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This thesis will certainly not be complete without
due acknowledgement paid to all those who have helped one in
doing my project work.
It is great pleasure to acknowledgement our
profound sense of gratitude to our project guide
Mr.J.SREEKANTH KUMAR Asst professor, Department of
humanities and sciences,SBIT,Khammam for his valuable
guidance throughout the development of our project.
It’s indeed great pleasure to acknowledge his
constant encouragement and inspiration which inculcated in
us a sense of team spirit and thereby helped influent
evaluation of the project.
I would like to extend my gratitude to
Mr.K.RAMARAO, principal Mr.G.SRINIVAS RAO, and Head of
the Dept of ECE who extended their cooperation for the
successful completion of our project work.
I would like to mention the kind cooperation and
the help extended by all our team members namely
M.Abhinav Kumar (08M61A0437)
K.Surya chaitanya (08M61A0426)
SWARNA BHARATHI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND
( Approved by AICTE, Govt of A.P & Affiliated to JNTU, Hyd )
This is to certify that project entitled “FOREST IN ANDHRAPRADESH” is a
bonafide record of work carried out by V.SAI RAVI KIRAN bearing the roll
no 08M61A04D1 in partial fulfillment of work in Environmental sciences.
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
Contents covered in the PROJECT are listed below
Introduction to FOREST &
Reasons & effects for DEFORESTATION
Case studies of DEFORESTATION
Preventive measures for DEFORESTATION
Indian Forest coverage
Andhra Pradesh Forest coverage
Khammam district Forest coverage
Live Project on FOREST & TRIBAL HABITAT
Definition of FOREST: The place where the wild life of both the flora & fauna naturally is
basically considered to be a “FOREST”.
Uses of FORESTS:
1. In all, we have 3 types of functions with the FORESTS. They are
Protective functions: These include the protective role of forests against soil
erosion, droughts, floods, intense radiation.
Productive functions: Forests are the sources of wood and many other products
like gums, resins, fibers, medicines, katha, honey, bidi wrappers, pulp, paper.
Accessory functions: These include the role of forests in recreation, aesthetics,
and as habitat of diverse wildlife.
2. In addition to this, forests also have Ecological and Economical importance.
Forests are home to 50-90% of earth’s spices and are potentially renewable
resources if used as per optimum needs and ensuring their security known as
sustainability. Forests play crucial role in regulating the global climate and
temperature as forest cover absorbs the solar energy as for primary production of
food and energy that would otherwise be reflected back into the atmosphere by
the bare surface of the earth. The forest help as sinks for CO2 during photosynthesis
and releases O2 in that process balancing the O2 in the biosphere. Forests also
influence local, regional and global climate. On a hot day, large tree may extract
from the soil as much as 5.5 metric tons of water and transpire it into the
atmosphere to natural rain cloud seeding, thus 50-80% of the moisture in the air
above tropical forests comes from trees via transpiration and evaporation.
According to one calculation, during its life time a typical tree provides annual
200,00 US $ worth of ecological benefits in the form of oxygen, air purification, soil
fertility erosion control, water recycling, humidity control and wildlife habitats.
Forests are the most valuable natural resources available to the
mankind on planet earth. On the one hand, they are the essential source of
livelihood and fuel for the poor and marginalized sections of the society; on the
other hand they provide wood, timber from which furniture and other items of
desire can be prepared for the rich. Wood may also be converted into solid, liquid
and gaseous fuels. Timber is an important material in building construction and day
to day uses. The role of forests in the environmental amelioration and people’s life
assumed global significance after the 1992 Rio Summit. The saga of deforestation in
the developing countries on account of rising population and consequent poverty
has attracted global attention of scientists, resources managers and law makers. To
reverse the degradation in resources, action programs for conservation and
development of forest resources have taken shape in most of the countries .
Reasons for Deforestation:
Cutting down the forest is considered to be deforestation. It may be
happened manually or naturally. Destruction of forest due to natural
calamities like forest fires, floods, cyclones, hurricanes, tsunami etc., is
considered to be natural deforestation. Besides this, man because of his
needs and wanting cut down the forest. Some of the reasons are listed
It may be because of luxurious living or for basic needs like collection of fire
wood and charcoal, collection of wood for construction of buildings etc..,
Sometimes for country development also we lose some of the valuable
forest this is the case we are facing in the construction of road and dams,
and establishment of industries and factories.
On the other hand because of over grazing and zoom cultivation also some
lakhs of hectares of forest is being lost every year.
Effects of Deforestation:
Deforestation mainly has its impact on environment. It effects the environment in
Due to deforestation co2 level increases and o2 level decreases which leads
to Green House Effect (GHE).
It also include decrease of rain fall, increase in radiation, acid rain.
