What makes for a meaningful corporate social initiative?
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What makes for a meaningful corporate social initiative?

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  • Bayanihan  can be traced to a common tradition in  Philippine  towns where community members volunteer to help a family move to a new place by literally carrying the house to its new location. This is done by putting bamboo poles forming a strong frame to lift the stilts from the ground and carrying the whole house with the men positioned at the ends of each pole. The tradition also features a small  fiesta  hosted by the family to express gratitude to the volunteers. In society,  bayanihan  has also been adopted as a term to refer to a local civil effort to resolve national issues.
  • Source of photos: 1. http://www.devp.org/devpme/images/Philippines_Big.jpg 2. http://www.adb.org/media/Articles/2005/6935_Philippines_poverty/
  • Government cannot do it alone. We need all sectors of society to contribute their share. And since big business has the resources and expertise, it is expected to take up the slack. Source of photos: 1. http://gysmalaysia.blogspot.com/ 2. http://www.pbsp.org.ph/ 3. http://www.danfoss.com/AboutUs/Corporate+Citizenship/
  • Corporate social responsibility The commitment of business to contribute to sustainable economic development, working with employees, their families, the local community and society at large to improve their quality of life (WBCSD, 2006) Corporate philanthropy Activities that promote human welfare or goodwill, including business contributions to the arts, education, or the community (Carroll, 1991) Community relations Direct involvement of companies in community-based programs either by themselves or in collaboration with other organizations (Alfonso & Amacanin, 2007) Corporate social initiatives D irect involvement of corporations in community projects, and provision of significant resources to these projects beyond cash donations (Alperson, 1996, 1998; Hess et. al., 2002)
  • Transactional approach Philanthropic activities that are “unfocused and piecemeal” (e.g. cash donations, sponsorship of events) Relational approach Reflects a more stable, long-term commitment to philanthropy, which, through organizational learning and resource sharing, should be more likely to have a meaningful impact on society
  • Conceptual model: the spheres of corporate philanthropy
  • Corporate social performance Product of a business organization’s configuration of principles of social responsibility, processes of social responsiveness, and policies, programs, and observable outcomes as they relate to the firm’s societal relationships (Wood, 1991) Resource-based perspective Argues that companies generate sustainable competitive advantages “by effectively controlling and manipulating resources and capabilities” that are valuable, rare, inimitable, and non-substitutable; engaging in CSR can help firms develop new resources and capabilities (Branco & Rodrigues, 2006) Stakeholder approach Recognizes the changing and evolving needs of different groups of stakeholders, “which need to be continuously monitored and addressed in a fluid and dynamic manner” (Jamali, 2008) Strategic philanthropy Charitable efforts meant to improve a company’s competitive context, which brings social and economic goals into alignment and improves a company’s long-term business prospects (Porter & Kramer, 2002)
  • Ayala Corporation, which was founded in 1834, is one of the oldest and largest business groups in the Philippines. Employing more than 22,000 employees, it holds interest in the following businesess: Ayala Land, Bank of the Philippine Islands, Globe Telecom, Manila Water, Integrated Microelectronics, Ayala Automotive, and LiveIt Investments (Ayala, 2008; Ayala, 2009).
  • The Shell companies in the Philippines (SciP) include various businesses involved in oil and gas exploration, production, oil refining, distribution, sales, and customer service. Shell started its operations in 1914, and has grown to be one of the country’s largest investors, directly employing over 4,000 people nationwide ( http://www.shell.com.ph )
  • The corporate social initiatives of these companies are undertaken by their corporate foundations. Ayala Foundation traces its roots to Filipinas Foundation, which was established in 1961 by Mercedes Zobel-MicMicking and Col. Joseph McMicking with the aim of helping alleviate the plight of poor and unemployed Filipinos. According to Jaime Zobel de Ayala, Filipinas Foundation “ institutionalized the decades of the family’s involvement in educational and philanthropic work since the 19 th century.” PSFI was the first foundation established by a private oil company in the Philippines. Shell provided PSFI with a seed fund, which enabled it to undertake social development projects on a sustained bases. Prior to this, Shell had been involved in helping communities since the 1960s through the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) and then, later, through the Philippine Business for Social Progress (PBSP).
