147980121 project-on-public-health-policy(1)


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147980121 project-on-public-health-policy(1)

  1. 1. PROJECT onPublic health policy Program MPH Name of the Student :DrMatin Ahmad Khan Enrolment No : 2011/SEP/SOPHM-MPH1/1075 4. Describe the steps you will follow to prepare a policy for physical safety of women Ans : I will follow the following steps to prepare a policy for physical safety of women. i) Agenda Setting An issue is considered as being on an agenda when it is commonly perceived as something with public merit. There are two levels of attention that an issue can receive that determine its agenda. If the issue is not being considered by policy-makers, but is considered by the political system overall as something deserving attention, the issue is said to be on the systemic agenda. Once the issue has received attention from a policy-maker, it is considered to be on the institutional agenda. Items on the systemic agenda are basically in the "discussion stage" - there's a lot of people talking about the issue, but nothing is being done. Once the issue reaches the institutional agenda, it is receiving the attention of someone with authority to make policy who is attempting to turn the issue into a policy issue. This is typically the first step that an issue takes on its way to becoming a policy. This is understandable, because an issue is not going to become public policy if the issue does not have someone's attention. During this stage, the issue has been perceived as a public problem (possible because of societal changes), people have discussed the issue to try to pin it down and define the problem, the interested parties have mobilized to attempt to move the issue from the systemic to the institutional agenda, and, finally, the issue has the active attention of some policymaker Statement of problem In 2012, two high-profile cases ignited public outrage in their nations, which spread around the world: the shooting of Pakistani schoolgirl and girls' education activist MalalaYousafzai, and the gang-rape on a bus and tragic death of a 23-year-old student in New Delhi. In every region around the world, countless other cases occurred that did not make global headlines. Women and girls are frequently subject to violence and abuse – from physical and verbal harassment to assault and rape – on city streets, public transportation or in their own neighborhoods. Such daily occurrences limit the rights and freedoms of women as equal citizens to enjoy their neighborhoods and cities. Many survivors do not report violence for fear of further violence by the perpetrator, their family, or the community and because of the harmful stigmas wrongfully attached to experiences of violence. The justice sector should work to enhance survivor safety at all stages through development of safety and confidentiality protocols for formal and informal sector personnel, use of risk-assessment guides (in particular for perpetrator programmes), design of secure spaces for women and girl survivors to report abuse and obtain support, and provision of free legal assistance to survivors so as to facilitate access to justice. Many girls and women experience violence and feel unsafe. 12% of all women in the Netherlands have at some time been raped, compared with 3% of the male population. Each year, there are more than a million cases of domestic violence in the Netherlands. Most of the victims are women and almost all the perpetrators are men. Part of the reason is that women are not as powerful, and are traditionally cast in inferior roles. There is no city or country in the world where women and girls live free of the fear of violence. No leader can claim: this is not happening in my backyard. Whether walking city streets, using public transport, going to school, or selling goods at the market, women and girls are subject to the threat of sexual harassment and violence. This reality of daily life limits women's freedom to get an education, to work, to participate in politics – or to simply enjoy their own neighbourhoods. Yet despite its prevalence, violence and harassment against women and girls in public spaces remains a largely neglected issue, with few laws or policies in place to address it. Goals
  2. 2. The overall goal is to have a policy for sustainablesystem of services available for physical safety of women . Objectives To reduce incidence of physical atrocities against women To identify early the causes for their physical vulnerability To provide a sustainable continuum of services To increase integration of service delivery ii) Formulation : By brainstorming and discussing among policy makers to decide whether or not to make an official policy on the issue. If the policymakers decides not to make any decision (thus, not codifying an official stance on the issue), this is still a policy, a policy of non-decision. Depending on the seriousnature of this issue, the policymaker could be in parliament , the cabinet , or in an agency. Interest groups that of NGOs working in the field of woman safety, that of parliamentarians, legislators Social workers , may be involved, with some even making specific proposals for legislation. This is the step that has the most potential for using a decision making model such as the rational-comprehensive model. It is at these early stages of policy making that intelligence can be more important than politics. It is at this stage that policies can have their goals set and alternatives sought and evaluated. Whether such intense attention is given to the formulation stage is to be debated. They define theoptions available ,their values as to which options are most consistent with our objectives and our principles/ values For each issue, what are the realistic policy options (or opportunities)? What are the arguments against options? Is more information needed to assess the options Then they will assessing the options ,what are key criteria for good policy? Its Legitimacy, Feasibility – whether affordable ,will it make difference ,communicability –can it be explained ,its supportability Once the legislation has been drafted, the written proposals are now ready to enter the adoption stage. Recently ,in Dublin, around 600 delegates – from mayors to leaders