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    Romanesque architecture-1211064988506677-8 Romanesque architecture-1211064988506677-8 Presentation Transcript

    • Romanesque Architecture Revision
    • Introduction
      • This art appeared during the Middle Age
      • It is the first style that can be found all over Europe, even when regional differences
      • The expansion of the style was linked to the pilgrimages, mainly to Santiago.
    • Introduction
      • Romanesque art developed thanks to a series of causes:
        • The end of Barbarian invasions
        • The decomposition of Cordoba’s caliphate
        • The establishment of peace in
      • the Christian world, with the
      • development of the cities,
      • commerce and industry.
    • Expansion
      • The factors of the expansion of Romanesque arte were:
        • Development of feudal system,
        • that demanded works (castles)
        • The expansion of religious orders (Benedictines), expanded the monasteries
        • The pilgrimage routes
        • The crusades
    • Typologies
      • There are three main architectonical typologies:
      Churches Monasteries Castles
    • Monastery
      • It was designed as a microcosm, as the city of God
      • They had several dependencies:
        • Church
        • Cloister
        • Chapter room
        • Abbot’s house
        • Monks/ nuns rooms
        • Refectory
        • Hospital
                                                                                   
    • Church
      • It was the main building
      • It symbolized God’s kingdom
      • The holiest part was the apse
      • It had cross shape
      • Symbolism was important:
        • Circular parts reflect perfection so they were linked to God
        • Squared parts are related to the human.
    • Church
      • Characteristics:
        • Monumental, trying to imitate the Roman models in the Pilgrimage churches
        • Small in country churches
        • They were designed for advertising Catholic church
        • They were lasting, made of stone
        • Plans could be:
          • Latin cross
          • Polygonal
          • Basilical
      Latin cross Polygonal Basilical
    • Church
      • Parts of the plan
    • Church
      • Parts from the outside
    • Church
      • Elevation:
      • The church is covered by
      • stoned vaults
      • Wall are thick
      • They need strong
      • buttresses
      • Foundations are strong
      • Few windows
    • Church
      • Interior elevation: it consists of three levels:
      • First floor with columns or cross-shaped pillars
      • Second floor with the tribune (corridor over looking the nave, over the aisles)
      • Clerestory: area of windows opening to the outside.
      Column Pillar Tribune Clerestory
    • Church
      • Type of covers:
      Barrel vault: it was used mainly to cover the central nave Groin vault was common in aisles and ambulatory Dome: spherical were used in apses. The central could stand on pendentives or squinches
    • Castle
      • Castles were defensive constructions
      • They were fortified for providing shelter
      • The wall was one of the essential elements
      • They tend to be build in stepped areas, easier to defend.
    • Romanesque in France
      • It was the original region of Romanesque art
      • It appeared in Cluny’s abbey
      • From there it expanded thanks to the pilgrimage routes, specially to Santiago in Spain.
    • Romanesque in France
      • It is characterized by various vaulted styles
      • Provence: pointed domes and façades decorated with arches
      • Auvergne with long choir, side aisles around the semicircular sanctuary forming the ambulatory in which radiating chapels open
      Saint Trophime, Arles Saint Sernin Toulouse
    • Romanesque in France
      • Burgundy: barrel-vaulted, three-aisled basilica
      • Normandy: Lombard influences with groined vaults supported by flying buttresses and façades with two flanking towers.
      Sainte Magdalene, Vezelay Cluny
    • Romanesque in Italy
      • Italian provinces developed a great diversity of architectural styles
        • Lombardy with groined vaults of heavy proportions
        • Central Italy classical decorative elements: Corinthian capitals, coloured marble, open arches, colonnades and galleries and façades with sculptures
      Saint Ambroggio, Milan Saint Miniato, Florence
    • Romanesque in Italy
        • South with Byzantine and Arabic influences, using mosaics, interlaced pointed-arches.
      • Three separate buildings: church, baptistery and bell tower.
      Cefalu, Sicily Pisa Cathedral, in Tuscany, presents three separate buildings.
    • Romanesque in Germany
      • Churches were planned on a large scale
      • They used to be very high
      • They had an apse or sanctuary at each end.
      • Numerous round or octagonal towers that conferred them a picturesque silhouette.
      Laach Worms
    • Romanesque in England
      • Before the 10 th century were made of wood
      • Stone buildings were small and roughly constructed
      • The Norman Romanesque style replace the Saxon in 11 th century
    • Romanesque in England
      • Long, narrow buildings were constructed with heavy walls and piers, rectangular apses, double transepts and deeply recessed portals
      • Naves were covered with flat roofs, later replaces by vaults, and side aisles were covered with groined vaults.
    • Romanesque in Spain
      • First Romanesque: Catalonia
      • In the 11th century the region was almost assimilated to France
      • Due to this they receive the art early
      • The rest of the Spain would receive it with the pilgrimage
    • Romanesque in Spain
      • Catalan churches present, in the outside, ordered volumes
      • Wall are decorated with Lombard bands, and blind arches and galleries
      • The plan has three naves, with a small narthex
      • The head has triple apse
    • Romanesque in Spain
      • Pilgrims route to Santiago was an important route for Romanesque Art expansion.
    • Romanesque in Spain
      • Characteristics of pilgrimage churches:
        • Plan with three to five aisles and a transept
        • In the transept there are radial chapels
        • Inside there is a tribune
        • The head has ambulatory and radial chapels
    • Romanesque in Spain
      • There are polygonal buildings too
      • They are related to the Temple
      • They are inspired in Jerusalem’s Holy Sepulchre
      • Examples are Eunate, Torres del Rio (both in Navarre) and Veracruz (Segovia).
    • Romanesque in Spain
      • Castile and Leon:
      • It is deeply influenced by the pilgrimage routes
      • The churches are identified with the spirit of the Reconquist
    • Romanesque in Spain
      • Buildings are simple and small
      • It created a contrast in relation to the refined Hispano Muslin architecture.
      • They frequently have a covered area in the outside for the meetings of the councils.
    • Romanesque in Spain
      • The best examples are:
        • Santiago’s cathedral
        • Fromista
        • Sant Climent de Tahull
        • San Pere de Roda
        • San Juan de la Peña
      • There are other buildings such as castles (Loarre, in Huesca) or bridges, essential for pilgrims (Puentelarreina, Navarre)