1 intro to photo 2012-new

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1 intro to photo 2012-new

  1. 1. Introduction to Photography
  2. 2. The word "photography" comes from the French photographie whichis based on the Greek φώς (phos) "light" + γραφίς (graphis) "stylus","paintbrush" or γραφή (graphê) "representation by means of lines" or"drawing", together meaning "drawing with light." Traditionally, theproduct of photography has been called a photograph, commonlyshortened to "photo"
  3. 3. PhotographyThe process and art of recording pictures by means of capturinglight on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronicsensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose asensitive silver halide based chemical or electronic medium duringa timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a deviceknown as a camera that also stores the resulting informationchemically or electronically
  4. 4. The camera is the image-forming device, and photographic film (film camera) or a silicon electronic image sensor (digital) is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory
  5. 5.  Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or “image file" (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image
  6. 6.  Digital cameras replace film with an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film
  7. 7.  In all but certain specialized cameras, the process of obtaining a usable exposure must involve the use, manually or automatically, of a few controls to ensure the photograph is clear, sharp and well illuminated
  8. 8.  Camera controls are inter-related. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the "exposure") changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and, the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can change as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure
  9. 9.  Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations
  10. 10.  Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography to which money exchanges hands. In this light money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition
  11. 11. Advertising photography photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team This would include “product photography”.. Like pack-shots… and is called table-top photography
  12. 12. Fashion and glamour photography This type of photography usually incorporates models. Fashion photography emphasizes the clothes or product, glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in mens magazines
  13. 13. Still Life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made
  14. 14. Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills
  15. 15. Editorial photography photographs made to illustrate a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine
  16. 16. Photojournalism This can be considered a subset of editorial photography Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story
  17. 17. Portrait & Wedding Photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images
  18. 18. Fine art photography Photographs made to fulfill a vision, and reproduced to be sold directly to the customer
  19. 19. Landscape photography photographs of different locations or scenery, made to be sold to tourists as postcards or for display in the house or office
  20. 20. Conceptual photography Photography that turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract
  21. 21. Wildlife photography  Photography that demonstrates the animal kingdom
  22. 22. Overview of Photographic process What does it really mean when you "take" a picture with a camera? When you click the shutter, you have frozen a moment in time by recording the visible light reflected from the objects in the cameras field of view. In order to do that, the reflected light causes a chemical change to the photographic film inside the camera. The chemical record is very stable, and can be subsequently developed, amplified and modified to produce a representation (a print) of that moment
  23. 23. Overview of Photographic process To understand the whole process, youll have to learn some of the science behind photography -- exposing the image, processing the image, and producing a print of the image
  24. 24.  Film for common 35mm cameras comes in long narrow strips of chemical coated plastic. As each image is captured by the camera onto the film strip, the film strip advances so that the next image is projected onto unexposed film. When the film is developed it is a long strip of small negative images. This strip is often cut into sections for easier handling
  25. 25.  These negative images are the master images, from which all other copies will be made, and they are treated with care and handled with caution
  26. 26. Role of photography and photographer in the process of communication
  27. 27.  Today, photography has become a powerful means of communication and a mode of visual expression that touches human life in many ways. For example, photography has become popular as a means of recording and storing memories. Most of the billions of photographs taken today are snapshots--casual records to document personal events such as vacations, birthdays, and weddings
  28. 28.  Photographs are used extensively by newspapers, magazines, books, and television to convey information and advertise products and services. Practical applications of photography are found in nearly every human endeavor from astronomy to medical diagnosis and industrial quality control to living spaces
  29. 29.  Today photography is widely recognized as a fine art. Photographs are displayed in art museums, prized by collectors, discussed by critics, and studied in art history courses. Because of the special nature of photography, however, this was not always the case. In the early days of photography some people considered the medium something of a poor relation to the older, established visual arts, such as drawing and painting
  30. 30.  The arguments stemmed from the fact that a camera is a mechanical instrument. Because the mechanical procedure of taking a picture is automatic, detractors claimed that photography required no coordination of hand and eye and none of the manual skills essential to drawing and painting. They also argued that photography required no creativity or imagination because the photographic subject was "ready-made" and did not require manipulation or control by the photographer
  31. 31.  As a nonverbal means of communication, photography can surmount the barriers of language and communicate through universal visual symbols. Photographs are well suited for use in the mass media. Today they are reproduced by the billions, and they can be found everywhere: in the pages of newspapers, magazines, books, catalogs, and brochures; on display in billboards, shop windows, and posters; broadcast over television; and organized into slide shows and film strips
  32. 32.  A camera, no matter how many automatic features it may have, is a lifeless piece of equipment until a person uses it. It then becomes a uniquely responsive tool--an extension of the photographers eye and mind. A photographer creates a picture by a process of selection
  33. 33.  Photographers looking through the cameras viewfinder must decide what to include and what to exclude from the scene. They select the distance from which to take the picture and the precise angle that best suits their purpose. They select the instant in which to trip the shutter. This decision may require hours of patient waiting until the light is exactly right or it may be a split-second decision, but the photographers sense of timing is always crucial
  34. 34.  Photographers can expand or flatten perspective by the use of certain lenses. They can freeze motion or record it as a blur, depending on their choice of shutter speed. They can create an infinite number of lighting effects with flashes or floodlights. They can alter the tonal values or colors in a picture by their choice of film and filters. These are only a few of the controls available to a photographer when taking a picture
  35. 35. Social responsibilityTrue representation without any distortionOnly visual part of the communicationShow something that the others do not see
  36. 36. A word about photosIt is really important when looking at photos to rememberthat the photographer has shown us what he wanted to showusPhotographs can be altered easily and the message alteredRemember that there is a lot of space outside of the photothat you can’t see
  37. 37. Look at the following photos and think about the following:What the people are feeling ?What are they doing ?What might be happening outside of the camera frame ?
  38. 38. Language is a bond, a way of getting ideas acrossPhotography is also a mode of visual expressionVisual literacy involves visually literate photography
  39. 39. Some pictures
  40. 40. Youve got to have the passion, Without the passion, youre nothing.You have to throw yourself into it and be willing to take the risks togrow. You also have to be willing to put in the time to learn by trialand error. Do not hesitate to experiment. You also learn by creating anetwork of like-minded people who are doing the same thing. Weveall learned communication through the years from our peers
  41. 41. Thank you

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