A Report on Accident Scenarios in
process plants & How HAZOP can take
lead Role in Prevention

By
Kancherla. Ravi Chandra
...
Presentation structure
1. Introduction to chemical Accidents
2. Management of Chemical Accidents
 Regulations
 Codes of ...
1. Introduction to chemical Accidents
 The growth of chemical industries has led to an increase in the risk of
occurrence...
1. Introduction to chemical Accidents
 Causative factors for chemical accidents:
Fire.
Explosion.
Toxic release.
Pois...
1. Introduction to chemical Accidents
Impact of Chemical Accidents/ Disasters

5
2. Management of Chemical Accidents
 Regulations
Lack of legislation on risk assessment requirements
and classification,...
2. Management of Chemical Accidents
 Statutory Inspection, Safety Audit and Testing of Emergency
Plans
Safety Audit
Med...
2. Management of Chemical Accidents
 Technical
Information, Education &
Training
 Information on Chemicals
 Technical I...
2. Management of Chemical Accidents
 Technical
Information, Education &
Training
 Capacity Development


Infrastructura...
3. Case Studies about some of the major chemical
accidents
Case study 1: Bhopal Tragedy:
1984 – Bhopal, India – Toxic Mat...
3. Case Studies about some of the major chemical
accidents
Case study 2: Hindustan Petroleum
Corporation (HPCL) at Visakha...
4. Lessons learned from Accidents
 Different lessons learned can be derived by analyzing the causes that lead to the
acci...
4. Lessons learned from Accidents
 Process Analysis:
Identification of incompatibility of the
mixtures that could be gen...
4. Lessons learned from Accidents
 Safety measures and control systems:
One should follow proper safety measures and con...
4. Lessons learned from Accidents
 Organizational measures
Proper training should be given to the all employees &
worker...
Key Questions to be Answered….!
 Do toxic, explosive or flammable substances in the
facility constitute a major hazard?
...
5. How Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) helps in
prevent accidents
Process Hazard Analysis is a systematic effort designed to...
5. How Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) helps in
prevent accidents
 Common PHA Methods
Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)...
6. Role of Hazard and Operability Study – HAZOP
 Over the past few decades Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) has been
...
HAZOP Study can be applicable to…
Process development

Process definition

Process Design

Procurement &
construction

Com...
A typical HAZOP WORK SHEET
Design Conditions/parameters
Flow rate:
Temperature:
Pressure:
Level:

Node:
Deviation:
Type:

...
Risk Matrix
HAZARD SEVERITY(S)
No
Injury

Likelihood
of
Hazard
Occurrence (L)

Minor Injury Injury or
Moderate
Health
Impa...
7 Conclusions
 The study of past accidents is an effective method to learn lessons to avoid
recurrence of similar situati...
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A report on accident scenarios in process plants & how hazop can take lead role in prevention

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A report on accident scenarios in process plants & how hazop can take lead role in prevention

