PROJECT onPublic health policy
Name of the Student :DrMatin Ahmad Khan
Enrolment No : 2011/SEP/SOPHM-MPH1/1075
4. Describe the steps you will follow to prepare a policy for physical safety of women
I will follow the following steps to prepare a policy for physical safety of women.
i) Agenda Setting
An issue is considered as being on an agenda when it is commonly perceived as something with public merit.
There are two levels of attention that an issue can receive that determine its agenda. If the issue is not being
considered by policy-makers, but is considered by the political system overall as something deserving attention,
the issue is said to be on the systemic agenda. Once the issue has received attention from a policy-maker, it is
considered to be on the institutional agenda. Items on the systemic agenda are basically in the "discussion
stage" - there's a lot of people talking about the issue, but nothing is being done. Once the issue reaches the
institutional agenda, it is receiving the attention of someone with authority to make policy who is attempting to
turn the issue into a policy issue.
This is typically the first step that an issue takes on its way to becoming a policy. This is understandable,
because an issue is not going to become public policy if the issue does not have someone's attention. During this
stage, the issue has been perceived as a public problem (possible because of societal changes), people have
discussed the issue to try to pin it down and define the problem, the interested parties have mobilized to attempt
to move the issue from the systemic to the institutional agenda, and, finally, the issue has the active attention of
Statement of problem
In 2012, two high-profile cases ignited public outrage in their nations, which spread around the world: the
shooting of Pakistani schoolgirl and girls' education activist MalalaYousafzai, and the gang-rape on a bus and
tragic death of a 23-year-old student in New Delhi. In every region around the world, countless other cases
occurred that did not make global headlines.
Women and girls are frequently subject to violence and abuse – from physical and verbal harassment to assault
and rape – on city streets, public transportation or in their own neighborhoods. Such daily occurrences limit the
rights and freedoms of women as equal citizens to enjoy their neighborhoods and cities.
Many survivors do not report violence for fear of further violence by the perpetrator, their family, or the
community and because of the harmful stigmas wrongfully attached to experiences of violence. The justice
sector should work to enhance survivor safety at all stages through development of safety and confidentiality
protocols for formal and informal sector personnel, use of risk-assessment guides (in particular for perpetrator
programmes), design of secure spaces for women and girl survivors to report abuse and obtain support, and
provision of free legal assistance to survivors so as to facilitate access to justice.
Many girls and women experience violence and feel unsafe. 12% of all women in the Netherlands have at
some time been raped, compared with 3% of the male population.
Each year, there are more than a million cases of domestic violence in the Netherlands. Most of the victims are
women and almost all the perpetrators are men. Part of the reason is that women are not as powerful, and are
traditionally cast in inferior roles.
There is no city or country in the world where women and girls live free of the fear of violence. No leader can
claim: this is not happening in my backyard.
Whether walking city streets, using public transport, going to school, or selling goods at the market, women and
girls are subject to the threat of sexual harassment and violence. This reality of daily life limits women's
freedom to get an education, to work, to participate in politics – or to simply enjoy their own neighbourhoods.
Yet despite its prevalence, violence and harassment against women and girls in public spaces remains a largely
neglected issue, with few laws or policies in place to address it.
The overall goal is to have a policy for sustainablesystem of services available for physical safety of women .
To reduce incidence of physical atrocities against women
To identify early the causes for their physical vulnerability
To provide a sustainable continuum of services
To increase integration of service delivery
ii) Formulation :
By brainstorming and discussing among policy makers to decide whether or not to make an official policy on
the issue. If the policymakers decides not to make any decision (thus, not codifying an official stance on the
issue), this is still a policy, a policy of non-decision. Depending on the seriousnature of this issue, the
policymaker could be in parliament , the cabinet , or in an agency.
Interest groups that of NGOs working in the field of woman safety, that of parliamentarians, legislators Social
workers , may be involved, with some even making specific proposals for legislation. This is the step that has
the most potential for using a decision making model such as the rational-comprehensive model. It is at these
early stages of policy making that intelligence can be more important than politics. It is at this stage that policies
can have their goals set and alternatives sought and evaluated. Whether such intense attention is given to the
formulation stage is to be debated.
They define theoptions available ,their values as to which options are most consistent with our objectives and
our principles/ values For each issue, what are the realistic policy options (or opportunities)? What are the
arguments against options? Is more information needed to assess the options
Then they will assessing the options ,what are key criteria for good policy? Its Legitimacy, Feasibility –
whether affordable ,will it make difference ,communicability –can it be explained ,its supportability
Once the legislation has been drafted, the written proposals are now ready to enter the adoption stage.
