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Intro Design Principles
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Intro Design Principles



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  • 1. Introduction to Design Principles Based on Don Norman’s book “The Design of Everyday Things” Michael Rawlins, Director, Interaction Design & Strategy 1
  • 2. Why me? • I’m very curious… • I understand multiple disciplines. • Bad user experiences bother me. • I have passion for solving problems. • I’m intrigued by how different we Michael Rawlins Interaction Designer all are as people… 2
  • 3. About Don Norman • A cognitive scientist and engineer who pioneered concepts related to user centered design. • Worked at Apple & HP. Now @ NNG ( • Examines everyday things as examples of problematic designs. • Established Design Principles as a framework for discussing and thinking about interaction problems. 3
  • 4. Design Principles • Visibility - can I see the interaction? • Feedback - what’s the object or device doing right now? • Affordance - how do I use it? • Mapping - where am I & where can I go? • Constraints - why can’t I do that? • Consistency - is this familiar? 4
  • 5. Visibility • Can you see the state of the device & possible actions? • Are the controls positioned in a manner where they can easily be found and used? • Problems arise when users can’t see how to use the device. 5
  • 6. Poor Visibility • Which controls are ambiguous? • How does this device turn off? • Which controls have meanings that are unclear?. 6
  • 7. Better Visibility 7
  • 8. Feedback • What is the device doing right now? • What action is being performed? Feedback is often multi-sensory (an audible click and a visual clue of interaction) How does this work? 8
  • 9. Affordance • Perceived and actual properties of an object that provides clues to its operation. 9
  • 10. Poor Affordance? • What’s clickable below? 10
  • 11. Better Affordance… • Why do these examples have better visual affordance? 11
  • 12. Mapping • The relationship between controls and their effect. • Do these devices work with each other? 12
  • 13. Mapping • Problematic examples (what’s good and what’s bad?) 13
  • 14. Constraints • Restricting the kind of actions a user can take. 14
  • 15. Constraints • How is the users attention directed to notice the system constraints? • What other constraints should the user notice? • How does users safety impact the design of this gas pump? 15
  • 16. Consistency • Design interfaces to have similar operations & use similar elements for achieving like tasks. • Similarity increases learnability. • Design to aid prior system knowledge - and aid the users short and long-term memory. 16
  • 17. Consistency Four types of consistency: • Aesthetic - style & appearance is repeated to enhance recognition. • Functional - meaning and action is consistent to reinforce learnability and understanding. • Internal - indicates a system is planned & well thought out (cultivates trust and user orientation). • External - establishing an ecosystem & consistency with other elements in the environment. 17
  • 18. Conclusion… Design Principles are validated by usability methods: • Learnability - how easy is it to perform basic tasks upon the users first encounter with the device or interface. • Efficiency - once the users are familiar with the interface, how quickly and effectively can they perform tasks. • Memorability - when users return after not having used the system, how quickly can they reestablish proficiency? • Errors - how many errors do users make? How severe are the errors? Can the users easily recover from errors? • Satisfaction - how pleasant and effective is the user experience? 18
  • 19. Further Reading… 19
  • 20. Thank You… Credit to David Gelb 20