Introduction to Financial
      Accounting,

       Nayyar Raza Kazmi
Accounting: The Language
      of Business
Introduction
x   Accounting - a process of identifying, recording,
    summarizing, and reporting economic
    information...
The Nature of Accounting
x   The accounting system is a series of steps
    performed to analyze, record, quantify,
    ac...
The Nature of Accounting
x   Accounting systems are designed to meet the
    needs of the decisions makers who use the
   ...
Accounting as an Aid to
              Decision Making
x   Accounting information is useful to anyone who
    makes decisio...
Accounting as an Aid to
            Decision Making
x   Fundamental relationships in the decision-making
    process:



 ...
Financial and Management
              Accounting
x   The major distinction between financial and
    management accountin...
Financial and Management
          Accounting
The primary questions about an organization’s
success that decision makers w...
Financial and Management
            Accounting
  Accountants answer these primary questions with
  three major financial ...
Financial and Management
              Accounting
x   Annual report - a document prepared by
    management and distribute...
Financial and Management
              Accounting
x   The annual report usually includes:
    • a letter from corporate ma...
The Balance Sheet
x Whatare the different sections of the
 Balance Sheet?
The Balance Sheet
Sections of the balance sheet:
x   Assets - resources of the firm that are expected to
    increase or c...
The Balance Sheet
The balance sheet equation:

  Assets = Liabilities + Owners’ Equity
                     or
  Owners’ E...
The Balance Sheet
                               HAMILTON COMPANY
                                     Balance Sheet
     ...
Balance Sheet Transactions
x The balance sheet is affected by every transaction
  that an entity encounters.
x Each transa...
Balance Sheet Transactions
x   Just as the balance sheet equation must always
    balance, the balance sheet must also alw...
Transaction Analysis
x Transactions are recorded in accounts, which are
  summary records of the changes in particular
  a...
Transaction Analysis
x   For each transaction, the accountant must
    determine:
    • which specific accounts are affect...
Transaction Analysis
Some definitions to remember:
x   Inventory - goods held by a firm for resale to customers
x   Accoun...
Types of Ownership
x Three   basic forms of ownership:
  • Sole proprietorships
  • Partnerships
  • Corporations
Types of Ownership
              Sole Proprietorship
x A separate organization with a single owner
x Tend to be small reta...
Types of Ownership
                   Partnership
x An organization that joins two or more individuals
  who act as co-own...
Types of Ownership
                      Corporation
x An “artificial entity” created under state laws
x Corporations have...
Types of Ownership
                      Corporation
x Owners are called shareholders or stockholders.
x Publicly owned vs...
Types of Ownership
Management by the owners:
x Sole proprietorship - The owner is an active
  manager in day-to-day operat...
Advantages and Disadvantages
       of Forms of Ownership
Corporations
x   Advantages
    • limited liability
    • easy t...
Advantages and Disadvantages
       of Forms of Ownership
Corporations
x   Disadvantages
    • possibility of double taxat...
Advantages and Disadvantages
       of Forms of Ownership
Proprietorships and Partnerships
x   Advantages
    • no taxatio...
Advantages and Disadvantages
       of Forms of Ownership
Proprietorships and Partnerships
x   Disadvantages
    • unlimit...
Accounting for Owners’ Equity
Proprietorships and Partnerships vs. Corporations
x Owners’ equities for proprietorships and...
Accounting for Owners’ Equity
x In a corporation, the total capital investment
  actively invested by the owners at the in...
Credibility and the Role of
                Auditing
x   Corporate management is responsible for
    preparing the financi...
Credibility and the Role of
                 Auditing
x   One way to ensure that the financial statements are
    credible...
Stockholders and the
             Board of Directors
x   In the corporate form of business, management
    activities and ...
Stockholders and the
            Board of Directors
x   The relationship among owners, managers, and
    the board of dire...
Stockholders and the
             Board of Directors
x   The board of directors is elected by the
    stockholders.
    • ...
The Certified Public Accountant
x   Providing credibility to financial statements
    requires individuals who have:
    •...
The Auditor’s Opinion
x   Audit - an examination of transactions and
    financial statements made in accordance with
    ...
The Auditor’s Opinion
x   The audit is described in the auditor’s opinion.
    • The auditor’s opinion is also known as th...
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Introduction to financial accounting

  1. 1. Introduction to Financial Accounting, Nayyar Raza Kazmi
  2. 2. Accounting: The Language of Business
  3. 3. Introduction x Accounting - a process of identifying, recording, summarizing, and reporting economic information to decision makers in the form of financial statements x Financial accounting - focuses on the specific needs of decision makers external to the organization, such as stockholders, suppliers, banks, and government agencies
  4. 4. The Nature of Accounting x The accounting system is a series of steps performed to analyze, record, quantify, accumulate, summarize, classify, report, and interpret economic events and their effects on an organization and to prepare the financial statements.
