The Retmagic Of Retman

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The Retmagic Of Retman

  1. 1. The Story of RETMAN and his RETMAGIC Author: “Aaron T. Beck” Professor, Ph.D., Daniel DAVID Babe ş -Bolyai University – International Institute for the Advanced Studies of Psychotherapy and Applied Mental Health www.psychotherapy.ro
  2. 2. Before the Story… <ul><li>Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy is one of the most powerful form of psychological interventions for health promotion and the treatment of disorders, which involve psychological factors in their etiopathogenesis. The “ ABC ” model is the cornerstone of this therapy. According to the “ ABC ” model, people experience undesirable activating events (A), about which they have rational and irrational beliefs (B). These beliefs then lead to emotional, behavioral, and cognitive consequences (C). Rational beliefs lead to functional consequences, while irrational beliefs lead to dysfunctional consequences. Clients who engage in this therapy are encouraged to actively dispute (D) their irrational beliefs and to assimilate more efficient (E), adaptive and rational beliefs, which should have a positive impact on their emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrational beliefs have been defined as beliefs that are unlikely to find objective empirical support, are not pragmatic, and reflect demandigness and/or overgeneralisation. Rational beliefs are defined as beliefs that are likely to find objective empirical support, are pragmatic, and express preferences rather than demands. Both irrational beliefs (i.e., demandigness, awfullizing/catastrophizing, frustration intolerance, global evaluation) and rational beliefs (i.e., preference, non-catastrophizing, frustration tolerance, non-global evaluation) are cognitive processes that can cover various specific contents, depending on the individual and the context. </li></ul><ul><li>Since its creation, hundreds of papers have been published focusing on the theory and practice of rational-emotive & cognitive-behavior therapy. Some studies have confirmed the main aspects of the original theory/practice, while other studies have made critical contributions to the evolution of the theory/practice (for details, see David, 2006; Dryden & DiGiuseppe, 2003). Furthermore, meta-analytic studies have supported the conclusion that rational-emotive & cognitive-behavior therapy is an empirically supported form of psychotherapy (e.g., Butler & Beck, 2000; Engles et al., 1993; Lyons & Woods, 1991). </li></ul><ul><li>Selective references : </li></ul><ul><li>Butler, A.C., & Beck, J.S. (2000). Cognitive therapy outcomes: A review of meta-analyses. Journal of the Norwegian Psychological Association, 37, 1-9. </li></ul><ul><li>David, D. (2006). Tratat de psihoterapii cognitive şi comportamentale/Handbook of cognitive and behavioral psychotherapies. Editura/Press Polirom: Iaşi. </li></ul><ul><li>Dryden, W., & DiGiuseppe, R. (2003). Ghid de terapiei raţional-emotivă şi comportamentală/A primer on rational emotive behavior therapy (traducere/transl a tion by David et al.). Editura/Press ASCR: Cluj-Napoca. </li></ul><ul><li>Engles, G.I., Garnefsky, N., & Diekstra, F.W. (1993). Efficacy of rational emotive therapy: A quantitative metaanalysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 6, 1083-1090. </li></ul><ul><li>Lyons, L.C., & Woods, P.J. (1991). The efficacy of rational-emotive therapy: A quantitative review of outcome research. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 357-369. </li></ul><ul><li>Waters, V. (2003). Poveşti raţionale pentru copii/Rational stories for children (traducere/translation by David et al.). Editura/Press ASC R : Cluj-Napoca. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Before the Story… <ul><li>RETMAN was the cartoon character of rational-emotive & cognitive-behavior therapy, invented at the Albert Ellis Institute, USA, in the ’80s, in order to disseminate easier the principles of this therapy (at that time called “ R ational- E motive T herapy” – RET) among children and adolescents. After one published cartoon magazine, the project was abandoned because the cost was to high to create the RETMAN cartoons. </li></ul><ul><li>We – a group of psychologists, artists, and designers - have picked up the initial project, because we believe that the RETMAN CONCEPT has a high potential for development today. Thus, as follows, we present a new RETMAN character ( RETMAN “reloaded”). This completely new character is a powerful one, modeled after SUPERMAN, with his own story, and wonderful adventures in his B attle with his new enemy created by us, the Malefic Wizard IRATIONALIUS. </li></ul><ul><li>Our preliminary results (David, 2006) suggest that the RETMAN CONCEPT is efficient in health promotion and treatment in children and adolescents. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>THE STORY OF RETMAN AND HIS WONDERFUL ADVENTURES </li></ul>
