Precarious work-The hotel industry experience
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Precarious work-The hotel industry experience

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Professorial chair lecture of Dr. Divina Edralin

Professorial chair lecture of Dr. Divina Edralin

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Precarious work-The hotel industry experience Precarious work-The hotel industry experience Presentation Transcript

  • PRECARIOUSWORK:THE HOTEL INDUSTRY EXPERIENCEProf. Divina Edralin, D.M. 27 February 2013 De La Salle University Professorial Chair Lecture
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYFigure 1. National framework for equality and decent work economic growth & social justice GOVERNME NT = safe, healthy environment in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity for emplo yment women and men prom = otion WORKERS EMPLOYER employment security competitiveness, profit S equity CIVIL (Gust, 2006)
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Concept of Precarious Work forms of work characterized by:  atypical employment contracts  limited or no social benefits and statutory entitlements  high degrees of job insecurities  low job tenure  low wages  high risks of occupational injury and diseases(Evans & Gibb,2009)
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Concept of Precarious Work is characterized by a combination of factors such as:  a limited duration or a high probability of the worker’s losing the job  little or no opportunity for workers to control the working conditions  absence of benefits or social security provisions  a low income in tandem with poverty(ILO, 2007)
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYFigure 3. Incidence of precarious employment advance economies,2007 and 2010Panel A. Involuntary part-time employment (percentage of part-time employment) Source: International Institute for Labor Studies World of Work Report 2012, 2012
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYFigure 3. Incidence of precarious employment advanceeconomies, 2007 and 2010Panel B. Involuntary temporary employment (percentage of temporary employment) Source: International Institute for Labor Studies World of Work Report 2012, 2012
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYFigure 2. Employed persons in vulnerable employment by region and sex,2004 - 2007 Source: Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics LABSTAT Updates 16(31) 2012
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYPrecarious Work Practices ofSelected Countries
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYPrecarious Work Practices ofSelected Countries
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYPrecarious Work Practices ofSelected Countries
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYPrecarious Work Practices ofGlobal Companies
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYPrecarious Work Practices ofGlobal Companies
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYPrecarious Work Practices ofGlobal Companies
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYPrecarious Work Practices ofGlobal Companies
  • BRIEF ON PRECARIOUS WORK IN THE PHILIPPINESFigure 4. Employees in Precarious Work (% of totalemployment) Source: Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics LABSTAT Updates 16(31) (2012).
  • BRIEF ON PRECARIOUS WORK IN THE PHILIPPINESTable 1. Non-regular employment in the Philippines aspercent of total employment Contractu Year Part-time Casual Totals al 1989 1.3 4.1 8.3 13.7 1990 1.6 3.7 8.2 13.5 1991 1.5 4.1 7.0 12.6 1992 1.5 4.1 10.0 15.6 1993 1.8 3.4 9.8 15.0 1994 1.5 4.3 7.9 13.7 1995 1.8 4.4 11.8 18.0 1996 2.0 4.1 12.3 18.4 1997 2.2 4.7 14.0 20.9 Source: DOLE-BLES Yearbook of Labor Statistics, 2007
  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVESDetermine the employment practices that are often associated with precarious work in the hotel industry.Know the factors that drive the hotels to resort to precarious work practices.