  • The idea for GMBK came from Ping Sotto, a Shell dealer (and former Shell employee) who wanted his pump attendants to have a bright future. He and another Shell dealer Desi Tomacruz donated a few centavos of their margins for every fuel sale to a fund that will send their deserving staff to school, thus the slogan Gas Mo Bukas Ko, which means “your fuel is our future”. The pilot batch consisted of three individuals who worked for Sotto and Tomacruz. The program, which enhances the employability of GMBK scholars, aims to imbibe positive work values among its scholars and to improve their outlook in life. Today, PSPC – Retail Sales and Operations (PSPC-RSO) fully pays for the scholars’ tuition, while the participating Shell dealers / retailers adjust the scholars’ work schedules to accommodate their training, aside from providing them with transportation and meal allowance.
  • Began in 1985 as a two-year course that covers such areas as crop and animal production, aquaculture, agro-forestry technology, farm management, and farm equipment maintenance. It also included modules on basic accounting, and communication skills. Evolved into a one-year course on scientific farming technologies, with strong marketing orientation Supported by Shell Training Farms (STFs) and the Integrated Farming Biosystems (IFBS), which introduced simple, affordable, and relevant farming techniques to farmers Implemented in partnership with agricultural schools such as Benguet State University in La Trinidad, Cavite State University, Don Severino Agricultural College in Cavite, and Pampanga Agricultural College.
  • Simulated farm life in SAKA Village SAKA scholars learn not only to grow crops but also to sell their produce Scholars are now engaged in agricultural entrepreneurship – processing their harvests to create added value Program now includes courses on farm safety, first aid, and emergency response Scholars are also taught basic skills in information technology Earnings go into a start-up fund that they later use to develop their own farms 983 SAKA beneficiaries and 13,917 STF / IFBS beneficiaries as of 2011
  • Components: (a) provision of technical and capability building trainings; (b) information and education campaigns; (c) provision of Materials Recovery Facility (MRF)
  • Because of KLM, malaria cases in Palawan decreased from 42,394 in 2,000 to only 5,623 in 2011. Over the same period, deaths due to malaria also went down from 67 to only 3. Also supported by Shell Philippines Exploration, B.V. together with Chevron Malampaya LLC and PNOC Exploration Corporation
  • PSFI had initial doubts about its capability to address health concerns because it did not have the medical expertise. Fortunately, KLM generated enthusiastic support from practitioners who had the technical and medical expertise needed to address Palawan’s health problems. What worked for PSFI is its ability to mobilize resources and organize community leaders, local organizations, and private entities to work together towards a common goal. KLM’s success was largely due to enhanced early-case detection and treatment, very high mosquito net coverage, and intensive indoor residual spraying (IRS). Malaria Awareness Day celebrations, media engagement, multi-media campaigns, and continuous advocacy also provided wider opportunities to educate communities on malaria.
  • Because of KLM’s huge success, PSFI was able to secure a five-year grant from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM). This is the first time that the Global Fund awarded such a grant to a corporate foundation. According to SciP Chairman Edgar Chua, “that speaks a lot about the credibility of PSFI, its capability to competently manage the fund, and its ability to successfully reach the objectives of the malaria program.” Renamed Movement Against Malaria (MAM), PSFI’s anti-malaria program expanded its coverage to include four other provinces, namely Apayao, Quirino, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. By 2009, malaria cases in all five provinces had dropped by 88% over a six-year period. The number of deaths decreased from 150 in 2003 to only 17 in 2009. In 2010, PSFI received an additional $31.4 million from GFATM, which allowed it to expand MAM’s coverage to 40 provinces with an estimated at-risk population of 16 million. And just like in the initial four provinces, malaria morbidity and mortality rates in these provinces have substantially declined.
  • Goal: To boost the quality of education in the Philippines by connecting all public high schools to the Internet Other objectives: (a) to equip teachers with the necessary skills to maximize the Internet laboratories, as well as to properly maintain them: (b) to ensure the sustainability of the Internet facilities at the school level; and (c) to raise the needed resources to carry out these tasks. To reach as many public high schools as possible, AFI utilized the following deployment strategy: Engage the LGU and the local DepEd to develop a plan for connecting all or most of their public high schools to the Internet. Working on a cluster of schools enabled the project to achieve operational efficiency and cost effectiveness. Engage stakeholders at the school (or community level) – parents, barangay leaders, youth groups, and other community residents. This enabled GILAS to generate community support especially in ensuring security for the Internet laboratories.
