➤ It’s what you’ve observed, either
first hand or second hand.
➤ Grounds are reasons or supporting
evidence that bolster the claim.
➤ Grounds can be: facts, statistics,
expert opinion, examples,
explanations, and logical reasoning
➤ It’s a chain of reasoning, that
connects the grounds to the
➤ It’s a general rule, which links
the claim to the grounds.
➤ Warrants aren’t normally
➤ Warrants operate at a higher
level of generality than a claim..
➤ It’s the conclusion of the argument.
➤ It’s what the arguer is attempting
to convince the audience to do or
➤ It’s a statement, not a question.
➤ It answers the question, “Why do you
➤ It’s the specific support for the grounds,
or the warrant.
➤ The backing is the implicit
assumptions that show the warrant is
reliable and/or it’s evidence to
support the grounds.
➤ It’s the reasons why the warrant
does not apply.
➤ It’s the exceptions to the rule.
➤ It’s a word or phrase which suggests
the degree of validity of the claim.
➤ A claim that is very highly correct
is more valid than a claim that is
most likely correct.
According to the CDC, in 2010, 10,228
people were killed in alcohol-impaired
driving crashes, accounting for nearly
one-third (31%) of all traffic-related
deaths in the United States.
works well for
analyzing the kind of
arguments you read
in newspapers, and
hear on TV, at work,
in classrooms, and in
“Toulmin’s model helps to show
how tightly constructed arguments
are, and how each part of an
argument relates to the overall
validity or reasonableness of that
“Toulmin’s model is
not meant to judge
the success or
failure of an attempt
to prove an
argument, instead it
helps break down
an argument to its
most basic pieces.”