Introduction to
Design & Development
      Principles
   Based on Don Norman’s book
  “The Design of Everyday Things”
    ...
Why us?
                  • We’re very curious individuals…
 Larry Luckom     • We understand multiple disciplines.
  Inte...
Today’s talking points
• Everyone talks about code!
• What’s a design principle?
• How does development fit?
• Our predict...
Some Inspiration…
• England and America are two countries
  divided by a common language.
                      - George B...
Development is Expensive…
• Many languages and frameworks
• Huge gains in making code more open,
  more accessible
• Fasci...
Poor Communication is Expensive…




                                   6
Design Principles
•   Visibility - can I see the interaction?
•   Feedback - what’s the object or device doing right now?
...
Visibility
•   Can you see the state of the device
    & possible actions?
•   Are the controls positioned in a
    manner...
Poor Visibility
  •   Which controls are ambiguous?
  •   How does this device turn off?
  •   Which controls have meaning...
Better Visibility




                    10
Feedback
•   What is the device doing right now?
•   What action is being performed?




      Feedback is often multi-sen...
Affordance
•   Perceived and actual properties of an object that provides
    clues to its operation.




                ...
Poor Affordance?
•   What’s clickable below?




                              13
Better Affordance…
      •   Why do these examples have
          better visual affordance?




                          ...
Mapping
•   The relationship between controls and
    their effect.
•   Do these devices work with each
    other?




   ...
Mapping
•   Problematic examples (what’s good and what’s bad?)




                                                       ...
Constraints
•   Restricting the kind of actions a user
    can take.




                                         17
Constraints
•   How is the users attention
    directed to notice the
    system constraints?
•   What other constraints
 ...
Consistency
•   Design interfaces to have
    similar operations & use
    similar elements for achieving
    like tasks.
...
Consistency
Four types of consistency:
•   Aesthetic - style & appearance is repeated to enhance
    recognition.
•   Func...
About the Future…
Key things to look out for:
• Simplicity viewed as good… Complexity considered
  as very bad.
• Clear, c...
Conclusion…
Design Principles are validated by usability methods:
•   Learnability - how easy is it to perform basic tasks...
Further Reading…




                   23
Credit to Don Norman
•   A cognitive scientist and engineer who pioneered concepts
    related to user centered design.
• ...
Questions?




             25
Thank You…




  Credit to David Gelb   26
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GHAMAS Design Principles

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GHAMAS Design Principles

  1. 1. Introduction to Design & Development Principles Based on Don Norman’s book “The Design of Everyday Things” Larry Luckom, Interaction Designer Michael Rawlins, Director, User Experience 1
  2. 2. Why us? • We’re very curious individuals… Larry Luckom • We understand multiple disciplines. Interaction Designer • Bad user experiences bother us. • We have passion for solving problems. • We’re intrigued by how different people think and see things… Michael Rawlins Director, User Experience 2
  3. 3. Today’s talking points • Everyone talks about code! • What’s a design principle? • How does development fit? • Our predictions… 3
  4. 4. Some Inspiration… • England and America are two countries divided by a common language. - George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) • Programming today is a race between software engineers striving to build bigger and better idiot-proof programs, and the universe trying to build bigger and better idiots. So far, the universe is winning. - Rick Cook 4
  5. 5. Development is Expensive… • Many languages and frameworks • Huge gains in making code more open, more accessible • Fascinating technological advances - however, many projects still fail… • Why? 5
  6. 6. Poor Communication is Expensive… 6
  7. 7. Design Principles • Visibility - can I see the interaction? • Feedback - what’s the object or device doing right now? • Affordance - how do I use it? • Mapping - where am I & where can I go? • Constraints - why can’t I do that? • Consistency - is this familiar? 7
  8. 8. Visibility • Can you see the state of the device & possible actions? • Are the controls positioned in a manner where they can easily be found and used? • Problems arise when users can’t see how to use the device. 8
  9. 9. Poor Visibility • Which controls are ambiguous? • How does this device turn off? • Which controls have meanings that are unclear?. 9
  10. 10. Better Visibility 10
  11. 11. Feedback • What is the device doing right now? • What action is being performed? Feedback is often multi-sensory (an audible click and a visual clue of interaction) How does this work? 11
  12. 12. Affordance • Perceived and actual properties of an object that provides clues to its operation. 12
  13. 13. Poor Affordance? • What’s clickable below? 13
  14. 14. Better Affordance… • Why do these examples have better visual affordance? 14
  15. 15. Mapping • The relationship between controls and their effect. • Do these devices work with each other? 15
  16. 16. Mapping • Problematic examples (what’s good and what’s bad?) 16
  17. 17. Constraints • Restricting the kind of actions a user can take. 17
  18. 18. Constraints • How is the users attention directed to notice the system constraints? • What other constraints should the user notice? • How does users safety impact the design of this gas pump? 18
  19. 19. Consistency • Design interfaces to have similar operations & use similar elements for achieving like tasks. • Similarity increases learnability. • Design to aid prior system knowledge - and aid the users short and long-term memory. 19
  20. 20. Consistency Four types of consistency: • Aesthetic - style & appearance is repeated to enhance recognition. • Functional - meaning and action is consistent to reinforce learnability and understanding. • Internal - indicates a system is planned & well thought out (cultivates trust and user orientation). • External - establishing an ecosystem & consistency with other elements in the environment. 20
  21. 21. About the Future… Key things to look out for: • Simplicity viewed as good… Complexity considered as very bad. • Clear, concise communication will be valued. • Companies that know how to innovate will win and survive. • Diverse skillsets will be valued. 21
  22. 22. Conclusion… Design Principles are validated by usability methods: • Learnability - how easy is it to perform basic tasks upon the users first encounter with the device or interface. • Efficiency - once the users are familiar with the interface, how quickly and effectively can they perform tasks. • Memorability - when users return after not having used the system, how quickly can they reestablish proficiency? • Errors - how many errors do users make? How severe are the errors? Can the users easily recover from errors? • Satisfaction - how pleasant and effective is the user experience? 22
  23. 23. Further Reading… 23
  24. 24. Credit to Don Norman • A cognitive scientist and engineer who pioneered concepts related to user centered design. • Worked at Apple & HP. Now @ NNG (http://www.nngroup.com) • Examines everyday things as examples of problematic designs. • Established Design Principles as a framework for discussing and thinking about interaction problems. 24
  25. 25. Questions? 25
  26. 26. Thank You… Credit to David Gelb 26

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