Due to the increase in radiation polar ice caps melts and increases the sea
level which results in floods.
Because of deforestation we also face food scarcity, resources scarcity, declination
of vulnerable medicinal herbs, spices.
We also face scarcity of wildlife. It is so because forests are the home for the
Case studies of Deforestation:
This includes major evil effects due to construction of major dams which requires
deforestation of large amount of forest. Two such cases are mentioned below
A large dam inevitably alters the course of nature and, because of
interaction of complex and largely unknown forces, the ecological
consequence are usually much more serious than were bargained. Silent
valley has been drop but the government has decided to go ahead with
Tehri, Vishnuprayag and many other projects. Also being proposed is the
Manibhadra dam in Orissa, in one of the prime forest areas remaining in the
The 1983-84 annual report of the department of Environmental reveals that
the construction of the Idukki Dam over the Periyar River in Kerala has
hasten the degradation of vegetation and sharply reduced the forest cover.
It is estimated that during the period 1951-1976, 0.49million hectares of
forest have been lost due to major river valley projects. This is roughly 10%
of the area that came under canal irrigation- 5.5 million hectares .
Preventive measures for Deforestation:
As we have already studied the evil effects of deforestation previously its our
responsibility to prevent the deforestation. Some of the preventive measures were
Deforestation must be done only as per our basic requirements, it should
exceed maximum limits.
A rule such that every industry has to maintain a green belt up to some
noticeable square kilometer area and also they should be constructed in
outskirts of mankind.
While construction of roads and dams compensated afforestation must be
done when compared to deforestation.
Non bail imprisonment must be come into action for deforestation.
Every individual must follow moral principles in his / her life.
Everyone must adapt simple life.
Over grazing, zoom cultivation must be prevented.
If everyone starts planting at least one plant in his/her life time shortly but
surely we can have the vision of greenery everywhere.
“ START PLANTING – START SAVING ”
Indian Forest coverage
Indian forest covers an area of 20.60% of total area. In numerical
representation it occupies nearly 67.71 million hectares of total geography.
Andhra Pradesh Forest coverage
• NON FOREST AREA
• MODERATE DENSE FOREST(MDF)
• OPEN FOREST
Geographic Area 2,75,069 km2 (8.4% of country)
75.73 million (7.4% of country)
20.50 million (27.1%)
55.22 million (72.9%)
Average Population Density 275 persons per km2
32.91 million (7.0% of country)
No. of Districts 23 Of Country’s Forest Area 8.24%
No. of Hill Districts
No. of Tribal Districts
Recorded Forest Area
Reserved Forest (RF):
Protected Forest (PF):
Unclassed Forest (UF):
Of State’s Geographic Area
Of Country’s Forest Area
Very Dense Forest (VDF):
Moderate Dense Forest (MDF): 24,356 km2
Open Forest (OF):
Culturable Non-Forest Area (CNFA): 204,084 km2
No. of trees per ha of CNFA:
Of State’s Geographic Area:
Of Country’s Forest Cover:
Of State’s Geographic Area:
Forest & Tree Cover
Total Forest & Tree Cover:
Of State’s Geographic Area:
Of Country’s Forest & Tree cover:
Per capita Forest & Tree Cover:
A.P. FOREST DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LIMITED
A.P. Forest Development Corporation Limited has been established in June 1975 in
pursuance of the policy of Government of India under Companies Act. Kothagudem Division
was established on 20.5.1978 and comprises 6 zones viz., 1. Kothagudem 2.
Annapureddipalli 3. Sathupalli-I 4. Sathupalli-II 5. Aswaraopeta 6. CTD Sathupalli. Degraded
forest areas with less than 0.4 crop density were taken on lease from Forest Department.
Plantations are raised to an extent of 11687 hectares with different species as shown
To raise industrial plantations like Eucalyptus, Bamboo etc., to meet the raw
material requirement of the wood based industries viz., M/s. ITC Ltd. (BPL)
Bhadrachalam and M/s APPM Ltd., Rajahmundry.
Eco-friendly and diversified crop management in degraded forest lands of state.
Contributing in protection of the environment and increased forestland
Providing gainful employment to the local tribals and rural people.
To provide market support to farmers for forest produce.
To provide consultancy in raising bio-aesthetic plantations.
Improving the quality and productivity of the degraded forests and plantations.
Adoption of watershed approach.
Adoption of latest gains in biotechnology for improved productivity.
To provide gainful employment to the local people.
Khammam district Forest coverage
Khammam District is a district in Andhra Pradesh, India. It had a population
of 2,565,412 of which 19.81% were urban as of 2001 census. Khammam town is the district
headquarters. The present name of Khammam is said to have been derived from the name
of the temple 'Narsimhadri', later 'Stamba Sikhari' and then it was termed as
'Stambhadri'.The name of the town Khammam seems to have been derived from the name
of this hill of Kamba and the town was named as Khammam Mettu which was later renamed
The river Godavari enters Khammam district from Warangal district and flows nearly 250km
across the district.
