HIGH PERFORMANCE LEADERSHIPChapter 11 POSITIVE THINKING- ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS Complied By :- RAVIRAJ A HIRLEKAR JIGNESH RATHOD ASAWARI DANDEKAR CHINMAYA SOMAN
GROUP MEMBERS RAVIRAJ HIRLEKAR 8047 MOHSIN SHEIKH 8142 MANDAR SURVE 8159 CHINMAYA SOMAN 8031 JIGNESH RATHOD 8156 ASAWARI DANDEKAR8024
CONTENTS• What is Positive thinking.• What is attitude.• Types of Attitude.• Attitude and its Implications.• Theories of Attitude.• Whether change of Attitude is possible.• How to develop a positive attitude.• Positive Attitude and Health Management.• What are Beliefs.• Belief and Knowledge.• Is Belief Voluntary.• Limiting Beliefs.
WHAT IS POSITIVE THINKING? Positive thinking is a mental attitude that admits into the mind thoughts, words and images that are conductive to growth, expansion and success. A positive mind anticipates happiness, joy, health and a successful outcome of every situation and action.
WHAT IS POSITIVE THINKING ???? MENTAL ATTITUDE ANTICIPATE HAPPINESS HEALTH & JOY OUTCOME OF SITUATION
“The positive thinker sees the invisible, feels the intangible, and achieves the impossible.”
WHAT IS ATTITUDE?Attitude is a hypothetical construct thatrepresents an individual’s like or dislike for anitem. It can be positive, negative or neutral.The Attitude You Bring To lifeThe difference between a school and life?In school, you are taught a lesson and then give a test. Inlife, you are given a test that teaches you a lesson - Tom Bodett
WHAT IS ATTITUDE ???? HYPOTHETICAL CONSTRUCTS POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEUTRAL The difference between a school and life? In school, you are taught a lesson and then give a test. In life, you are given a test that teaches you a lesson.
FUNCTION OF ATTITUDE THE AJUSTMENT FUNCTION THE EGO DEFENSIVE FUNCTION THE VALUE EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION THE KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION
Attitude Attitude and and SatisfactionProductivity Attitude and Withdrawal Symptoms Attitudes - Implications
ATTITUDE AND PRODUCTIVITY The link between attitude and productivity is not clear yet. Brayfeld and Crocket (1955) :- No relation Herzberg :- Positive ralation.
ATTITUDE AND SATISFACTION Job attitude and job satisfaction are closely related. Positive attitude Positive job satisfaction Negative attitude Low satisfaction
ATTITUDE AND WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS Employee satisfaction is inversely related to absenteeism and turnover. The greater the job satisfaction is on the part of an employee the less is the scope for employee withdrawal behavior.
ATTITUDE CHANGE Attitude can be change through persuasion. Carl Hovland view, we should understand attitude change as a response to communication
CHANGE IN THE FOCUS OF RECRUITMENT While people were recruited for their skills and expertise before exclusively, today the major recruitment is one of attitude. People today are recruited for the positive attitude . Attitude is one which cannot be hired from the shop. Hence, the mantra of companies today is recruit the person for attitude and develop the skills subsequently.
DEVELOPING A POSITIVE ATTITUDE The way you think, day-in-dayout, affects all aspects of yours life. Manypeople have found that, when they tune intotheir internal dialogue, much of it is negative.Thoughts like, “I could never do that” and“What if I fail?” can seriously impact the wayyou behave. This , in turn, affects everyaspects of your life.
SLEEP MORE SOUNDLY Decrease mental activity in the evening Make preparations for the next day. Take a hot bath before bedtime to help relieve stress Soothing fragrances, lights, and music may help as well. Limit activities in bed to sleep and sex only-no reading or television watching. If you have trouble sleeping, try sleeping in another area of the house. Try listening to repetitive soothing natural sounds (waves, wind, waterfall, stream, etc.) from a selected high quality sound device.
