at the minute level
    In the case of Mr. M he could have watched a 15 sec. commercial on Colors however his viewership on that will not be counted
    This is an anomaly which we need to be aware of.
    Assumption is that such anomalies balance out over the larger base
  • Benchmarking metrics
  • Share
    Competitive benchmarking to understand relative strengths
    Can be looked at in multiple ways
    Publications Vs. Competitors in a market
    Channel’s wkly GRPs Vs. Competition
    Share of Total viewership in a TB (Channel Share)
    • There might be situations where the share is extremely high on a smaller base. Easy to get mis-guided
    Base
  • Profile
    Spread of audiences across different demographic classes (Age, SEC, Gender, CS/NCS/Analog/Digital, Markets)
    Helps understand the nature and quality of audiences
    Base
  • Plan metrics
  • GRPs (Gross Rating Points)
    Duplicated Reach
    Reach * Frequency
    ∑Plan TVRs
    Which means GRPs can be garnered by
    1) Reaching more people
    2) More exposures to the same base
    500 GRPs
    = 50% Reach X 10AOTS
    = 25% Reach X 20AOTS
    = 10% Reach X 50AOTS
    Reach = indicator of % of TG exposed to our communication
    GRPs = Sense of the total level of exposure or Weight of the communication
  • SOVs (Share of Voice)
    Gives a sense of media weights in a competitive context
    Share of GRPs for a brand within a particular product category
    Base is the category GRPs
  • Print metrics
  • Circulation
    Average number of copies of a publication that are sold
    Distinct from Print Order
    Reported by ABC in India
    65000 Publications in the country
    Less than 400 reported by ABC
    ABC: Unbiased 3rd Party
    Reported every 6 months
    Broken up by towns, districts & states
    Editionwise
    Weekdays & Weekends
    Pitfall:
    • Reports number of copies NOT readers
    • No readership profile
  • AIR (Average Issue Readership)
    People who have read/looked at the publication in the time-span equal to the periodicity of the publication
    Question asked is:
    Did you read the Times Of India yesterday?
    Did you read India Today in the last week?
    Masthead method is used (IRS)
  • Total or Claimed Readers
    Not loyal readers of the publication but have consumed it in the past
    Have you read Times Of India in the past 6 months?
    Lower the gap between TR & AIR; more loyal the readership base of the publication
    TOI Vs. Mid-Day
  • Sole Or Solus Readers
    They read only 1 particular publication in that frequency
    Most dedicated and loyal readers of a publication
    Claimed
    AIR
    Solus
    Quality
    Quantity
  • To Summarize
    Reach
    People (Unduplicated) exposed to the vehicle/Ad.atleast once
    Cum. Reach
    Buildup of reach across publications/time-periods etc
    Frequency Distribution
    Spread of ads. viewed
    AOTS
    Average number of exposures of a plan/campaign
    Weighted Average of the frequency distribution
    Effective Frequency
    Minimum number of times the TG needs to see our communication
    Peoplemeter is recorded viewing vis-à-vis diary which is reported viewing
    TVR takes Reach and TS into account
  • To Summarize (Cont’d)
    Viewership data is captured at seconds level & reported at a minute level
    Profile is the spread of audiences across different demographic classes
    Share is a measure of competitive strength
    GRP is duplicated reach, which gives a sense of weight of exposures
    GRP is sum of TVRs or Reach X AOTS
    Circulation is the No. of copies sold not printed
    AIR is people who have read or looked at the publication in the periodicity of the publication
    Sole Readers are those who read only that publication in that frequency
    TR / Claimed readers are those who are not AIR but have read the publication in the past
  • The Agenda This Semester:
    Roles within a media agency
    Media Basics
    Media Strategy
    TG Definition
    Market Prioritization
    Setting Media Weights
    Media Mix Decision
    Scheduling
    Building a Media Plan
  • Media strategy
    Change is not a destination, just as hope is not a strategy – Rudy Giuliani
  • Need for a strategy
    It’s a roadmap that helps establish parameters & ground rules
    Our plans & buys are judged basis these
    We always have finite resources
    With unlimited resources we would reach all people, across all markets, via presence across media, through the year with the heaviest media weights !!
    A media strategy is therefore defined as:
    A series of compromises we are willing to make in order to achieve the desired objectives within the given (finite) budget
  • Start at the end !!
    Critical to set the context
    Does not exist in isolation
    Always in the context of a larger advertising or communication objective
    Communication task is governed by the marketing task/objective for the brand
    Based on defining the business problem and the attendant market analysis
    • This is the starting point.
    Problems of a diverse nature:
    • How to gain share
    • How to arrest share loss
    • Deliver higher profits etc.
    Creative Strategy
    Brand USP
    Brand Positioning
    Copy Theme
    Specific objective of each Ad.