from the private sector and civil society – are gathered for the eighth forum of the World Alliance of Cities Against Poverty. They have come from all over the world to discuss innovative approaches to make cities smart, safe and sustainable. One approach is the Safe Cities global initiative. This partnership of municipal governments, local communities and organisations, and the UN, is working to make urban environments safer for women and girls. Initially launched by UN Women and UN-Habitat with five pilot cities – Cairo, Egypt; Kigali, Rwanda; New Delhi, India; Quito, Ecuador; and Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea – the initiative has expanded to more than 20 cities and continues to grow. One of the most important lessons we have learned is that each city is unique and requires a local response. This can only be achieved by conducting a diagnostic study with data and evidence, and engaging community members. Cities have taken actions to improving the lighting and design of streets and buildings, training and sensitizing police, and hiring more women police officers. These practical responses can make a world of difference. A diagnostic study in New Delhi, for instance, revealed that a common strategy against harassment was to simply keep girls and women at home. One girl explained: "If we tell our parents about boys harassing us, they would blame us only and say that it is our fault … Our parents might even stop us going out of the house." Findings like this spur action, since keeping women and girls home is not a solution. Residents organised community collectives to build awareness, report crimes, and work with authorities to improve public safety and justice. In Quito, women were encouraged to break the silence about their experiences through the Cartas de Mujeres (Letters from Women) campaign and a study was undertaken. The city government amended the ordinance on eliminating violence against women to include violence in public spaces. The government received around 10,000 letters. In Port Moresby, 55% of women market vendors reported experiencing violence in the previous year. In response, local authorities are working with a women's market vendors association to take action. In Cairo, the national government adopted women's safety audits whereby local women identify safety and security conditions in their neighbourhoods, which are incorporated into urban planning.
  3. 3. In Rio de Janeiro, communities are identifying safety risks in 10 of the cities' high-risk slums (favelas). Trained women and adolescent girls used their smartphones to map safety risks such as faulty infrastructure or services, obscured walking routes, and lack of lighting. These initial findings were presented to local authorities, and are being used to develop solutions.UN Women is partnering with Microsoft to find ways to use mobile technology to stop sexual harassment and violence in public spaces.Further efforts are expected to develop through a partnership between UN Women and the United Cities and Local Governments organisation. Efforts will focus on collecting local data on female political participation, and expanding successful Safe Cities activities. As more and more women, men and young people raise their voices and become active in local government, and more local leaders take action for the safety of women and girls, change happens. By including women in decision-making, city governments will be in a better position to fulfill their responsibility to ensure the safety of their residents, especially women and girls. Making life safer for girls and women The government shouldaim to make life safer for girls and women by:increasing their willingness to lodge a criminal complaint with the police after suffering sexual and other violence, for example by improving the information provided in schools;improving the registration of discrimination against women;increasing the penalties for violence motivated by discrimination;making particularly vulnerable groups safer and more psychologically resilient. Safety of teenagers Girls need to be able to feel safe on the streets, in their neighbourhoods and at school. Some groups are at greater risk than others. For example, girls in secondary vocational education (MBO) experience five times as much sexual harassment as those in the more academic types of secondary education (HAVO and VWO). Challenging gender stereotypes Stereotyped thinking about gender roles and male-female differences is reinforced by the media. To challenge the sexualised images projected by the media, learning packages have been produced for use in sex education and media literacy classes in secondary schools. Our society is now so dominated by the media that schoolchildren need to learn how to find, understand and evaluate information from other sources. These lessons can also serve to forewarn and forearm girls against, say, falling into the hands of online or flesh-and-blood ‗loverboy‘ pimps. Making teenagers more resilient The government wants both boys and girls to know how to stand up for themselves, set their own limits in relationships and respect other people‘s limits. Since teenagers often seek support via friends and online, the government intends to communicate with them via social media and existing youth networks. Parents, educators and professionals will be involved, but young people themselves will have an important part to play in this. Domestic violence and honour-related violence Every year, over a million people in the Netherlands face domestic violence. Women are particularly at risk of violence from present or former partners. Honour-related violence or honour crimes occur mainly in traditionally minded non-Western immigrant communities, in which family honour and shame are important concepts. Breaking through the culture of silence surrounding domestic violence and honour-related abuse A culture of silence still surrounds domestic violence and honour-related violence in the Netherlands. The government intends to change this and encourage people to speak out. One way of doing this is via effective public education in which women themselves play a leading role. For example, with the support of the Ministry of Security and Justice, the Dutch Women‘s Council (NVR) organises meetings to stimulate discussion of domestic violence. The government supports this initiative and similar activities. Social participation of vulnerable women Social participation makes vulnerable women stronger and more independent. With the support of buddies or coaches, they can be guided into some type of social participation appropriate to their background and capacities. This may take the form of paid employment, but may also be training to increase their chances
