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# Scalling technique

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### Scalling technique

1. 1. Presentation on …. scaling techniques (primary)
2. 2. Scaling • scaling is the branch of measurement that involves the construction of an instrument that associates qualitative constructs with quantitative metric units. • Scaling describes the procedures of assigning no. to various degrees of opinion, attitude & other concepts. • scaling is the extension of measurement. • It is the process of placing the respondents on continuum.
3. 3. Types of measurement scales • Nominal scale • Ordinal scale • Interval scale • Ratio scale
4. 4. Nominal scale • Scale assigns number symbols to events in order to label them. • Order is of no consequence. • Describes differences between the things by assigning them to categories. • Used for keeping track of people, objects, events, no statistical manipulation possible. • Measure of central tendency- Mode • Test of statistical significance- Chi square • Least powerful measurement – no arithmetic origin, order or distance relationship.
5. 5. Examples of nominal scale 1. Code no. Assigned to male – 1 code no. assigned to female – 2 2. Code no. assigned to different subjects: science – 1 commerce – 2 Arts – 3 3. Code no. assigned for america- 1 for dubai – 2 for canada - 3
6. 6. Ordinal scale • Places events in order. • Ranking of items from highest to lowest. • Categories have logical or ordered relationship. • More precise comparisons are not possible. • No absolute values. • Measure of central tendency – Median • Measure of statistical significance – non- parametric methods • Used in qualitative research.
7. 7. Examples of ordinal scale Ex.1. Rank the following soft drinks acc. To how much u like it. Soft drink brands Respondents Maaza 1 Sprite 2 Slice 3 Mirinda 4 Coke 5 Limca 6 Mountain dew 7
8. 8. Ex.2. Rank the following T.V. serials according to your preference. Name of T.V. Serial Respondents Balika vadhu 1 Bidaayi 2 Sach ka saamna 3 Rakhi ka swayamvar 4 Is jungle se mujhe bachao 5
9. 9. Ex. 3.Rank the following brands of toothpaste acc. To your preference. Name of toothpaste Respondents Pepsodent 1 Colgate 2 Close-up 3 Babool 4 Cibaca 5 Dabur red 6
10. 10. Ex. 4. Rank the following brands of cosmetics acc. To your preference. Name of brands Respondents Lakme 1 Revlon 2 Maybelline 3 Garnier 4 Lotus 5 Oriflame 6 L’oreal 7
11. 11. Interval scale • Scale that adjusts intervals in such a way that a rule can be established as a basis for making the units equal. • Numbers are used to rank attributes • It can have an arbitrary zero, but not absolute zero (unique origin) • Measure of central tendency – Mean • Measure of statistical significance – standard deviation • ‘ t ‘ and ‘ f ‘ test for significance.
12. 12. Examples of Interval Scales Ex.1.Indicate your score on concerned blank& circle the appropriate number on each line. Pizza of pizza-hut is : Tastes good 1 2 3 4 5 Prompt time delivery 1 2 3 4 5 Value for money 1 2 3 4 5 Fresh 1 2 3 4 5 Large variety 1 2 3 4 5
13. 13. Ex.2. Indicate your score on concerned blank & circle the appropriate number on each line. Features of Hero Honda karizma : Looks 1 2 3 4 5 Good average 1 2 3 4 5 Comfortable 1 2 3 4 5 Good pick-up 1 2 3 4 5 Reliable 1 2 3 4 5 After sales service 1 2 3 4 5
14. 14. Example in semantic format Ex.3. Please indicate your views on the features of toothpaste by scoring them on a five points scale from 1 to 5 Your toothpaste excellent Very good good poor worst Cleans well Good mouth-freshner Prevents cavities Prevents germs 24 hrs price
15. 15. Ratio scale • Ratio scale have an absolute or true zero of measurement & represents the actual amount of variables. • Highest level of measurement scale. • Most precise scale. • Measures of central tendency – Geometric & Harmonic Mean. • Coefficient of variation may also calculated.
16. 16. Examples of ratio scale Ex.1. If you would have given Rs. 10000 then how would you like to spend your money on following retail formats. Name of retail format Amount to be spent Pantaloons Shoppers stop Wills Koutons Globus Allen solly
17. 17. 2. If you would have given Rs. 500 then how would you like to spend your money on purchasing following soaps? Name of soap Amount to be spent (in Rs.) Lux Dettol Dove Vivel Fiama de’ wills Medimix Santoor
18. 18. conclusion Relevant information is obtained increasingly from nominal to ratio scale. If the nature of the variables permits, the researcher should use the scale that provides the most precise description.