  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVESDescribe the impact of precarious work on the following:  Women workers  Workplace health and safety  Union  Sustainable development
  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVESIdentify strategies or courses of action that can be taken by the following stakeholders to combat precarious work practices:  Unions  Employers  Government  International Labour Organization (ILO)
  • CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKFigure 6. Linkages between discrimination, equality &decent work (Gust, 2006)
  • OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK OF PRECARIOUS WORK GOVERNME NT = • low wages, • low job security • limited control over workplace conditions • little protection from health & safety risk =WORKERS EMPLOYER ILO S
  • METHODOLOGYResearch DesignDescriptiveResearch ApproachSurvey of unionized hotelsContent analysis of government publications
  • METHODOLOGYTable 2. Respondents’ profile Unionized NUWHRAIN Positions in Type of Work Affiliate Hotels the Union in the HotelManila Peninsula Hotel • President • CookMandarin Oriental Manila • Board of • BartenderSofitel Philippine Plaza Directors • LifeguardCentury Park Hotel • Vice President • ElectricianHotel Intercontinental Manila • Treasurer • Room AttendantHoliday Inn • Councilor • Outlet CashierManila Pavilion Hotel • Union Member • ChefCebu Midtown Hotel • Bellman • WaiterBohol Beach Club No. of • SupervisorMontebello Villa Hotel • Telephone OperatorHyatt Regency Manila/MIDAS Respondents • Kitchen ArtistHotel n = 84 • Food Attendant • Steward
  • FINDINGSBrief on the Hotel Industry
  • FINDINGS Table 3. Total employment and number of non-regular workers in hotels and restaurants with 20 or more workers by category, Philippines: June 2010    Non-Regular Workers  Contractua Apprenti Probationa Seasonal Total Casual l /Project- ces Total ry Workers Employment Workers  based /Learner Workers    Workers sHotels 196,075 70,077 14,032 13,424 38,338 1,534 2,749andRestaurants Note: Details may not add up to totals due to rounding of figures.All Source: Bureau of Labor850,085 179,384 170,817 445,020 28,815 26,049 3,042,750 and Employment Statistics, 2009/2010 BLES Integrated SurveyIndustries (BITS).
  • FINDINGS Table 4. Number of hotels and restaurants with agency hired workers with 20 or more workers by category, Philippines: June 2010     Agency-Hired Workers Total Percent to Percent   Establishm Total Total Share entsHotels and 3,166 1,529 48.3 13.4Restaurants Source: Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics, 2009/2010 BLES Integrated SurveyAll (BITS). 23,723 11,388 48.0 100.0industries
  • FINDINGS Table 5. Number of agency-hired Workers in hotels and restaurants with 20 or more workers by type of jobs/services contracted out, Philippines: June 2010 Hotel and Percentag All Agency-Hired Workers Restaurants e Industries Total Number of 19,691 341,703 Agency-Hired WorkersSecurity Services 7,478 38.0% 98,790Food Service/Catering 6,041 30.7% 7,410Janitorial 3,301 16.8% 50,588General Administrative 1,307 6.6% 14,406Logistics/Transport 1,237 6.3% 6,630Marketing/Sales 163 0.8% 20,285Repair/Maintenance/Constr 108 0.5% 8,890uctionIT Services 56 0.3% 3,384 Source: Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics, 2009/2010 BLES Integrated Survey (BITS).
  • FINDINGSTable 5. Number of agency-hired Workers in hotels and restaurants with 20 or moreworkers by type of jobs/services contracted out, Philippines: June 2010 Agency-Hired Workers Hotel and All Restaurants Industries Packaging - 18,397 Production/Assembly - 103,192 Research and - 1,692 Development Cashier - 477 Human Resource - 20 Messengerial - 453 Billing/Payment - 194 Data - 165 Processing/Encoding - 2,156 Warehousing Labor and Employment Statistics, 2009/2010 BLES Integrated Survey Source: Bureau of Medical/Health Services (BITS). - 138 Others - 4,436
  • FINDINGS Table 6. Number of hotels and restaurants engaged in subcontracting with 20 or more workers, Philippines: June 2010 Establishment Total Percent Percent   s Resorting to Establishme to Total Share Subcontracting ntsHotels and 235 7.4 9.5 3,166RestaurantsAll industries 2,471 10.4 100.0 23,723 Source: Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics, 2009/2010 BLES Integrated Survey (BITS).