  4. 4. in the labour market. In this respect, cooperation will be sought wherever possible with the business community. iii) Adoption At this step, the issue has moved away from intellectual exercises, and is about to be backed by the legitimate authority of the government. This is also, therefore, the step in which political pressures come to play most heavily. During adoption is when there is the most lobbying, bargaining and compromise. The influences upon the decision-maker include, but are not limited to, his own values, his political party affiliation, the interests of his constituents, public opinion, and what is in the public interest. It is also upon this step, that many of the political theories disagree. The pluralists would say that the policymaker is supposed to be a neutral observer who declares which of the struggling coalition of groups has won the battle. The elitists say that the way the policymaker decides will be based upon the wishes of the ruling-class elite. The rational-choice theory says that the policymaker will vote according to whatever fits his best self-interest, ignoring any such concepts of public interest if it does not benefit him. All of these theories seem to present an incomplete picture of the adoption stage. Once the smoke has cleared, and the final decision has been made as to the wording and goals of the policy, it is now ready to be implemented The following policies may be discussed and adopted taking cues from international experiences : Ratify international and regional treaties … that protect the rights of women and girls, and ensure that national laws and services meet international human rights standards.The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) can be a powerful tool for change— Adopt and enforce laws … to end impunity, bring perpetrators of violence against women and girls to justice and provide women with reparations and remedy for the violations perpetrated against them. In Brazil, the ―Maria da Penha Law on Domestic and Family Violence,‖ has led to 331,000 prosecutions and 110,000 final judgments, and nearly two million calls to the Service Center for Women. The Government of Mexico takes a transformative approach to reparations for the families of the women of Ciudad Juárez.. Develop national and local action plans … for ending violence against women and girls in every country that bring the government, women‘s and other civil society organizations, the mass media and the private sector into a coordinated, collective front against such human rights violations.The Palestinian Cabinet Endorses National Strategy to Combat Violence against Women in the occupied Palestinian territory the first of its kind in the Arab region developed through a bottom-up approach.The Handbook for National Action Plans on Violence against Womenpresents a model framework, along with detailed recommendations and best practices. Make justice accessible to women and girls …by providing free legal and specialized services, and increasing women in law enforcement and frontline services. The Gender Desk in Rwandan National Police Headquarters trains police personnel to address sexual and gender-based violence.Multi-Province Project on Ending Violence against Women in Afghanistan criminalizes customs, traditions and practices that inflict harm against women, and increases protection services for survivors of violence. End impunity towards conflict-related sexual violence … by prosecuting perpetrators in conflict and post-conflict contexts and fulfilling survivors‘ right to comprehensive reparations programmes that are non-stigmatizing and have a transformative impact on women and girls‘ lives.Liberia tackles the legacy of violence against women Since the adoption of the groundbreaking UN Security Council resolution 1325 on women, peace and security in October 2000, the Security Council subsequently adopted four other resolutions on the subject: 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009) and 1960 (2010).Download the UN Security Council Resolution Poster to learn more.
  5. 5. Ensure universal access to critical services … at a minimum, women‘s and girls‘ emergency and immediate needs should be met through free 24-hour hotlines, prompt intervention for their safety and protection, safe housing and shelter for them and their children, counseling and psycho-social support, post-rape care, and free legal aid to understand their rights and options.Targeted violence against women and girls in Afghanistan is back at an alarming level. Sosan‘s story: Domestic Violence in Afghanistan looks at a shelter where women find refuge and services. Train providers of frontline services … especially the police, lawyers and judges, social workers and health personnel to ensure that they follow quality standards and protocols. Services should be confidential, sensitive and convenient to women survivors. Affecting almost 70 percent of women at some point in their lifetime, violence has become pandemic in Kenya. Watch the video Breaking the Silence: Kenyatta National Hospital Addresses Gender-Based Violence. Police and judges are being sensitized about gender based violence in the Southern Cone.Comprehensive health sector approach towards ending violence against women at the Virtual Knowledge Centre. Provide adequate public resources… to implement existing laws and policies, recognizing the devastating costs and consequences of violence against women not only for the lives directly affected, but to society and the economy at large, and to public budgets.Gender-sensitive budgeting leads to Women‘s Centre in Uruguayoffering workshops on gender-based violence, language and skills-building classes, legal assistance and more. Collect, analyze and disseminate national data… on prevalence, causes and consequences of