  • GILAS was a project organized and implemented by a multisectoral consortium of 25 companies, business associations, and not-for-profit organizations, in partnership with the Department of Education and the Department of Trade and Industry. On September 27, 2007, GILAS received an Award of Excellence in Support of Education at the Asian Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Awards held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. GILAS was also cited as a best practice program in the Philippines, as documented in the country’s 2010 Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals.
  • Text2teach provides teachers with highly effective visual aids, creating an interactive, student-focused learning environment in the classroom. Teachers can select from almost 400 educational audio and visual materials on Math, Science, and English. Materials are downloaded using 3G-enabled high memory capacity mobile phones with an application called Nokia Education Delivery (NED), and are watched using 29-inch television sets provided by the project. The lesson plans that come with the teachers’ guides are fully integrated into the basic education curriculum and created to meet local education guidelines and standards.
  • Text2teach is made possible by the collaboration of the following: Nokia – private sector funder and technology developer Globe Telecom – sole provider for the telecom infrastructure for downloading of content and free use of lines for help desk and downloading purposes DepEd – for the curriculum-based objectives of the program SEAMEO INNOTECH – for the teachers training AFI – for partners and resource mobilization, area and schools identification and validation, technical support, and overall project management.
  • After more than a year of working on this dissertation, I realized that there are fascinating avenues that I and other researchers can take along this field of study. First, more case studies can be done on the corporate social initiatives of other Philippine companies, including small- and medium-scale enterprises. These studies can describe how companies address the tensions inherent in trying to reconcile the economic and social goals of firms. Second, researchers can look more deeply into the philanthropic approaches of Philippine companies within and across industries, and determine whether these firms predominantly follow the transactional approach to philanthropy (e.g. cash donations, sponsorships of events) or the relational approach. It would be interesting to find out if companies follow a trajectory in their philanthropic approach (i.e. transactional to relational) over time, as demonstrated in the case of Shell.
  • Third, researchers can focus on the corporate social initiatives that follow the relational approach and examine the dynamics inherent in collaborative undertakings such as those of GILAS, Text2Teach, and MAM. What contributes to the success of these collaborations or what causes them to fail? Fourth, researchers can examine corporate social initiatives that involve private-public partnerships, especially those that involve local government units. How do companies engage local officials, and how do they deal with the problems of corruption and partisan politics, among others? Fifth, researchers can explore the concept of the “CSR supply chain”, which I mentioned in my recommendations for corporate foundations. A clearer understanding of this phenomenon could influence the way companies implement their corporate social initiatives, taking into consideration their size and resources.
  • In conclusion, the experiences of Jollibee, Shell, Ayala, and SM are proof that social responsibility and business performance don’t have to be mutually exclusive. The truly meaningful corporate social initiatives are the ones that create value for both business and society. Source of photo: http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?articleid=517239

What makes for a meaningful corporate social initiative? What makes for a meaningful corporate social initiative? Presentation Transcript

  • What makes for meaningfulcorporate social initiatives?The experiences of two corporatefoundations in the PhilippinesRaymund B. HabaradasDe La Salle University5th International Conference on Corporate SocialResponsibility, October 4-6, 2012, Berlin, Germany
  • BayanihanA spirit of communal unity or effort to achieve a particular objective. From theFilipino word bayan, which refers to a nation, country, town or community. Similar concepts in other countries Gotong-royong (Indonesia / Malaysia) Dugnad (Norway) Barn raising (Rural North America) Talkoot (Finland)‘Bringing the house to a new place’
  • Where is ‘our house’ now?Poverty in the PhilippinesIn 2006, there were 27.61 millionpoor Filipinos (32% of thepopulation)45% lived on less than $2.00 /day; 22.6%, on less than $1.25 /dayAbout 4.0 million households (or21.2% of families) experiencedinvoluntary hunger at least once inthe past three months (Sources: NSCB, 2010; World Bank,2008; and SWS, 2010)
  • “So massive andpervasive ispoverty in ourcountry that ourresponse to itcannot besmall.”- Tony Meloto, Gawad Kalingafounder; recipient of the 2006Magsaysay Award forCommunity Leadership;recognized as ‘SocialEntrepreneur of the Year,Philippines’ by the SchwabFoundation in 2010
  • Big business must help “With poverty as a major social pressure point, government capacity to deliver social equity is stretched, and business is called upon to ‘take up the slack’” (Roman, 2007)
  • Corporate social initiativesDirect involvement of corporations incommunity projects, and provision ofsignificant resources to these projectsbeyond cash donations (Alperson,1996, 1998; Hess et. al., 2002)
  • Corporate social initiative  Meaningful social initiative  An initiative that is sustainable and has the potential for a significant positive impact on society (Hess & Warren, 2008)  Symbolic social initiative  Initiatives that are meant to stave off stakeholder pressures without necessarily providing much benefit to society (Hess & Warren, 2008)
  • Research questions How do selected Philippine companies utilize corporate social initiatives to create value for both business and society? How do corporate and environmental contexts affect the adoption and implementation of these initiatives? What makes for meaningful corporate social initiatives?