  5. 5. The Nature of Accounting x Accounting systems are designed to meet the needs of the decisions makers who use the financial information. x Every business has some sort of accounting system. • These accounting systems may be very complex or very simple, but the real value of any accounting system lies in the information that the system provides.
  6. 6. Accounting as an Aid to Decision Making x Accounting information is useful to anyone who makes decisions that have economic results. • Managers want to know if a new product will be profitable. • Owners want to know which employees are productive. • Investors want to know if a company is a good investment. • Legislators want to know how a proposed law will affect budgets. • Creditors want to know if they should extend credit, how much to extend, and for how long. • Government regulators want to know if financial statements conform to requirements.
  7. 7. Accounting as an Aid to Decision Making x Fundamental relationships in the decision-making process: Accountant’s Financial Event analysis & Users Statements recording
  8. 8. Financial and Management Accounting x The major distinction between financial and management accounting is the users of the information. • Financial accounting serves external users. • Management accounting serves internal users, such as top executives, management, and administrators within organizations.
  9. 9. Financial and Management Accounting The primary questions about an organization’s success that decision makers want to know are: What is the financial picture of the organization on a given day? How well did the organization do during a given period?
  10. 10. Financial and Management Accounting Accountants answer these primary questions with three major financial statements. x Balance Sheet - financial picture on a given day x Income Statement - performance over a given period x Statement of Cash Flows - performance over a given period
  11. 11. Financial and Management Accounting x Annual report - a document prepared by management and distributed to current and potential investors to inform them about the company’s past performance and future prospects. • The annual report is one of the most common sources of financial information used by investors and managers.
  12. 12. Financial and Management Accounting x The annual report usually includes: • a letter from corporate management • a discussion and analysis of recent economic events by management • footnotes that explain many elements of the financial statements in more detail • the report of the independent auditors • a statement of management’s responsibility for preparation of the financial statements • other corporate information
  13. 13. The Balance Sheet x Whatare the different sections of the Balance Sheet?
  14. 14. The Balance Sheet Sections of the balance sheet: x Assets - resources of the firm that are expected to increase or cause future cash flows (everything the firm owns) x Liabilities - obligations of the firm to outsiders or claims against its assets by outsiders (debts of the firm) x Owners’ Equity - the residual interest in, or remaining claims against, the firm’s assets after deducting liabilities (rights of the owners)
  15. 15. The Balance Sheet The balance sheet equation: Assets = Liabilities + Owners’ Equity or Owners’ Equity = Assets - Liabilities
  16. 16. The Balance Sheet HAMILTON COMPANY Balance Sheet December 31, 1997 Assets Liabilities Current assets: Current liabilities: Cash $ 4,525 Accounts payable $ 9,800 Accounts receivable 2,040 Wages payable 3,765 Total current assets $ 6,565 Total liabilities $13,565 Plant assets: Land $ 9,755 Equipment 6,500 Owners’ Equity Total plant assets 16,255 Hamilton, capital 9,255 Total liabilities and Total assets $22,820 Owners’ equity $22,820 ============= =============
  17. 17. Balance Sheet Transactions x The balance sheet is affected by every transaction that an entity encounters. x Each transaction has counterbalancing entries that keep total assets equal to total liabilities and owners’ equity, i.e., the balance sheet equation must always be balanced.
  18. 18. Balance Sheet Transactions x Just as the balance sheet equation must always balance, the balance sheet must also always balance. x A balance sheet could be prepared after every transaction, but this practice would be awkward and unnecessary. • Therefore, balance sheets are usually prepared monthly or on some other periodic schedule.
  19. 19. Transaction Analysis x Transactions are recorded in accounts, which are summary records of the changes in particular assets, liabilities, or owners’ equity. x The account balance is the total of all entries to the account.
  20. 20. Transaction Analysis x For each transaction, the accountant must determine: • which specific accounts are affected • whether the account balances are increased or decreased • the amount of the change in each account
  21. 21. Transaction Analysis Some definitions to remember: x Inventory - goods held by a firm for resale to customers x Account payable - a liability that results from the purchase of goods or services on account x Compound entry - a transaction that affects more than two accounts x Creditor - one to whom money is owed x Debtor - one who owes money
  22. 22. Types of Ownership x Three basic forms of ownership: • Sole proprietorships • Partnerships • Corporations
  23. 23. Types of Ownership Sole Proprietorship x A separate organization with a single owner x Tend to be small retail establishments and individual professional or service business - for example, a single dentist, attorney, or public accountant x The sole proprietorship is an individual entity that is separate and distinct from the owner.
