Research design dr. raj agrawal


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Research design dr. raj agrawal

  1. 1. Research Design and Formulation of problem
  2. 2. Why Research is Needed in Business Decision-Making is the process of resolving a problem or choosing amongst alternative opportunities  What is the problem or opportunity?  How much Information is available?  What Information is needed
  3. 3. How to select research problem  Novel –one which has not been investigated before. - Inject originality in it by coming up with another research design, - Interesting -Relevant  Will the results add knowledge to information already available in the field? • Is the topic too broad? • Can the problem really be investigated?  What costs and time are involved in the analysis?  Researchable  Can the data be analyzed?  Ethical
  4. 4. Literature Review  Why - Broaden Knowledge Base - Ensuring originality in the conduct of one’s research; - Clarity and focus - Gaps : findings and conclusions of past studies - Formulating the theoretical and conceptual framework
  5. 5. How  Search for existing literature  Prepare a working bibliography  Write in index cards; group together references from a. books b. journals and periodicals c. unpublished material  3. Examine each material, then decide which ones will actually be included in your review
  6. 6. WHAT TO INCLUDE  Review should be brief and to the point.  A plan to present the review  Emphasize relatedness  Don’t reproduce it
  7. 7. Research Design  The research design is the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information.  Three traditional categories of research design:  Exploratory  Descriptive  Causal  The overall research design for a project may include one or more of these three designs as part's of it.  Further, if more than one design is to be used, typically we progress from Exploratory toward Causal.
  8. 8. Research Objective Appropriate Design To gain background information, to define terms, to clarify Exploratory problems and develop hypotheses, to establish research priorities, to develop questions to be answered To describe and measure phenomena at a point Descriptive in time To determine causality, test hypotheses, to make “if-then” Causal statements, to answer questions Basic Research Objectives and Research Design
  9. 9. Research Design: Exploratory Research  Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, “informal” research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem.  Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information.  Undertaken with the aim of clarifying ambiguous problems  General problems usually known but not sufficiently understood  The purpose is to get more information, not to uncover specific courses of action (subsequent research) Example: Child-Care support programme for employees
  10. 10. Methods for Exploratory Research  A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research:  Secondary Data Analysis  Experience Surveys  Case Analysis  Focus Groups  Projective Techniques
  11. 11. Research Design: Descriptive Research  Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why.  Some examples:  What is the prevailing organizational culture in broadcast networks? - Who are the main consumers of organic foods? - How many students read the prescribed course literature?  Two basic classifications:  Cross-sectional studies  Longitudinal studies
  12. 12. Research Design: Descriptive Research Cross-sectional Studies  Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time.  Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population.  On-line survey research is being used to collect data for cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate of speed.
  13. 13. Research Design: Descriptive Research Longitudinal Studies  Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a population over time.  One method is to draw different units from the same sampling frame.  A second method is to use a “panel” where the same people are asked to respond periodically.  On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to respond to online queries.
  14. 14. Research Design: Descriptive Research Longitudinal Studies  Two types of panels:  Continuous panels ask panel members the same questions on each panel measurement.  Discontinuous (Omnibus) panels vary questions from one time to the next.  Longitudinal data used for:  Market tracking  Brand-switching  Attitude and image checks
  15. 15. Causal Research:  Undertaken with the aim of identifying cause and effect relationships amongst variables  Are normally preceeded by exploratory and descriptive research studies  Often difficult to determine because of the influence of other variables (concommitant Variation and the presence of other hidden variables)  Example: Higher ice-cream consumption causes more people to drown (indicative of a causal relationship (?))
  16. 16. Causal Research  Types of variables:  Independent variables – the cause supposed to be responsible for the bringing about change in a phenomenon or situation.  Dependent variables – the outcome of change brought about by change in the independent variable  Intervening variable – a variable whose existence is inferred but cannot be manipulated or controlled  Moderator variable – a variable that may or may not be controlled but has an effect on the research situation/phenomenon
  17. 17. Causal Research  For example:  Does a commitment to ethics among media practitioners depend on their educational or professional training?  Independent variable: educational attainment of journalist.  Dependent variables: ethical behavior, knowledge of Code of Ethics  Intervening variable: newsroom policies  Moderator variables: civil status, age, years of work experience
  18. 18. Experiments  An experiment is defined as manipulating (changing values/situations) one or more independent variables to see how the dependent variable(s) is/are affected, while also controlling the affects of additional extraneous variables.  Independent variables: those over which the researcher has control and wishes to manipulate i.e. package size, ad copy, price.  Dependent variables: those over which the researcher has little to no direct control, but has a strong interest in testing i.e. sales, profit, market share.  Extraneous variables: those that may effect a dependent variable but are not independent variables.
  19. 19. Experimental Design  An experimental design is a procedure for devising an experimental setting such that a change in the dependent variable may be solely attributed to a change in an independent variable.  Symbols of an experimental design:  O = measurement of a dependent variable  X = manipulation, or change, of an independent variable  R = random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups  E = experimental effect
  20. 20. Stages in the Research Process Define Problem Planning a Research Design Planning a Sample Gathering the Data Processing and Analysing the Data Conclusions and Report
  21. 21. Flowcharting the Research Process (1) Problem Discovery Secondary (historical) data Pilot Study Experience Survey Case Study Problem Definition (Statement of research objectives) Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method Survey (Interview, Questionnaire) Experiment (Laboratory, Field) Secondary Data Study Observation
  22. 22. Flowcharting the Research Process (2) Survey (Interview, Questionnaire) Experiment (Laboratory, Field) Secondary Data Study Observation Sample Design Probability Sampling Non-Probability Sampling Collection of Data (Fieldwork) Editing and Coding Data Data Processing and Analysis Interpretation of Findings Report