models-of-public-policy-formulation

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models-of-public-policy-formulation

  1. 1. Models of Public Policy Formulation • Why public policy formulated. • Problem identification: A set of conditions that is perceived to jeopardize the general well being of society. • Once policy problems is identified the objectives of the policy are established, usually expressed in terms of ends which are desirable. • Generally public policy is aimed at reducing problem, the objective must be acceptable to both those administering the policy and those affected by it.
  2. 2. Figure 1. Linear Model of the Public Policy process Prediction And prescription Policymaker Policy Choice Implementation Policy outcome Societal Centered Forces • Classes • Interest Groups • Parties & Voters State Centered Forces • Technocrats • Bureaucrats • State Interests Source: Meier 1991
  3. 3. Figure 2. Phases of the policy process On Agenda Not on Agenda Agenda Phase Issues Decision for Reform Decision Against reform Decision Phase Successful Implementation Unsuccessful Implementation Implementation Phase Source: Grindle & Thomas
  4. 4. Actors and their roles • Technocrats • Bureaucrats • Interest Groups • Politicians • Donors • Knowledge • Institution • Representation • Power • Influence ACTOR ROLE Source: Walt and Gilson, 1994
  5. 5. Public Policy Process /Formulation Policy Terminology Ist stage problem formation 2nd stage Policy Agenda 3rd stage Policy formulation 4th stage Policy adoption 5th stage Policy implementation 6th stage Policy Evaluation Formal Definition Relief is sought from a situation that produces a human need, deprivation, or dissatisfactio n Problems among many, that receive the governments serious attention Development of pertinent and acceptable proposed courses of action for dealing with public problems. Development of support for a specific proposal such that the policy legitimized or authorized. Application of the policy by the government’s bureaucratic machinery to the problem Attempt by the govt. to determine whether or not the policy has been effective Common sense Getting the govt. to see the problem Getting the govt. to begin to act on the problem The govt.’s proposed solution to the problem Getting the govt. to accept a particular solution to the problem Applying the govt.’s policy to the problem Did the policy work Source: Public Policy and Politics in America by James E. Anderson etal
  6. 6. Public Policy Formulation – Mostly policies suffer at this stage due to reasons: 1.Insufficient number of well trained personnel and inadequate resources. ►In other words for the successful implementation of the policy there should be equilibrium between the objectives and resources. 1.Cultural dichotomy between traditional and modern forces. • Evaluation
  7. 7. Model of public policy formulation and evaluation A problems perceived A set of policy objective established The consequences of Alternative Strategies are estimated The preferred Strategy of Plan implemented The consequences of the implemented Plan are investigated EvaluationofStrategies Formative Summative Evaluationofperformance Alternative strategies to attain The objectives are identified
  8. 8. Figure2. Refined Model of public policy formulation and evaluation A problems perceived A set of policy objective established The consequences of Alternative Strategies are estimated The preferred Strategy of Plan implemented The consequences of the implemented Plan are investigated Evaluationof Strategies Formative Summative Evaluationofperformance Alternative strategies to attain The objectives are identified Empirical Analysis of the nature/Extent /Magnitude of the problems A range of potential policy Objective is outlined Formative Evaluationof Strategies Summative Evaluationofperformance
  9. 9. Factor that influence Public Policy Implementation: • Environmental factors: – Policy making can’t be adequately understood without understanding environmental factors. – These are: • Political Culture • Public Opinion • Social System • Economic system.
  10. 10. Factor that influence Public Policy Implementation • Political culture: – Political culture refers to the set of political beliefs and values that sustain any political system. And it is the political system that determines the decision making. – In political culture, goodness, badness, desirability and undesirability of good action or bad action. – Sociologist Robin Williams has described “major value orientation” in America society such as individual freedom, equity, progress and efficiency. These values and other such as democracy, individualism, humanitarianism and material achievements have significance for policy making.
  11. 11. Political Culture – Political cultures differs from society to society due to patterns of development, environmental conditions and historical factors. – It is political culture within which decision making occurs. – In democratic culture official are hold accountable – Old adage “People have right to be heard and official have a duty to hear. – Such conditions contribute towards the existence of “participatory culture”
  12. 12. Public Opinion • Public opinion refers to the expression of public attitudes or beliefs about current social, economic and political issues. • The articulation of opinion depends on the type of political culture. • The articulation of public opinion is determined by the public interest which in most cases is not applied equally. • While examining the impact of public opinion on policy making V.O Key observes: “Many, if not most, policy decisions by legislatures and by other authorities exercising broad discretion are made under circumstances in which extremely small proportions of the general public have any awareness of the particular issue, much less any understanding of the consequences of the decision.
  13. 13. Social System • Societies are not generally homogenous, rather consist of groups social groups with varying degree of social, political and economic influence. • In pluralist society such groups can mount heavy pressure on the political system. • And serve as major source of demands for policy making.
  14. 14. Economic system • Economic activities varies from society to society. Some society have very simple economic system but some have very complex one such as US. • Economic activities are major source of conflict in modern societies. • And those possess economic means control political power. • In most of the societies the policy making is the elite activity and policies are fashioned in way that reflects elite aspiration.
  15. 15. Micro and Macro politics • Micropolitics – Refers to the attempts made by particular companies or communities to secure favorable govt. action for their own. – Micropolitics involves groups or communities at grassroots level • Macropolitics – It involves the community as whole and the leaders of the govt. in the formation of public policy. – The participants in the macropolitical arena include president, executive departments , MP’s and communication and media persons.
  16. 16. Actors in decision making • Governmental – Executive – Legislature – Judiciary • Non-governmental – Civil Society and NGO • International – Countries and International Institutions such as UN, IMF, World Bank and etc.
  17. 17. Conclusion Conclusion

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