  24. 24. Types of Ownership Partnership x An organization that joins two or more individuals who act as co-owners x Dentists, doctors, attorneys, and accountants tend to conduct their activities as partnerships. Some can be large international firms. x The partnership is an individual entity that is separate and distinct from each of the partners.
  25. 25. Types of Ownership Corporation x An “artificial entity” created under state laws x Corporations have limited liability - corporate creditors have claims against corporate assets only. • Individual investors are at risk only up to the amount they have invested in the corporation. Creditors cannot hold investors liable for the corporation’s debts.
  26. 26. Types of Ownership Corporation x Owners are called shareholders or stockholders. x Publicly owned vs. privately owned corporations • Public - Shares in the ownership are sold to the public on a stock exchange; the corporation can have many thousands of shareholders. • Private - Shares in the ownership are owned by families, small groups of shareholders, or a single shareholder, and shares are not sold to the public.
  27. 27. Types of Ownership Management by the owners: x Sole proprietorship - The owner is an active manager in day-to-day operation of the business. x Partnership - Partners are usually active managers in day-to-day operations of the business. x Corporation - Shareholders usually do not participate in the day-to-day operations of the business.
  28. 28. Advantages and Disadvantages of Forms of Ownership Corporations x Advantages • limited liability • easy transfer of ownership - shares of stock can be bought and sold easily (stock exchanges) • ease of raising ownership capital - many potential stockholders • continuity of existence - life of the corporation continues even if its ownership changes
  29. 29. Advantages and Disadvantages of Forms of Ownership Corporations x Disadvantages • possibility of double taxation - corporation pays tax at the entity level and its owners pay taxes on distributions of earnings to them
  30. 30. Advantages and Disadvantages of Forms of Ownership Proprietorships and Partnerships x Advantages • no taxation at the entity level - income of sole proprietorship and partnership is attributed to the owners as individual taxpayers
  31. 31. Advantages and Disadvantages of Forms of Ownership Proprietorships and Partnerships x Disadvantages • unlimited liability - creditors of the business can look to the owners’ personal assets for repayment • not easy to transfer ownership • not easy to raise ownership capital - few, if any individuals interested in a particular proprietorship or partnership • no continuity of existence - changes in ownership terminate the proprietorship or partnership
  32. 32. Accounting for Owners’ Equity Proprietorships and Partnerships vs. Corporations x Owners’ equities for proprietorships and partnerships are called capital. x Owners’ equity for a corporation is called stockholders’ equity or shareholders’ equity.
  33. 33. Accounting for Owners’ Equity x In a corporation, the total capital investment actively invested by the owners at the inception of the company and subsequently is called paid- in capital. x Paid-in capital consists of two parts: • capital stock at par value • paid-in capital in excess of par value (additional paid- in capital)
  34. 34. Credibility and the Role of Auditing x Corporate management is responsible for preparing the financial statement. Management may have incentives to make the company’s performance look better than it actually is. • Investors must be able to rely on managers to tell the truth and the financial statements to show an accurate picture of the company.
  35. 35. Credibility and the Role of Auditing x One way to ensure that the financial statements are credible is to introduce an independent, expert third party. The auditor examines the information used by management to prepare the financial statements and attests to the credibility of those statements. x Another way to ensure that the financial statements are credible is to make misrepresenting information in financial statements illegal.
  36. 36. Stockholders and the Board of Directors x In the corporate form of business, management activities and ownership activities are kept separate. x The board of directors is the link between the owners (stockholders) and the actual managers. • The board has the responsibility to ensure that management acts in the interests of the stockholders.
  37. 37. Stockholders and the Board of Directors x The relationship among owners, managers, and the board of directors: Stockholders Elect Board of Directors Appoint Managers
  38. 38. Stockholders and the Board of Directors x The board of directors is elected by the stockholders. • Often, top executives (president, vice presidents, etc.) are elected to the board of directors x Management is appointed by the board of directors x Therefore, the interests of both the stockholders and management are usually represented on the board of directors.
  39. 39. The Certified Public Accountant x Providing credibility to financial statements requires individuals who have: • the technical knowledge to assess financial statements and determine their quality • the reputation for integrity and honestly telling interested parties if management has not produced fair financial statements x The accounting profession has such individuals.
  40. 40. The Auditor’s Opinion x Audit - an examination of transactions and financial statements made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards developed primarily by the AICPA x An audit includes: • tests of the accounting records • tests of the internal control system • other audit procedures as deemed necessary
  41. 41. The Auditor’s Opinion x The audit is described in the auditor’s opinion. • The auditor’s opinion is also known as the independent opinion or the independent auditor’s report. • The auditor’s opinion is included with the financial statements of the organization being examined.
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