Recently ,in Dublin, around 600 delegates – from mayors to leaders from the private sector and civil society –
are gathered for the eighth forum of the World Alliance of Cities Against Poverty. They have come from all
over the world to discuss innovative approaches to make cities smart, safe and sustainable.
One approach is the Safe Cities global initiative. This partnership of municipal governments, local communities
and organisations, and the UN, is working to make urban environments safer for women and girls.
Initially launched by UN Women and UN-Habitat with five pilot cities – Cairo, Egypt; Kigali, Rwanda; New
Delhi, India; Quito, Ecuador; and Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea – the initiative has expanded to more than
20 cities and continues to grow.
One of the most important lessons we have learned is that each city is unique and requires a local response. This
can only be achieved by conducting a diagnostic study with data and evidence, and engaging community
members. Cities have taken actions to improving the lighting and design of streets and buildings, training and
sensitizing police, and hiring more women police officers. These practical responses can make a world of
A diagnostic study in New Delhi, for instance, revealed that a common strategy against harassment was to
simply keep girls and women at home. One girl explained: "If we tell our parents about boys harassing us, they
would blame us only and say that it is our fault … Our parents might even stop us going out of the house."
Findings like this spur action, since keeping women and girls home is not a solution. Residents organised
community collectives to build awareness, report crimes, and work with authorities to improve public safety
In Quito, women were encouraged to break the silence about their experiences through the Cartas de Mujeres
(Letters from Women) campaign and a study was undertaken. The city government amended the ordinance on
eliminating violence against women to include violence in public spaces. The government received around
In Port Moresby, 55% of women market vendors reported experiencing violence in the previous year. In
response, local authorities are working with a women's market vendors association to take action.
In Cairo, the national government adopted women's safety audits whereby local women identify safety and
security conditions in their neighbourhoods, which are incorporated into urban planning.
In Rio de Janeiro, communities are identifying safety risks in 10 of the cities' high-risk slums (favelas). Trained
women and adolescent girls used their smartphones to map safety risks such as faulty infrastructure or services,
obscured walking routes, and lack of lighting. These initial findings were presented to local authorities, and are
being used to develop solutions.UN Women is partnering with Microsoft to find ways to use mobile technology
to stop sexual harassment and violence in public spaces.Further efforts are expected to develop through a
partnership between UN Women and the United Cities and Local Governments organisation. Efforts will focus
on collecting local data on female political participation, and expanding successful Safe Cities activities.
As more and more women, men and young people raise their voices and become active in local government,
and more local leaders take action for the safety of women and girls, change happens.
By including women in decision-making, city governments will be in a better position to fulfill their
responsibility to ensure the safety of their residents, especially women and girls.
Making life safer for girls and women
The government shouldaim to make life safer for girls and women by:increasing their willingness to
lodge a criminal complaint with the police after suffering sexual and other violence, for example by
improving the information provided in schools;improving the registration of discrimination against
women;increasing the penalties for violence motivated by discrimination;making particularly vulnerable
groups safer and more psychologically resilient.
Safety of teenagers
Girls need to be able to feel safe on the streets, in their neighbourhoods and at school. Some groups are at
greater risk than others. For example, girls in secondary vocational education (MBO) experience five
times as much sexual harassment as those in the more academic types of secondary education (HAVO and
Challenging gender stereotypes
Stereotyped thinking about gender roles and male-female differences is reinforced by the media. To
challenge the sexualised images projected by the media, learning packages have been produced for use in
sex education and media literacy classes in secondary schools. Our society is now so dominated by the
media that schoolchildren need to learn how to find, understand and evaluate information from other
sources. These lessons can also serve to forewarn and forearm girls against, say, falling into the hands of
online or flesh-and-blood ‗loverboy‘ pimps.
Making teenagers more resilient
The government wants both boys and girls to know how to stand up for themselves, set their own limits in
relationships and respect other people‘s limits. Since teenagers often seek support via friends and online,
the government intends to communicate with them via social media and existing youth networks. Parents,
educators and professionals will be involved, but young people themselves will have an important part to
play in this.
Domestic violence and honour-related violence
Every year, over a million people in the Netherlands face domestic violence. Women are particularly at
risk of violence from present or former partners. Honour-related violence or honour crimes occur mainly
in traditionally minded non-Western immigrant communities, in which family honour and shame are
Breaking through the culture of silence surrounding domestic violence and honour-related abuse
A culture of silence still surrounds domestic violence and honour-related violence in the Netherlands. The
government intends to change this and encourage people to speak out. One way of doing this is via
effective public education in which women themselves play a leading role. For example, with the support
of the Ministry of Security and Justice, the Dutch Women‘s Council (NVR) organises meetings to
stimulate discussion of domestic violence. The government supports this initiative and similar activities.