    Creative Units
    Addressing Marketing Issues
    Marketing Objectives
    Target Consumer, Markets
    Pricing & Distribution Strategy
    Role of A&P
    Basis for Strategy & Plan
    Composition of the market – Segments
    Past performance- Volume, Value, Profits
    Distribution Network, strenghts
    Role of advertising
    Competitive mapping
    Consumer mapping
  • Impact of the Marketing task and Communication Goals
    Product Life Cycle (PLC)
    At Launch:
    • Key tasks for the brand:
    1) Establish & increase presence
    2) Facilitate trials
    • Advertising has the following tasks:
    Make consumers familiar with the brand (Reach * Frequency)
    Make the brand visible to trade (Frequency)
    Activities which allow consumers to touch-feel the brand (Activation)
    In cases where the product concept is new an educative approach is use (Frequency)
    • For Test Markets Media isolataibility can be a major factor in deciding test and control markets
    Product Sales
    Introduction
    Maturity
    Decline
    Growth
  • Impact of the Marketing task and Communication Goals
    Product Life Cycle (PLC)
    Growth Stage:
    • Key tasks for the brand:
    1) Increase penetration (by inducting new users into category)
    2) Grow Volumes (by increasing brand usage)
    3) Increase distribution coverage
    • Advertising has the following tasks:
    To increase penetration – Focus media activity on non-users and make plans reach intensive
    To grow volumes – Media activity should focus on frequency
    Product Sales
    Introduction
    Maturity
    Decline
    Growth
  • Impact of the Marketing task and Communication Goals
    Product Life Cycle (PLC)
    Mature Market:
    • Key tasks for the brand:
    Retain share
    • Advertising has the following tasks:
    Reinforce the brand choice that consumers make
    Focus on current users and maintain SOV Levels
    Product Sales
    Introduction
    Maturity
    Decline
    Growth
  • Case Study
    Brand: Clinic Plus
    Marketing Objective: Maintain Share at X% (Current levels)
    Problem: Share in the South has been affected due to launch of sachets by Chick Shampoo
    Communication Task: Run Theme communication across the country. In the South supplement theme communication with Sachet communication
    Thus a slight change in Mkt Objective
    leads to the following changes in media strategy:
    • A Different TG (Males, Lower SEC)
    • Heightened focus on small towns
    • Changed Media Mix (Now targeting males)
    • New scheduling pattern (Through the month)
    Media Input
    • Analysis shows – Sachet used more by lower SECs and smaller towns
    - no month end/beginning purchase cycle skew
    • In these areas householder (person in the HH who makes decisions about FMCG purchases is Male)
    • Direct Impact on media mix: Afternoon TB (used normally for F SEC AB) will need to be replaced by programs in night time slots targeting males
    • Scheduling moves from 1st & last Wk. to across the month in the South
  • Situation Analysis
    Usage Study
    Consumer
    Product
    Competitive
    Review
    TG Media
    Habits
    Media
    Characteristics of media usage by the TG
    Usage of media by brand in the past/ Usage of media by competitors in the category
    Product Consumption Info.
  • Product Usage
    Usage Study
    Consumer
    Product
    Retail Off-take Data
    Database of retail purchases (Obtained by auditing a large number and type of retail stores)
    Brand and Category Sales data
    Data Splits available at the following levels:
    India
    Urban
    Rural
    Town-Class
    Type of outlet etc.
    Can be used for:
    Market share analysis
    Market contribution
    Growth &
    Prioritization
    Cannot:
    1) Provide insights into consumer motivation
  • Product Usage
    Usage Study
    Consumer
    Product
    Household Panel Data
    Weekly basis
    Category & Brand Consumption is tracked
    Continuous study
    Which also makes it very expensive
    Can be used for:
    Tracking product trials
    Conversions
    Retension
    Awareness
    Preference
    Gain-Loss analysis etc
  • Product Usage
    Usage Study
    Consumer
    Product
    Brand Tracks
    Similar to HH Panels
    Rolling data
    Focus on:
    Brand & Ad. awareness
    Preference
    Attitudinal statements
    Tracking brand attributes in the consumers mind
    Brand equity etc.
  • Product Usage
    Usage Study
    Consumer
    Product
    Product Linkage Data
    Part of the Indian Readership Survey (IRS)
    Captures
    Penetration
    Frequency/intensity of usage/consumption
    Since IRS already has demographic & lifestyle data possible to cross tab data to create detailed user profiles
    Useful to define brand TGs
  • Product Usage
    Consumer
    Media
    TG Media
    Habits
    Syndicated databases like IRS, RAM & TAM
    Help in understanding the consumers interaction with media
    Kind of analysis possible:
    Media exposure levels
    Usage intensity (HML)
    TS
    Share of viewing
    Top publications / channels
    Day part analysis etc
  • Product Usage
    Product
    Analysis of how the brand & the category have used media in the past
    Possible since TAM (Adex) monitors activity across TV, Print & 9 Cities for Radio
    Looks at the following data points & more:
    Share of spends, time, space etc.
    SOV
    Growth in spends & GRPs
    Ad. duration
    Size, Color
    Media Vehicle selection strategy
    Market skews
    Reach
    AOTS
    Plan deliveries
    Scheduling strategies
    Trend analysis etc.
    Media
    Competitive
    Review
  • Building blocks of a media strategy
  • 5 Pillars
  • Quiz time
  • Calculate the Show Rating(30 Min. Show)
    23.3
    40
    TRP=?
    TVR=?
  • GRPs
    3.6
    1
    6.3
    15.6
    26.5
    Plan Output =? GRPs
  • GRPs = Reach X Frequency
    350 GRPs & 7.0 Avg. Frequency = ? Reach
    50%
  • 80% Reach & 5 Avg. Frequency= ? GRPs
    400