  • FINDINGSTable 7. Number of hotel and restaurants engaged in subcontracting in with 20 ormore workers by type of jobs/services contracted out, Philippines: June 2010   Hotel and All Industries RestaurantsProduction/Assembly - 193Finance/Accounting 134 1,091Data 24 141Processing/EncodingHuman Resource 42 420Learning/Training 24 299Billing and Payment 54 271Transport Services 59 462Courier Services 54 602Packaging/ Crating - 108Research and 12 129Development Source: Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics, 2009/2010 BLES Integrated SurveyOthers (BITS). 1 257
  • SURVEY RESULTS Table 8. Employment practice often associated with precarious work in the hotels Average Department Practices Percentag most affected e (n=84)Hiring of labor via employment agencies or labor brokers 35.9 HousekeepingOn call/daily/per function hiring 29.1 Food & BeverageContracting out functions/tasks to other companies 25.9 EngineeringDirect hire on temporary labor contracts 23.4 Food & BeverageDisguised employment training contracts (as trainees) 22.3 HousekeepingLimited employment to less than six (6) months 21.8 Food & BeverageFixed term contracts 14.0 EngineeringAbusive probationary periods 12.1 Food & BeverageIllegal or involuntary part-time work 7.1 F&B, stewardIndividual labor contracts as bogus “self-employed” workers 6.5 Engineering F&B, seamstress,Home working 3.0 laundry, accounting
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 9. Factors/reasons why hotel resort to precarious work practices
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 10. Effects of precarious work on the union
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 11. Effects of precarious work on women
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 12. Effects of precarious work on workplace health and safety
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 13. Effects of precarious work on sustainable development
  • SNIPPET OF PRECARIOUS WORK EXPERIENCE IN THE HOTEL 50 years old Land based crew for 3 Married years in Saudi to a CPA HRD Policy: only one ofBanquet the couple captain can be regular ized Casual employee at Did not meet Sofitel PANDOY the cut off since 1980 during the final interview
  • SNIPPET OF PRECARIOUS WORK IN EXPERIENCE IN THE HOTEL In the Casual housekeeping employee for section, males 5 years are preferred Management Room prefers HRMattendant graduatesat Sofitel Asked to do MARIA most of the Single work and OT parent with during peak a child months
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 14. Roles/action that can be taken by unions to address/combatprecarious work
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 15. Roles/action that can be taken by employers to address/combatprecarious work
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 16. Roles/action that can be taken by the following groups toaddress/combat precarious work
  • SURVEY RESULTSTable 17. Roles/action that can be taken by the ILO to address/combatprecarious work
  • CONCLUSIONPrecarious employment is undermining worker rights, the scope and coverage of collective bargaining, as well as wages and working conditions in the hotel industry.
  • CONCLUSIONPrecarious work is caused by factors such globalization, increasing intensified competition, government regulations, and corporate restructuring, in order to obtain greater efficiency, maximize employer profits and flexibility, and to shift risks onto workers.
  • CONCLUSIONPrecarious work is the enemy of decent work. It should not become the dominant feature of the working relationship between workers and employers.
  • RECOMMENDATIONTrade Union Actioneducate their membership on theimportance of combating precariousworkuse collective bargaining to stop orprevent the spread of precarious work
  • RECOMMENDATIONGovernment Actiondevelop long-term goal that integratesdecent work into our country’s growthpathadopt policies such as temporaryemployment guarantee schemes andaccess to health care
  • RECOMMENDATIONEmployer Actionadopt the philosophy that“the business must not be single-mindedlyfocused on its own profits, but must have abigger purpose that includes taking on someof the problems of the wider society for thecommon goodstop the use of precarious work to cut costand pressure the government to legislate lawsthat are anti-labor
  • RECOMMENDATIONILO Actionorganize a comprehensiveLaw and Practice Reportconvene an ILO expert meeting onobstacles to organizing and bargaining forprecarious workersexamine the development of suitableinstruments to limit, restrict and reducethe resort to precarious forms ofemployment
  • “ Work is a goodbelonging to all people and must be madeavailable to all who arecapable of engaging in it.” (PCJP, 2004)
  • THANK YOU!