Social participation of vulnerable women
Social participation makes vulnerable women stronger and more independent. With the support of buddies
or coaches, they can be guided into some type of social participation appropriate to their background and
capacities. This may take the form of paid employment, but may also be training to increase their chances
in the labour market. In this respect, cooperation will be sought wherever possible with the business
At this step, the issue has moved away from intellectual exercises, and is about to be backed by the legitimate
authority of the government. This is also, therefore, the step in which political pressures come to play most
heavily. During adoption is when there is the most lobbying, bargaining and compromise. The influences upon
the decision-maker include, but are not limited to, his own values, his political party affiliation, the interests of
his constituents, public opinion, and what is in the public interest. It is also upon this step, that many of the
political theories disagree. The pluralists would say that the policymaker is supposed to be a neutral observer
who declares which of the struggling coalition of groups has won the battle. The elitists say that the way the
policymaker decides will be based upon the wishes of the ruling-class elite. The rational-choice theory says that
the policymaker will vote according to whatever fits his best self-interest, ignoring any such concepts of public
interest if it does not benefit him. All of these theories seem to present an incomplete picture of the adoption
stage. Once the smoke has cleared, and the final decision has been made as to the wording and goals of the
policy, it is now ready to be implemented The following policies may be discussed and adopted taking cues
from international experiences :
Ratify international and regional treaties … that protect the rights of women and girls, and ensure
that national laws and services meet international human rights standards.The Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) can be a powerful tool for
Adopt and enforce laws …
to end impunity, bring perpetrators of violence against women and girls to justice and provide women
with reparations and remedy for the violations perpetrated against them. In Brazil, the ―Maria da Penha
Law on Domestic and Family Violence,‖ has led to 331,000 prosecutions and 110,000 final judgments,
and nearly two million calls to the Service Center for Women. The Government of Mexico takes a
transformative approach to reparations for the families of the women of Ciudad Juárez..
Develop national and local action plans …
for ending violence against women and girls in every country that bring the government, women‘s and
other civil society organizations, the mass media and the private sector into a coordinated, collective
front against such human rights violations.The Palestinian Cabinet Endorses National Strategy to
Combat Violence against Women in the occupied Palestinian territory the first of its kind in the Arab
region developed through a bottom-up approach.The Handbook for National Action Plans on Violence
against Womenpresents a model framework, along with detailed recommendations and best practices.
Make justice accessible to women and girls …by providing free legal and specialized services, and
increasing women in law enforcement and frontline services.
The Gender Desk in Rwandan National Police Headquarters trains police personnel to address sexual
and gender-based violence.Multi-Province Project on Ending Violence against Women in
Afghanistan criminalizes customs, traditions and practices that inflict harm against women, and
increases protection services for survivors of violence.
End impunity towards conflict-related sexual violence …
by prosecuting perpetrators in conflict and post-conflict contexts and fulfilling survivors‘ right to
comprehensive reparations programmes that are non-stigmatizing and have a transformative impact on
women and girls‘ lives.Liberia tackles the legacy of violence against women
Since the adoption of the groundbreaking UN Security Council resolution 1325 on women, peace and
security in October 2000, the Security Council subsequently adopted four other resolutions on the
subject: 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009) and 1960 (2010).Download the UN Security Council
Resolution Poster to learn more.
Ensure universal access to critical services …
at a minimum, women‘s and girls‘ emergency and immediate needs should be met through free 24-hour
hotlines, prompt intervention for their safety and protection, safe housing and shelter for them and their
children, counseling and psycho-social support, post-rape care, and free legal aid to understand their
rights and options.Targeted violence against women and girls in Afghanistan is back at an alarming
level. Sosan‘s story: Domestic Violence in Afghanistan looks at a shelter where women find refuge and
Train providers of frontline services …
especially the police, lawyers and judges, social workers and health personnel to ensure that they follow
quality standards and protocols. Services should be confidential, sensitive and convenient to women
survivors. Affecting almost 70 percent of women at some point in their lifetime, violence has become
pandemic in Kenya. Watch the video Breaking the Silence: Kenyatta National Hospital Addresses
Gender-Based Violence. Police and judges are being sensitized about gender based violence in the
Southern Cone.Comprehensive health sector approach towards ending violence against women at the
Virtual Knowledge Centre.
Provide adequate public resources…
to implement existing laws and policies, recognizing the devastating costs and consequences of violence
against women not only for the lives directly affected, but to society and the economy at large, and to
public budgets.Gender-sensitive budgeting leads to Women‘s Centre in Uruguayoffering workshops on
gender-based violence, language and skills-building classes, legal assistance and more.
Collect, analyze and disseminate national data…
on prevalence, causes and consequences of violence against women and girls, profiles of survivors and
perpetrators, and progress and gaps in the implementation of national policies, plans and laws.