  • CorporateEnvironmental Corporate context social initiativecontext •Corporate mission •Adoption•Competitive •Corporate strategy •Program designcontext •Corporate culture •Planning and•External •Corporate implementationstakeholder leadership •Monitoring andpressures •Internal evaluation•Social stakeholder •Approaches inexpectations pressures handling problems •Outcomes
  • Case study research  Corporate brochures, corporate newsletters, annual reports, corporate web sites, and published materials in newspapers and magazines  Interviews with 34 individuals, including program managers, partners, and beneficiaries  Case study database: interview transcriptions, detailed interview summaries, field notes, printed materials, online materials
  • Data presentation and analysis Case descriptions of six CSIs of two corporate foundations Use of both qualitative and quantitative data Validation of propositions derived from:  Corporate social performance (Wood, 1991)  Resource-based perspective (Branco & Rodrigues, 2006)  Stakeholder approach (Jamali, 2008)  Strategic philanthropy (Porter & Kramer, 2002)  Meaningful social initiatives (Hess & Warren, 2008)
  • Ayala Corporation  Founded in 1834  One of the oldest and largest business groups in the Philippines  Engaged in real estate, telecoms, banking and financial services, water distribution, electronics manufacturing services, automotive dealership, and BPOs
  • Shell Philippines  Started operations in 1914  Involved in oil and gas exploration, production, oil refining, distribution, sales, and customer service  Operates a 100-thousand barrels-per-day refinery, 22 oil distribution terminals / depots across the Philippines, and close to 1,000 retail stations nationwide
  • Corporate foundationsAyala Foundation, Inc. (AFI) Pilipinas Shell Foundation, Established in 1961 Inc. (PSFI) Mission: Contribute to social  Established in 1982 development through community  Mission: Enable the assistance, educational programs, disadvantaged “to become employee development, or business productive and responsible innovations that cater to the poor members of society” and other marginalized groups.
  • Six corporate social initiatives Gas Mo Bukas Ko (GMBK) (Your Fuel is My Future) Sanayan sa Kakayahang Agrikultural (SAKA) (Agricultural Skills Training for the Youth) Bawas Basura sa Barangay (Triple B) (Reduce Waste in the Community) Kilusan Ligtas Malaria (KLM) (Movement Against Malaria) Gearing Up Internet Literacy and Access for Students (GILAS) text2teach
  • Gas Mo Bukas Ko I and II  Provides a better future for Shell station staff through short training courses that enhance their employability  Courses include automotive mechanics, refrigeration and air conditioning repair, welding, basic computer course, and bookkeeping  Implemented in partnership with TESDA and other accredited training centers  Actively supported by Shell dealers  Now includes dependents of transportTop: Shell retailers Desi and Candy workers and of Shell contractorsTomacruz with GMBK scholar JaysonDuran; Left: Richard Bueno is now  1,010 beneficiaries as of 2011station manager; Right: Alex Geronimois now a forecourt supervisor.