DEVELOP YOUR POSITIVE ATTITUDE!1. Listen to internal dialogue.2. Learn to communicate.3. Get back to basics.4. Help someone out.5. Find your spiritually.6. Allow yourself to be loved.7. Allow yourself to laugh and find humor.8. Participate in new physical and mental activities.9. Follow the principles of holistic health10. Remember that the mainstream media focuses on information.11. It is all about letting go of the “emotional baggage”
1. 8. Intention 2. Smile Mindfulness 8 ways to 7. create a 3.Applied faith positive Link to think day. 6. 4. Inspiration Kindness 5. Positive people
8 WAYS TO CREATE A POSITIVE DAY.1. Intention - Set your intention each morning to have apositive day! Remember you choose your attitude!2. Mindfulness - Keep your attention in the present moment.3. Link to think -Pick something you do frequently (perhapsmaking a phone call) and let that be a reminder to think apositive thought.4. Inspiration - Read and watch inspirational andmotivational material to lift your mood.5. Positive people - Surround yourself with positive people.They will help you stay focused on the positive.6. Kindness - Be kind to yourself and those around you.7. Applied faith - Trust that every situation has the seeds forgrowth and opportunity.8. Smile - Smile when you see others. Smile when you aretalking on the phone. A smile is contagious.
BALANCE THEORY This theory was first developed by Fritz Heider. 1. Basically it is an interpersonal theory of consistency. • Unity formation and denial of unit of formation (+1,-1) • Liking and disliking (+1,-1). 2. Balance exist when you like a person you are associated with (+1 *+1), or dislike a person you are not associated with (-1*-1). 3. Imbalance exits when you dislike a person you are associated with (+1*-1) or like a person with whom you are not associated with (-1*+1). 4. Imbalance is stressful and you will tend to change one of the cognitive component.
DISSONANCE THEORY 1. This theory was proposed by Leon Festinger, and has generated more research and controversy than any other cognitive consistency theory because of its ability to make non-obvious predictions. 2. Two cognitive elements can stand in relationship to each other as consonant (one implies the other ), dissonant (one implies the opposite of the other) or irrelevance (one has no implication for the other). 3. Dissonance is distressful and we seek to reduce it. 4. Magnitude of dissonance is a function of importance of the items and number of cognitive elements involved . 5. Dissonance can be reduced by changing the behavioural element, attitudinal element, adding cognitive elements , consonant with the behavioural element and changing the importance of cognitive or behavioural elements.
SELF- PERCEPTION THEORY Self-perception theory is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist, Daryl Bem. Self-perception theory differs from cognitive dissonance theory in that it does not hold that people experience a “negative drive state” called “dissonance” which they seek to relieve. Bem ran his own version of Festinger and carlsmith’s famous cognitive dissonance experiment. Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tendous peg-turning task. Whether cognitive dissonance or self-perception is a more useful theory is a topic of considerable controversy and a large and a large body of literature, with no clear winner. There are some circumstances where either theory is preferred, but it is traditional to use the terminology of cognitive dissonance theory by default.
WHAT IS BELIEFS ? Belief is psychological state in which an individual is convinced of the truth of a proposition. Like the related concept of truth, knowledge, and wisdom. The concept of belief presumes a subject (the believer) and an object (the proposition).
Example of Subject & Object. OBJECT The Proposition SUBJECT The Believer
Belief and Knowledge. False beliefs are not knowledge, even if the individual believes them to be true: a sincere believer in the flat earth theory does not know that the Earth is flat. Unknown facts are not knowledge, because they are not known by any individual; it is the belief element in a true belief that makes the link between a state of affairs and an individual. Unjustified true beliefs are lucky guesses, and therefore not knowledge.Example :- Flat earth theory Before After innovation innovatio n
Is belief voluntary?Most Philosophers hold the view that belief formation is to someextent spontaneous an involuntary. Some people think that one canchoose to investigate and research a matter but that one cannotchoose to believe. On the other hand, most people have theimpression that in some cases people don’t believe things becausethey don’t want to believe, especially about a matter in which they areemotionally involved.
Limiting BeliefsThe term limiting belief is used for a belief that inhibits exploration of a widercognitive space than would otherwise be the case. Examples of limiting beliefs areseen both in animals and people. These may be strongly held beliefs, or heldunconsciously, and are often tied in with self-image or perceptions about the world Every day examples of limiting beliefs • That one has specific capabilites, roles, or traits which cannot be escaped or changed. • That one cannot succeed so there is no point committing to trying. • That a particular opinion is right therefore there is no point considering other viewpoints.
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