1.
Presentation on ….
scaling techniques
(primary)
2.
Scaling
• scaling is the branch of measurement that involves
the construction of an instrument that associates
qualitative constructs with quantitative metric
units.
• Scaling describes the procedures of assigning no. to
various degrees of opinion, attitude & other
concepts.
• scaling is the extension of measurement.
• It is the process of placing the respondents on
continuum.
3.
Types of measurement scales
• Nominal scale
• Ordinal scale
• Interval scale
• Ratio scale
4.
Nominal scale
• Scale assigns number symbols to events in order to label them.
• Order is of no consequence.
• Describes differences between the things by assigning them to
categories.
• Used for keeping track of people, objects, events, no statistical
manipulation possible.
• Measure of central tendency- Mode
• Test of statistical significance- Chi square
• Least powerful measurement – no arithmetic origin, order or
distance relationship.
5.
Examples of nominal scale
1. Code no. Assigned to male – 1
code no. assigned to female – 2
2. Code no. assigned to different subjects:
science – 1
commerce – 2
Arts – 3
3. Code no. assigned for america- 1
for dubai – 2
for canada - 3
6.
Ordinal scale
• Places events in order.
• Ranking of items from highest to lowest.
• Categories have logical or ordered relationship.
• More precise comparisons are not possible.
• No absolute values.
• Measure of central tendency – Median
• Measure of statistical significance – non-
parametric methods
• Used in qualitative research.
7.
Examples of ordinal scale
Ex.1. Rank the following soft drinks acc. To
how much u like it.
Soft drink brands Respondents
Maaza 1
Sprite 2
Slice 3
Mirinda 4
Coke 5
Limca 6
Mountain dew 7
8.
Ex.2. Rank the following T.V. serials
according to your preference.
Name of T.V. Serial Respondents
Balika vadhu 1
Bidaayi 2
Sach ka saamna 3
Rakhi ka swayamvar 4
Is jungle se mujhe bachao 5
9.
Ex. 3.Rank the following brands of
toothpaste acc. To your preference.
Name of toothpaste Respondents
Pepsodent 1
Colgate 2
Close-up 3
Babool 4
Cibaca 5
Dabur red 6
10.
Ex. 4. Rank the following brands of
cosmetics acc. To your preference.
Name of brands Respondents
Lakme 1
Revlon 2
Maybelline 3
Garnier 4
Lotus 5
Oriflame 6
L’oreal 7
11.
Interval scale
• Scale that adjusts intervals in such a way that
a rule can be established as a basis for making
the units equal.
• Numbers are used to rank attributes
• It can have an arbitrary zero, but not absolute
zero (unique origin)
• Measure of central tendency – Mean
• Measure of statistical significance – standard
deviation
• ‘ t ‘ and ‘ f ‘ test for significance.
12.
Examples of Interval Scales
Ex.1.Indicate your score on concerned
blank& circle the appropriate number
on each line.
Pizza of pizza-hut is :
Tastes good 1 2 3 4 5
Prompt time delivery 1 2 3 4 5
Value for money 1 2 3 4 5
Fresh 1 2 3 4 5
Large variety 1 2 3 4 5
13.
Ex.2. Indicate your score on concerned blank
& circle the appropriate number on each
line.
Features of Hero Honda
karizma :
Looks 1 2 3 4 5
Good average 1 2 3 4 5
Comfortable 1 2 3 4 5
Good pick-up 1 2 3 4 5
Reliable 1 2 3 4 5
After sales service 1 2 3 4 5
14.
Example in semantic format
Ex.3. Please indicate your views on the
features of toothpaste by scoring them
on a five points scale from 1 to 5
Your toothpaste excellent Very good good poor worst
Cleans well
Good mouth-freshner
Prevents cavities
Prevents germs 24 hrs
price
15.
Ratio scale
• Ratio scale have an absolute or true
zero of measurement & represents the
actual amount of variables.
• Highest level of measurement scale.
• Most precise scale.
• Measures of central tendency –
Geometric & Harmonic Mean.
• Coefficient of variation may also
calculated.
16.
Examples of ratio scale
Ex.1. If you would have given Rs. 10000
then how would you like to spend your
money on following retail formats.
Name of retail format Amount to be spent
Pantaloons
Shoppers stop
Wills
Koutons
Globus
Allen solly
17.
2. If you would have given Rs. 500 then
how would you like to spend your
money on purchasing following
soaps?
Name of soap Amount to be spent (in Rs.)
Lux
Dettol
Dove
Vivel
Fiama de’ wills
Medimix
Santoor
18.
conclusion
Relevant information is obtained
increasingly from nominal to ratio
scale. If the nature of the variables
permits, the researcher should use the
scale that provides the most precise
description.
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