  • SAKA and Shell Training Farms  Aimed “to persuade young people to stay in the countryside, till lands, and help revitalize the rural economies”  Open to out-of-school youth, particularly sons and daughters of farming families  Supported by Shell Training Farms (STFs) and the Integrated Farming Bio-Systems (IFBS)  First implemented in partnership with agricultural schools in farming communities
  • SAKA and Shell Training Farms  SAKA scholars learn not only to grow crops but also to sell their produce  Scholars are now engaged in agricultural entrepreneurship – processing their harvests to create added value  983 SAKA beneficiaries and 13,917 STF / IFBS beneficiaries as of 2011
  • Bawas Basura sa Barangay  Initiated by Shell Pandacan Installation  One of PSFI’s programs under the Pandacan Expanded Assistance for Community Empowerment (PEACE)  Goal: to build the capacity of barangays surrounding the Pandacan installation to establish and manage their own waste management system
  • Triple B’s triple benefitsEconomic benefits Social benefits EnvironmentalEmployment for 15 Greater awareness benefitsproject workers of residents on the Reduced volume ofIncome for eco- importance of waste waste collected byaides or biomen segregation City of ManilaIncome for barangay Active involvement of Cleaner barangay barangay and its surroundings officials in project implementation Improved compliance with R.A. 9003 and City Ordinance 7876
  • Kilusan Ligtas Malaria / MAM  Goal: To eradicate malaria in Palawan and other provinces in the country  Community-based malaria control project implemented in partnership with municipal and provincial health offices and LGUs  Malaria cases in Palawan decreased from 42,394 in 2,000 to only 5,623 in 2011. Deaths due to malaria also went down from 67 to only 3 over the same period.
  • Kilusan Ligtas Malaria / MAMMAM Finance OfficerRandi Andrino, PSFIProgram Manager MarviRebueno-Trudeau, andSulo IPHO Ema Carpisoinspect bednetsshipments in ZamboangaCity. Distribution of long-lasting insectiside- treated nets (LLIN); blood smearing
  • Kilusan Ligtas Malaria / MAM  Because of KLM’s huge success, PSFI secured a five-year grant from Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)  In 2003, KLM was renamed Movement Against Malaria, which covered four other provinces  Malaria cases dropped by 88% over a six- year period in the 5 provinces.  In 2010, PSFI received $31.4 million from GFATM, which allowed it to expand MAM’s coverage to 40 provinces
  • GILAS  Goal: To boost the quality of education in the Philippines by connecting all public high schools to the Internet  Provided schools with:  An Internet laboratory with 10 to 20 PCs  Provision of server, printer and network peripherals  Local area network  Free Internet use for one year  Training for teachers and school heads  Monitoring and technical support for one year
  • GILAS Total number of students who gained access to the Internet as of 31 October 2011: 4,399,500
  • text2teach  Goal: To improve the quality of teaching in Grades 5 and 6 in public elementary schools by providing highly interactive, easy- to-use multimedia packages  Teachers can select from almosttext2teach - phone teacher 400 educational AV materials on Math, Science, and English.  Materials are downloaded using 3G-enabled high memory capacity mobile phones with an application called Nokia Education Delivery (NED).
  • text2teachNokia Globe Telecomprivate sector funder and Sole provider of telecomtechnology developer infrastructure for downloading of content and free use of lines for help deskDepEdCurriculum-basedobjectives of the program AFI Partners and resource mobilization, area and schools identification andSEAMEO validation, technicalInnotech support, and overallTeachers training project management
  • Social problems addressed by CSIsCSI Social problems addressedGMBK • Unemployment of out-of-school youth • Limited social mobility of unskilled workersSAKA • Unemployment • Low productivity of agricultural lands • Out-of-school youthTriple B • Garbage problem in urban communities • UnemploymentKLM / MAM • Malaria incidence and deaths • Limited budget for health programsGILAS • Low quality of education • Limited exposure of students and teachers to ICTtext2teach • Low quality of education • Limited access to high-quality instructional materials
  • Cross-case summary – social value & business valueCSI Social Value Business valueKLM / MAM • Significant decrease in • Goodwill of community malaria morbidity and • Enhanced relationship with mortality business partners • Enhancement of skills of • Stronger links with rural- barangay health workers based NGOs • Awareness of communities • Social legitimization on ways to prevent malaria • Enhanced corporate reputationtext2teach • Access to high quality • Goodwill of community audio-visual materials • Enhanced relationship with • Enhanced understanding business partners of lessons by students • Extensive networking with • Significantly higher scores LGUs & local DepEd offices of students in Math, • Brand loyalty Science, and English • Enhanced corporate exams reputation
  • The CSI skyline
  • ‘Bayanihan’ philanthropyCharacteristics of meaningful CSIs Addresses pressing social needs Driven by corporate values and leadership Adopts a relational approach ‘Bringing the Shaped by learning and house to a innovation new (and Exhibits managerial better) place’ accountability
  • Addresses pressing social needsCSI addresses pressing social needs SD D U SO MA SA UA• Our corporate social initiative addresses a pressing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 social need (e.g. poverty, unemployment, homelessness, health).• Our corporate social initiative has significantly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 improved the lives of its beneficiaries.• There has been a significant increase in the number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of beneficiaries since the corporate social initiative began.• Our corporate social initiative can be easily 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 replicated in other communities / settings.• Our corporate social initiative can be easily scaled 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 up to benefit more people.