  5. 5. T he S tory of RETMAN Author: “Aaron T. Beck” Professor, Ph.D., Daniel DAVID <ul><li>Once upon a time, RETMAN was the leader of Planet Rationalia , in the Ataraxia System of the Galaxy of Happiness . He lived in a city called Equilibrium and he was a Great Psychotherapist Wizard . A psychotherapist is someone who helps you when you are suffering and teaches you how to be happy. The Magic that RETMAN practiced was called RETMAGIC, that is R ational E motive T herapeutic magic, and it was a good type of magic, given to RETMAN by the Almighty Creator of the World to help people and children of Rationalia be happy. </li></ul><ul><li>Planet Rationalia was an enchanted place. All people and children living there were happy, because they had everything they wanted. They were happy mainly because they only wanted what they knew was really worth having! Thus, the secret of their happiness was their way of thinking, their mind. There were five secrets to their good mind , and one of them was the Great Secret. </li></ul><ul><li>The First Secret . When they wanted something, they really, really wanted it, and did their best to get it. However, they were always ready to accept that occasionally, even though they did everything in their power, things did not work out the way they liked. Sometimes life is not only up to us. And then, even though they were a little upset, they accepted the situation, perhaps trying to correct it, or to find joy in other things (Examples from the children’s lives are discussed). </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Secret. They never said bad or negative things about themselves or about the others. They were all equally important as people, and no one was more valuable or important than the others. However, they were aware that even though they unconditionally accepted one another, there were behavioral differences among them. Some of them, because they had learned and worked harder, had more desirable and performant behaviors than others; this did not make them superior to the rest of the people and children, but gave them certain advantages, which the others accepted, as they were well deserved. (Examples from the children’s lives are discussed). </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Secret. They did not exaggerate bad things happening to them. They knew that their problems were not the worst in the world, and tried to surpass them, and appreciate the chance of having to face less serious problems than others or than there are in the world. (Examples from the children’s lives are discussed). </li></ul><ul><li>The Forth Secret. When good things happened to them, they were very happy. When bad things happened to them, they faced them patiently, knowing that happiness would come again. (Examples from the children’s lives are discussed). </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Secret was the “ ABC ”, that is, knowing that their happiness (C – emotions and behaviors) did not depend on what happened to them (A – events), but of the way they thought (B – beliefs) concerning what was going on. (Examples from the children’s lives are discussed). </li></ul><ul><li>Continued on the next page… </li></ul>
  6. 6. T he S tory of RETMAN Author: “Aaron T. Beck” Professor, Ph.D., Daniel DAVID <ul><li>Continued from the previous page… </li></ul><ul><li>Each Sunday, on TV, RETMAN taught the people and children of Rationalia the Ten Commandments of Rationality , which he had created in order to help them be happy (Children are presented the Ten Commandments of Rationality, see David, 2006). Also, in the evenings, he would tell them Rational Stories (children are told that Rational Stories are going to be red to them as well; see Rational Stories for Children by Virginia Waters, translation by David et al., 2003/2005). And so, everyone was very happy! </li></ul><ul><li>But black clouds covered the sky of Planet Rationalia . The Mighty and Fearsome Wizard IRATIONALIUS , creator of the Ten Commandments of Irrationality (Children are presented the Ten Commandments of Irrationality, see David, 2006) in order to control people and children, became envious of the happiness of the inhabitants of Rationalia, and so he stole their good mind and replaced it with a bad mind . People and children ended up believing that if they wanted something, they absolutely had to get that thing and that if they did not, it was awful, they could not stand it, and they or the others were stupid or worthless. (Examples from the children’s lives are discussed). </li></ul><ul><li>This bad mind made people and children of Rationalia quite unhappy. They started arguing amongst themselves, until the entire planet was filled by despair and evil. Then, the Almighty Creator of the World , upset with the people and children who had chosen to forever love the bad mind, destroyed them all. He only spared RETMAN , whom the Wizard IRATIONALIUS had not managed to steal the good mind , and he sent him to Planet Earth , to teach us how to be rational and happy, so that we would not end up like the people of Planet Rationalia. </li></ul><ul><li>Ever since then, RETMAN has been among us – your psychotherapist when you are in distress (trouble) – teaching us how to think rationally when we suffer. All we have to do is call him, from www.psychotherapy.ro, because sometimes he is very busy with all the people and children suffering in the world, and cannot always come to each of us when we are hurt. </li></ul><ul><li>Some say that The Mighty and Fearsome Wizard IRATIONALIUS also wants to steal the good mind of people living on Planet Earth . If you look around, you will see that he has already stolen it from some people, so we must take care of our mind, and help others, along with RETMAN , to have a good mind! </li></ul>