Gender-based violence study in Morocco reveals that approximately 60 percent of Moroccan women
have experienced some form of violence recently, and violence against women is three times more likely
in urban areas than in rural ones.Together for Girls, a global effort to prevent sexual violence against
girls, of which UN Women is a partner, makes an urgent call for national surveys. The alarming finding
in Swaziland—one-third of girls have experienced sexual violence—spurred a national education
campaign, strengthening of the capacity of police to respond to sexual violence, and the establishment of
a child-friendly court. Access data on prevalence, laws and more at Progress of the World‘s Women
and Violence against Women Prevalence Data: Surveys by Country.
Invest in gender equality and women’s empowerment …
to tackle the root causes of violence against women and girls. Strategic areas are girls‘ secondary
education, advancing women‘s reproductive health and rights, addressing the inter-linkages of violence
with HIV and AIDS, and increasing women‘s political and economic participation and leadership.
Gender equality and ending violence against women must be placed squarely at the heart of achieving
the Millennium Development Goals. (MDGs) Up to three quarters of women and girls worldwide
experience physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. The MDGs and Gender Seriescautions, unless
violence against women is curbed, meeting all of the eight Millennium Development Goals will be
Enhance women’s economic empowerment …
by ensuring women‘s rights to own land and property, to inheritance, equal pay for equal work, and safe
and decent employment. Women‘s unequal economic and employment opportunities are a major factor
in perpetuating their entrapment in situations of violence, exploitation and abuse.In a land torn apart by
years of bitter conflict, the daily struggle to survive is an ongoing battle. Feeding the family is a constant
challenge.Bread Winner, Bread Maker tells the story of some inspirational women who are bringing
hope to thousands in the occupied Palestinian territory.Millions of women work overseas each year and
endure abuse and exploitation. On the Move: Nepal‘s Women Migrant Workers fight for their rights.
Increase public awareness and social mobilization …
to stop violence against women and girls, and to enable women and girls subjected to violence to break
the silence and seek justice and support.With over 2 million actions and 600 partners, Say NO –
UNiTEto End Violence against Women offers a global platform for information, action and social
mobilization. Visit www.saynotoviolence.org and post your action today!
Engage the mass media …
in shaping public opinion and challenging the harmful gender norms that perpetuate violence against
women and girls.Radio series and public campaign builds mutual understanding between men and
women for lives free of violence in Nepal.
The Most Understanding Husband Competition, a unique initiative, provides positive male role models.
Work for and with young people as champions of change …
to end violence against women, and ensure that educational systems empower girls and boys to
transform and build gender relations based on harmony, mutual respect and non-violence.
The UN Secretary-General calls upon young people everywhere to say NO to violence against women
With a UN Trust Fund grant, Cambodian youth lead the way for lives free of violence.
Teenagers in Nairobi‘s Ngara Girls High School take a stand against sexual and gender-based violence.
Mobilize men and boys …
of all ages and walks of life to take a stand against violence against women and girls, and foster equality
and gender solidarity.Activists from Men for Gender Equality Now (MEGEN) travel through Kenya to
speak to other men about the importance of stopping violence against women and building peaceful
communities. Adolescents, are rejecting violence and promoting new masculinities.Resources on how to
engage men and boys at the Global Virtual Knowledge Centre.
The policy has now gone from general discussion among the general population into codified statements
giving the authority and approval to take the steps necessary to turn the policy from paper into action. Once
the policy has appropriations (the money necessary to enforce the policy), it usually goes to the appropriate
agency. There some instances where other institutions are involved in implementation (e.g. the courts
implementing the Acts, or pressure groups assisting with licensing boards), most implementation falls to the
American bureaucracy. An entire book could be written concerning the politics and procedures involved
within bureaucracies. But to save space, it could simply be said that bureaucracies are involved in the
interpretation and refinement of the policy once they get it. This is because, the version of the policy
received by the bureaucracy is full of vagueness (introduced during the compromises in parliament), and
nebulous statements need to be turned into concrete actions before the policy can be implemented.
v) Evaluation and Feedback –
Problems are bound to arise once the policy is actually being implemented. People may object to the
interpretations the bureaucracy has made in its implementation. It may be found that the cost of implementing
the policy far outweighs the benefits received from it. The implementation of the policy may have consequences
that were unforeseen by the legislators and bureaucracy (e.g. increasing the military budget leading to wasteful
spending). And there will usually be some interest that feels they have been "slighted" by a policy, and they
want to make their voice heard.
In addition, the bureaucracy, itself, does formal evaluations upon its performance for inspection by Congress or
other policymakers. They check to see if their performance is not only efficient, but also if their actions are
All of this information feeds back into the government and could end up on the agenda again to be interpreted
as a new public problem. The cycle would then begin again.