Khammam is one of the leading districts of A.P.State in total Forest coverage. Out of total
geographical area of 16029 Sq. Km. In the district, an area of 7488.82 Sq Km is under forest
cover spreading over 5 territorial and one wild life divisions. River Godavari passes through
eastern part of the district and harbors one of the richest bio-diversity in the state. Other
tributaries of the river Godavari like Taliperu, Kinnersani and Sabari also help in bringing
prosperity to the area. Commonly seen species are Teak, Nallamaddi, Bijasal, Jitregi (rose
wood), hard vickia, Binta, Bamboo etc.
6. Divisions in Khammam district
Administratively Khammam district is divided into four revenue divisions and 46 mandals.
The Khammam district has a tribal population of 5,58,958, which is about 13.29%
of the total tribal population of the state, Andhra Pradesh
Live Project on FOREST & TRIBAL
In order to how the solid proof regarding the forest
values in the habitat, we have decided to take a live
project on the FOREST RESOURCES & ITS HABITAT. For this, we selected two spots in our
KHAMMAM Dist, near BHADRACHALAM, Kunavaram Mandal. Those are Mayuri Central
Nursery, Buttaygudem, Nellipaka Beet, and Ramachandrapuram. Both these are located in
Observations done at Mayuri Central Nursery were listed below. There, in that
Nursery, we observed following species
The above species were discussed below in detail according to the information
provided by Mr. D.Laxman, Forest Beet Officer (F.B.O),
As per as information gathered by us, the present teak trees are 14,000.
Its figure is shown above. Every Teak tree can’t survive more than 60years, so it must
be cut down immediately after 60years. They are grown with the help of manure
mixture. That mixture consists of red and black soils, water, natural manure and
gamaxine. With this mixture plant is kept in a (9”×5”) polythene covers.
These Teak trees are very much used as wood for construction of buildings.
These are very useful as a medical plant. With these plants, many pain balms can be
prepared. Its figure is shown below
They are grown through stem propagation. At first a piece of plant’s stem is taken
apart and made to grown in the trays, which were shown in the below
In the tray the part of the stem is placed along with the Omniculator .
Those trays are placed in the Mistchamber in which just 400C is maintained. If the
temperature is increased then the temperature is cooled with the help of cooler
placed in the chamber. At a time we can grown 40,000 plants in the Mistchamber.
Water was sprinkled with the help of sprinklers as shown
After this they are made to grow in the open area as shown below
It is used as a natural fuel it is also known as Kanugabaga. The present trees
at Nursery are 1, 60,000. The figure of bio diesel plants are shown below
They are grown with the help of manure mixture. That mixture consists of red and
black soils, water, natural manure and gamaxine. With this mixture plant is kept in a
(9”×5”) polythene covers.
This is obtained by the stem propagation. Stem of one plant is tied to the upper part
of the tamarind plant in a polythene cover and keep it until it gets hard. The present
Hybrid Tamarind trees in the nursery are about 200. The figure of the Hybrid
Tamarind is shown below.
The present seemarooba plants in the nursery are about 16,000. Its figure is shown
Its production is very low here. Only just one tree is grown. Its figure is shown below
For the forest habitat we need to select an area in which we can find tribals. For this
we have selected Ramachandra Puram, which belongs to Kunavarum Mandal and
70km apart from Bhadrachalam. There we have observed some important things
which made us to feel pity at the tribals.
From the main route 15km interior this Ramachandra puram
located. There nearly 25 families were living in which atleast 5-6 memberes are
there. They were migrated from Chhattisgarh in the year 2002. But they were
provided neither with any tribal welfare projects nor with ration cards. Even though
they got the job cards they were not provided with any job.
They were not even provided with proper schooling even though
there were 30 children to be educated. Only one bore well is there to satisfy all the
needs of nearly 150-200members. There is no electrical power and proper health
checkup. For every minor need they were supposed to walk a distance of 12km from
their living. They commonly depend on rain fed crops like sonamasuri.
This was the school located there
Beside all these things we have also observed following trees
All possible wild animals live in the dense forest.
The above furnished data in the live project is as per the data collected from the
locality and by witnessing individually. From this project we are very proud to convey
that we have obtained practical knowledge and got a chance to know about tribal
culture. From our view at the tribal people of Ramachandra Puram we have felt still
so many tribal welfare programs were not reaching them. It’s our responsibility to
convey our special thanks to our beloved, Honorable and Respected Mentor
Mr.J.SREEKANTH KUMAR, our project guide to have this beautiful and
valuable opportunity to have the live project.