violence against women and girls, profiles of survivors and perpetrators, and progress and gaps in the implementation of national policies, plans and laws. Gender-based violence study in Morocco reveals that approximately 60 percent of Moroccan women have experienced some form of violence recently, and violence against women is three times more likely in urban areas than in rural ones.Together for Girls, a global effort to prevent sexual violence against girls, of which UN Women is a partner, makes an urgent call for national surveys. The alarming finding in Swaziland—one-third of girls have experienced sexual violence—spurred a national education campaign, strengthening of the capacity of police to respond to sexual violence, and the establishment of a child-friendly court. Access data on prevalence, laws and more at Progress of the World‘s Women and Violence against Women Prevalence Data: Surveys by Country. Invest in gender equality and women’s empowerment … to tackle the root causes of violence against women and girls. Strategic areas are girls‘ secondary education, advancing women‘s reproductive health and rights, addressing the inter-linkages of violence with HIV and AIDS, and increasing women‘s political and economic participation and leadership. Gender equality and ending violence against women must be placed squarely at the heart of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. (MDGs) Up to three quarters of women and girls worldwide experience physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. The MDGs and Gender Seriescautions, unless violence against women is curbed, meeting all of the eight Millennium Development Goals will be impossible. Enhance women’s economic empowerment … by ensuring women‘s rights to own land and property, to inheritance, equal pay for equal work, and safe and decent employment. Women‘s unequal economic and employment opportunities are a major factor in perpetuating their entrapment in situations of violence, exploitation and abuse.In a land torn apart by years of bitter conflict, the daily struggle to survive is an ongoing battle. Feeding the family is a constant challenge.Bread Winner, Bread Maker tells the story of some inspirational women who are bringing hope to thousands in the occupied Palestinian territory.Millions of women work overseas each year and endure abuse and exploitation. On the Move: Nepal‘s Women Migrant Workers fight for their rights. Increase public awareness and social mobilization … to stop violence against women and girls, and to enable women and girls subjected to violence to break the silence and seek justice and support.With over 2 million actions and 600 partners, Say NO –
  6. 6. UNiTEto End Violence against Women offers a global platform for information, action and social mobilization. Visit www.saynotoviolence.org and post your action today! Engage the mass media … in shaping public opinion and challenging the harmful gender norms that perpetuate violence against women and girls.Radio series and public campaign builds mutual understanding between men and women for lives free of violence in Nepal. The Most Understanding Husband Competition, a unique initiative, provides positive male role models. Work for and with young people as champions of change … to end violence against women, and ensure that educational systems empower girls and boys to transform and build gender relations based on harmony, mutual respect and non-violence. The UN Secretary-General calls upon young people everywhere to say NO to violence against women With a UN Trust Fund grant, Cambodian youth lead the way for lives free of violence. Teenagers in Nairobi‘s Ngara Girls High School take a stand against sexual and gender-based violence. Mobilize men and boys … of all ages and walks of life to take a stand against violence against women and girls, and foster equality and gender solidarity.Activists from Men for Gender Equality Now (MEGEN) travel through Kenya to speak to other men about the importance of stopping violence against women and building peaceful communities. Adolescents, are rejecting violence and promoting new masculinities.Resources on how to engage men and boys at the Global Virtual Knowledge Centre. iv) Implementation The policy has now gone from general discussion among the general population into codified statements giving the authority and approval to take the steps necessary to turn the policy from paper into action. Once the policy has appropriations (the money necessary to enforce the policy), it usually goes to the appropriate agency. There some instances where other institutions are involved in implementation (e.g. the courts implementing the Acts, or pressure groups assisting with licensing boards), most implementation falls to the American bureaucracy. An entire book could be written concerning the politics and procedures involved within bureaucracies. But to save space, it could simply be said that bureaucracies are involved in the interpretation and refinement of the policy once they get it. This is because, the version of the policy received by the bureaucracy is full of vagueness (introduced during the compromises in parliament), and nebulous statements need to be turned into concrete actions before the policy can be implemented. v) Evaluation and Feedback – Problems are bound to arise once the policy is actually being implemented. People may object to the interpretations the bureaucracy has made in its implementation. It may be found that the cost of implementing the policy far outweighs the benefits received from it. The implementation of the policy may have consequences that were unforeseen by the legislators and bureaucracy (e.g. increasing the military budget leading to wasteful spending). And there will usually be some interest that feels they have been "slighted" by a policy, and they want to make their voice heard. In addition, the bureaucracy, itself, does formal evaluations upon its performance for inspection by Congress or other policymakers. They check to see if their performance is not only efficient, but also if their actions are politically acceptable. All of this information feeds back into the government and could end up on the agenda again to be interpreted as a new public problem. The cycle would then begin again.