  7. 7. Appendix to the Story of RETMAN <ul><li>The Ten Commandments of Rationality (see the following slides) </li></ul><ul><li>The Ten Commandments of Irrationality (see the following slides) </li></ul><ul><li>Rational Stories for Children (Waters, 2003 ; see selective references ) </li></ul><ul><li>The RETMAGIC OF RETMAN cartoons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept: “Aaron T. Beck” Professor, Ph.D., Daniel DAVID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design: Salvador PINTEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text: Ioana CRISTEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RETMAN – The Good, Powerful, and Beloved Wizard Psychotherapist (see cartoon on the following slides) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to overcome depression (see cartoon on the following slides) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to overcome anxiety (see cartoon on the following slides) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to overcome anger (see cartoon on the following slides) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to overcome guilt (see cartoon on the following slides) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. The Ten Commandments of Rationality - RETMAN <ul><li>1. IT WOULD BE PERFERABLE that you succeed in everything you attempt, and do everything in your power for this to happen, BUT IF YOU DO NOT SUCEED it does not mean that you are worthless as a person, but that you’ve had a less desirable behavior, which can be improved in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>2. IT WOULD BE PERFERABLE that you succeed in everything you attempt, and do everything in your power for this to happen, BUT IF YOU DO NOT SUCCEED, remember that it is only (very) bad, not catastrophic (the worst thing that could happen to you). </li></ul><ul><li>3. IT WOULD BE PERFERABLE that you succeed in everything you attempt, and do everything in your power for this to happen, BUT IF YOU DO NOT SUCCEED, you can tolerate it, and go on enjoying life, even if it’s more difficult in the beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>4. IT WOULD BE PREFERABLE that the others be nice and/or fair to you, BUT IF THEY ARE NOT, it does not mean that your or they are worthless human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>5. IT WOULD BE PREFERABLE that the others be nice and/or fair to you, BUT IF THEY ARE NOT, remember that it is only (very) bad, not catastrophic (the worst thing that could happen to you). </li></ul><ul><li>6. IT WOULD BE PREFERABLE that the others be nice and/or fair to you, BUT IF THEY ARE NOT, you can tolerate it, and go on enjoying life, even if it’s more difficult in the beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>7. IT WOULD BE PREFERABLE that life be fair and easy, BUT IF IT IS NOT, it does not mean that you are worthless as a person, and/or that life is no good. </li></ul><ul><li>8. IT WOULD BE PREFERABLE that life be fair and easy, BUT IF IT IS NOT, remember that it is only (very) bad, not catastrophic (the worst thing that could happen to you). </li></ul><ul><li>9. IT WOULD BE PREFERABLE that life be fair and easy, BUT IF IT IS NOT, you can tolerate it, and go on enjoying life, even if it’s more difficult in the beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>10. THE ONLY THING THAT MUST BE, IS THAT NOTHING MUST ABSOLUTELLY BE! </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Holy Trinity of Madness” is: I must absolutely..., you/the others must absolutely... and life must absolutely....! </li></ul><ul><li>(David Daniel: “Handbook of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies”, Polirom: Ia şi, 2006 ) </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Ten Commandments of Irrationality - IRATIONALIUS <ul><li>1. YOU MUST succeed in everything you do, OTHERWISE you are worthless as a human being (you are unimportant/ inferior/ weak). </li></ul><ul><li>2. YOU MUST succeed in everything you do, OTHERWISE it is awful and catastrophic (the worst thing that could happen to you). </li></ul><ul><li>3. YOU MUST succeed in everything you do, OTHERWISE you cannot tolerate it (it is intolerable). </li></ul><ul><li>4. The others MUST be fair and/or nice to you, OTHERWISE you are worthless as a human being (you are unimportant/ inferior/ weak) and/or OTHERWISE they are worthless (evil). </li></ul><ul><li>5. The others MUST be fair and/or nice to you, OTHERWISE it is awful and catastrophic (the worst thing that could happen to you). </li></ul><ul><li>6. The others MUST be fair and/or nice to you, OTHERWISE you cannot tolerate it (it is intolerable). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Life MUST be fair and easy, OTHERWISE you are worthless as a human being (you are unimportant/ inferior/ weak) and/or life is no good. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Life MUST be fair and easy, OTHERWISE it is awful and catastrophic (the worst thing that could happen to you). </li></ul><ul><li>9. Life MUST be fair and easy, OTHERWISE you cannot tolerate it (it is intolerable). </li></ul><ul><li>10. I, THE OTHERS AND/ OR LIFE MUST ABSOLUTELLY… </li></ul><ul><li>(David Daniel: “Handbook of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies”, Polirom: Ia şi, 2006 ) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>THE RETMAGIC OF RETMAN AND HIS WONDERFUL ADVENTURES </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>RETMAN – The Good, Powerful, and Beloved Wizard Psychotherapist </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>THE RETMAGIC OF RETMAN </li></ul><ul><li>AGAINST DEPRESSION </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>THE RETMAGIC OF RETMAN </li></ul><ul><li>AGAINST ANXIETY </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>THE RETMAGIC OF RETMAN </li></ul><ul><li>AGAINST ANGER </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>THE RETMAGIC OF RETMAN </li></ul><ul><li>AGAINST GUILT </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>The W onderful A dventures of RETMAN and his RETMAGIC will continue… Write him to suggest new adventures! </li></ul><ul><li>You can meet RETMAN at www.psychotherapy.ro </li></ul><ul><li>and contact him at </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>And do not forget: Take control over your life! Be rational in order to be healthy and happy! </li></ul>

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