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Key Points of Behaviorism Human learning purely objective Development is based on: Rewards Punishment Stimuli Reinforcement No internal cognitive processing of information Categorized into classical and operant conditioning. Behaviorism Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning
Key Theorist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Used conditioning to teach dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell Classic Conditioning-Natural Reflex that occurs in response to stimuli. Awarded Nobel Prize in 1904 B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Believed people shaped behavior based on rewards and reinforcement. Operant Conditioning- Controlled learning that results in changing behavior through rewards and stimuli. Often used in classroom management techniques
Classroom Implications The Teacher Reward good behaviors with: Treats Praise Other positive rewards Use computer programs that use operant conditioning to develop skills Use negative rewards (punishment) to stop and correct negative behavior The Student Students recognize signals to quiet down and listen to the instructor Students behave correctly knowing that they will be rewarded if they do good Computer programs reward students with positive feedback when given correct answers and does not when given incorrect answers Students learn from negative rewards in the classroom and stop the past behavior
Our Opinions of Behaviorism Overall, Behaviorism is effective in the classroom It should be used along with other theories to provide a better educational experience Using rewards, punishment, and stimuli in the classroom is simple and effective with and without technology
Positive and Negative Reinforcement NEGATIVE (Something is removed) Negative ReinforcementSomething is removed to increase desired behaviorEx: Give a free homework pass for turning in all assignments Negative PunishmentSomething is removed to decrease undesired behaviorEx: Make student miss their time in recess for not following the class rules POSITIVE (Something is added) Positive Reinforcement Something is added to increase desired behavior Ex: Smile and compliment student on good performance Positive Punishment Something is added to decrease undesired behavior Ex: Give student detention for failing to follow the class rules
Works Cited Abbott, Lynda. "Operant Conditioning in the Classroom." TeachNet. University of Texas, 2008. Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~Lynda_abbot/Opinnov.html>. Boeree, C. George. "B. F. Skinner." B.F. Skinner Personal Theories. 2006. Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html>. Hughes, Carolyn. "Education Department - Fitchburg State University." Fitchburg State University: Fitchburg, Massachusetts. 2011. Web. 17 Apr. 2011. <http://www.fitchburgstate.edu/education/>. "Ivan Pavlov - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 17 Apr 2011 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov-bio.html Shelly, Gary B., Gunter, Glenda A., and Randolph E. Gunter. "Learning Theories and Educational Research." Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom. By Gary B. Shelly. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Thomson/Course Technology, 2010. 368-71. Print.