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This is a reliable source on how to write foot notes and bibliography ,in a scientific paper.

This is a reliable source on how to write foot notes and bibliography ,in a scientific paper.

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  • 1. Foot Notes The Basic Format: Author, Work ( Title), Publication, Place, Year, Page. 1. Author: Immediate author is mentioned. Name, Surname 2. Work: Book : Title of the book is always in Italics.- No Invited Commas. Article : No Italics, But within double invited Commas. ( “….”) If you are reading a book and each chapter in it has a different author: Author ( of the article/chapter), Work ( Title of the article), in Editor of the book( ed), Title of the book ( in Italics) If the article is from a magazine: Author, “Title of Article” in Name of the Magazine( no Italics/No “…”), No. ( Issue),Vol. ( No editor in the Magazine to be mentioned.) 3. Publication: Book ISPK,ORBIS , 1
  • 2. (Just mention the name of the publication. Need not write again as Publications, unless it’s part of the name itself.) Note: If there are several editions of the book, then mention, how many’th edition the presently used book is. – (After the title, in the brackets) For Magazines No publication mentioned. 4. Place New York, New Delhi etc. 5. Year of Publication • As given, for the particularly used work. • If there are several editions, then, after the year of Publication, in the brackets, mention – (first publication 1968) etc 6. Pages: • p.18 or just put it as 18. • If you are using pp – then it’s in small letters. • If it is , continuously 2 to 3 pages then , 18-21 • If the material is discontinuously used then – 18.20.21 2
  • 3. Extra Information Quoting • If the citation is less than 4 lines- then – “………….” • If it touches 4th line or more then- use indent, from one side. (No invited Commas). • If the citation goes from one page to other, than in the footnote :- 18-19 • In the quoting, if only the ideas are taken, in the manner, from the first paragraph of page 18 and last but one of 19 then (or any other way but, from limited paragraphs), then – 18, 19. • If Idea is taken and not the citation, then as usual, reference at the end. To make it still clearer, where it starts- can use, so and so says( opines)….. Journals If the article is taken from the journal, then…. Immediate Author, “ title of the article (no Italics)”, in Name of the Journal ( No Italics, No underline), No., Vol., July- Sept (or Spring of July etc as given), Year, 22( pg no). 3
  • 4. Internet Meterial Internet Article: • If the Author is mentioned Author, “Title of the article”, at www…. ( URL), accessed on date, pg( if available). • If the author is not mentioned then “Title of the article”, at www…. ( URL), accessed on date, pg( if there is). ( No author mentioned) Internet Book • Author, Title of the book ( Italics),Publication, Place, Year, ( exactly as in the case of book) ( as accessed at www.Url.com on date) • If full reference is not given, then ask for it in the google search. It will be provided Internet Journal 4
  • 5. Immediate author, “ Title of the article (no Italics)”, in Name of the Journal ( No Italics, No underline), No., Vol., July- Sept (or Spring of July etc as given), Year, 22( pg no). ( exactly as in the journal) (accessed at….. on…..) In the footnotes, if the same material is repeating then 1. Book A 2. Again , immediately citation from the same book A, then – Ibid. 3. If from the same page then just – ibid. , 4. If from the different page then,- Ibid., 62 Ibid = CzÉÃ • If in-between two references, there are other works and authors then…. Eg: 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. A then ---- author, op.cit., pg no. If you have referred 2 books of the same author, in your paper then “Title”, op.cit., 18( p. no- if from different pages). op.cit. = CzÉÃ PÀÈw Please Note: if the material repeated is from the internet then – instead of op.cit put it as- loc.cit 5
  • 6. • If there are more than one editor to the book- then mention the first editors name( first name given) e.g: in Robertson ( et.al)(ed.s) Bibliography 1. For books Surname, Name, ( as in footnotes, except pg. no) 2. For Journals (No author) Title of the Journal ( No italics, no invited Commas), No., Vol., Month, Year. (Even the internet material comes under these two categories- depending on whether they are books or articles) It is good to: • While writing the bibliography – books- maintain the alphabetical order according to the surname of the author. • While writing the bibliography – articles- alphabetical order to be maintained according to the – Title or name of the journal. 6
  • 7. • If there are more than one editor to the book- then mention the first editors name( first name given) e.g: in Robertson ( et.al)(ed.s) Bibliography 1. For books Surname, Name, ( as in footnotes, except pg. no) 2. For Journals (No author) Title of the Journal ( No italics, no invited Commas), No., Vol., Month, Year. (Even the internet material comes under these two categories- depending on whether they are books or articles) It is good to: • While writing the bibliography – books- maintain the alphabetical order according to the surname of the author. • While writing the bibliography – articles- alphabetical order to be maintained according to the – Title or name of the journal. 6

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