  • Driven by corporate valuesCSI is driven by corporate values and leadership SD D U SO MA SA UA• Our corporate social initiative enables the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 company to fulfill its mission.• Our corporate social initiative is aligned with the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 core values of the company.• People (program staff or employee volunteers) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 responsible for the implementation of the corporate social initiative understand the core values of the company.• Corporate leaders commit adequate financial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 resources and logistical support for our corporate social initiative.• Corporate leaders use their credibility and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 influence to generate additional support for our corporate social initiative
  • Adopts a relational approachCSI adopts a relational approach SD D U SO MA SA UA• The inputs of community members / beneficiaries 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 are considered in the design of the corporate social initiative.• Community members / beneficiaries are actively 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 involved in the implementation of the corporate social initiative.• Other groups / institutions are actively engaged in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 the implementation of the corporate social initiative.• Our corporate social initiative generates funding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 and other types of support from other groups / institutions for the corporate social initiative.• Community members / beneficiaries, as well as 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 other groups / institutions, provide suggestions on how to improve the implementation of the corporate social initiative.
  • Shaped by learning and innovationCSI is shaped by learning and innovation SD D U SO MA SA UA• Program staff or employee volunteers responsible 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 for the implementation of the corporate social initiative have become increasingly adept in fulfilling their tasks.• Program staff or employee volunteers constantly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 find ways to overcome resource constraints.• Difficulties in implementing the corporate social 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 initiative have given rise to innovative approaches or solutions.• Program staff or employee volunteers have 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 improved the implementation of the corporate social initiative by learning from past mistakes.• Best practices are documented and communicated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so that these can be easily replicated.
  • Exhibits managerial accountabilityCSI exhibits managerial accountability SD D U SO MA SA UA• Our corporate social intiative is executed well, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 resulting in the achievement of goals and targets.• Funds are strictly utilized for the purpose they are 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 meant to be spent, and are clearly accounted for.• Organizational policies and standard operating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 procedures are followed in the implementation of the corporate social initiative.• Progress of the corporate social initiative is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 regularly monitored so that corrective action can be done whenever needed.• Regular reports are prepared to update key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 stakeholders (e.g. Board, funding agency, institutional partners, donors) about the progress of the corporate social initiative.
  • Web of CSI meaningfulness
  • Bar chart of CSI meaningfulness
  • Recommendations for further research Do more case studies on CSIs of Philippine firms, including SMEs  Examine how companies address the tensions inherent in trying to reconcile economic and social goals. Look deeply into the philanthropic approaches of Philippine firms within and across industries  Determine whether these firms predominantly follow the transactional approach or the relational approach to philanthropy. See whether companies follow a trajectory in their philanthropic approach over time.
  • Recommendations for further research Focus on CSIs that follow the relational approach  Examine the dynamics inherent in collaborative undertakings such as those of GILAS, Text2Teach, and MAM. What contributes to the success of these collaborations or what causes them to fail? Examine CSIs that involve private-public partnerships, especially those that involve LGUs  How do companies engage local officials, and how do they deal with the problems of corruption and partisan politics, among others?
  • “He whowishes tosecure thegood ofothers hasalreadysecured hisown.”- Confucius
  • What makes for meaningfulcorporate social initiatives?The experiences of two corporatefoundations in the PhilippinesRaymund B. HabaradasDe La Salle University5th International Conference on Corporate SocialResponsibility, October 4-6, 2012, Berlin, Germany