  1. 1. A Report on Accident Scenarios in process plants & How HAZOP can take lead Role in Prevention By Kancherla. Ravi Chandra 1
  2. 2. Presentation structure 1. Introduction to chemical Accidents 2. Management of Chemical Accidents  Regulations  Codes of Practices, Procedures and Standards  Statutory Inspection, Safety Audit and Testing of Emergency Plans  Technical Information 3. Case Studies about some of the major chemical accidents 4. Lessons learned from accidents 5. How Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) helps in prevent accidents 6. Role of Hazard and Operability Study – HAZOP 7. Conclusions 2
  3. 3. 1. Introduction to chemical Accidents  The growth of chemical industries has led to an increase in the risk of occurrence of incidents associated with hazardous chemicals (HAZCHEM). A chemical industry that incorporates the best principles of safety can largely prevent such incidents.  Common causes for chemical accidents are deficiencies in safety management systems and human errors, or they may occur as a consequence of natural calamities or sabotage activities.  Chemical accidents result in fire, explosion and/or toxic release. The nature of chemical agents and their concentration during exposure ultimately decides the toxicity and damaging effects on living organisms in the form of symptoms and signs like irreversible pain, suffering, and death. 3
  4. 4. 1. Introduction to chemical Accidents  Causative factors for chemical accidents: Fire. Explosion. Toxic release. Poisoning. Combinations of the above. Technical errors Human errors Lack of information Organizational errors  Initiators of Chemical Accidents: Process and Safety System Failures Natural Calamities Terrorist Attacks/Sabotage 4
  5. 5. 1. Introduction to chemical Accidents Impact of Chemical Accidents/ Disasters 5
  6. 6. 2. Management of Chemical Accidents  Regulations Lack of legislation on risk assessment requirements and classification, labeling and packaging for industrial chemicals. Need to identify technical competent authorities and standardization of reporting mechanisms for the status of implementation of various chemical disaster-related activities. Non-availability of statutes for grant of compensation to chemical accident victims. Harmonization and incorporation of international laws in chemical management. 6
  7. 7. 2. Management of Chemical Accidents  Statutory Inspection, Safety Audit and Testing of Emergency Plans Safety Audit Medical Emergency Plans Inspection System in Factory Inspectorates Commissioning and Decommissioning Plans On-Site Emergency Plan Off-Site Emergency Plans  Codes of Practices, Procedures and Standards The specific gaps in these Codes of Practices, Procedures and Standards are as follows:  Lack of national-level risk assessment criteria and acceptable risks for chemical plants viz., failure rate and probability of accidents, etc.  Procedure for conduct of safety audit and safety report preparation. 7
  8. 8. 2. Management of Chemical Accidents  Technical Information, Education & Training  Information on Chemicals  Technical Information & Technology  Education  Training of Emergency Services and District Authorities  Medical Preparedness and Response 8
  9. 9. 2. Management of Chemical Accidents  Technical Information, Education & Training  Capacity Development  Infrastructural  Skilled Manpower  Material Logistics  Awareness Generation 9
  10. 10. 3. Case Studies about some of the major chemical accidents Case study 1: Bhopal Tragedy: 1984 – Bhopal, India – Toxic Material Released 2,500 immediate fatalities; 20,000+ total died. Many other offsite injuries  Cause: Most of the safety systems were not functioning. Many valves and lines were in poor condition HAZARD: Highly Toxic Methyl Isocyanate 10
  11. 11. 3. Case Studies about some of the major chemical accidents Case study 2: Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) at Visakhapatnam On 14th September 1997 disaster in Visakhapatnam refinery is one of the major failure in industries of India  Cause: "A drop in pressure on shore compared with that on the ship implies a leak”. "LPG was leaking from the time the ship started pumping it on shore late last night. It leaked for several hours as it was not detected. "The leak could not be detected as imported LPG is odorless. "The gas is heavier than air, so it spread at ground level. There was a flash fire when the LPG ignited”. 11
  12. 12. 4. Lessons learned from Accidents  Different lessons learned can be derived by analyzing the causes that lead to the accidents studied. These lessons learned can be grouped under three categories: Process Analysis, Safety Measures & Organizational Measures. I suppose that I should have done that HAZOP Study! 12
  13. 13. 4. Lessons learned from Accidents  Process Analysis: Identification of incompatibility of the mixtures that could be generated in the chemical establishment. Identification of those physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, reaction time, etc.) the variation of which could lead to a loss of control of a chemical reaction or other process operations. Identification of possible protective measures (inhibition, extra cooling, containment, etc.) that could be taken in order to stop a runaway event. Identification of possible physical consequences (toxic release, explosion and/or fire) that could be originated as a result of a runaway. 13
  14. 14. 4. Lessons learned from Accidents  Safety measures and control systems: One should follow proper safety measures and controls while Handling, storage & Transportation of Hazardous substances & Flammable Materials First, to avoid oxidant atmospheres that may trigger an explosion, this can be achieved by the use of inert gases like nitrogen. Second, to avoid ignition sources such as static electricity, hot surfaces, or sparks originating from other operations such as welding works. And now for reaction and process operations, sensors to monitor the evolution of critical safety parameters identified during process analysis should be incorporated into the plant equipment. These sensors should be interlocked with the equipment devices (such as cooling system, reactant dosing devices, agitation system, etc.), so that the control system can act to restore appropriate process conditions. 14
  15. 15. 4. Lessons learned from Accidents  Organizational measures Proper training should be given to the all employees & workers in the plant & Training procedures should include case studies, describing possible effects of chemical accidents. Detailed maintenance and cleaning procedures must be implemented. Emergency plan systems must include the activation of defense systems, evacuation routes, identification of personnel on site during an accident, correct alarm systems, etc. Implement correct labeling rules and procedures, including verification, to avoid mishandling of chemicals. Ensure fluent communication throughout a process & ensure appropriate supervision of hazardous activities. 15
  16. 16. Key Questions to be Answered….!  Do toxic, explosive or flammable substances in the facility constitute a major hazard?  Do chemicals or agents exist combined, could become a toxic hazard? which, if  Which failures or errors can cause abnormal conditions leading to a major accident?  If a major accident occurs, what are the consequences of a fire, an explosion or a toxic release for the employees, people living outside the facility, the plant or the environment?  What can management do to prevent these accidents from happening?  What can be done to mitigate the consequences of an accident? 16
  17. 17. 5. How Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) helps in prevent accidents Process Hazard Analysis is a systematic effort designed to identify and analyze hazards associated with the processing or handling of highly hazardous materials; and it is a method to provide information which will help workers and employers in making decisions that will improve safety.  Key Features of PHA Determine locations of potential safety problems. Identify corrective measures to improve safety. Preplan emergency actions to be taken if safety controls fail. 17
  18. 18. 5. How Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) helps in prevent accidents  Common PHA Methods Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) Checklists What If Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Fault-Tree Analysis  The HAZARD and OPERABILITY Study is the most commonly used PHA method in process industries. While the HAZOP method provides more thorough and complete treatment than other classical PHA methods. 18
  19. 19. 6. Role of Hazard and Operability Study – HAZOP  Over the past few decades Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) has been imposing itself as one of the most powerful tools for identifying process hazards.  In addition, with the use of more or less simplified semi-quantification systems, HAZOP is being increasingly used both as a tool for risk assessment and for prioritizing actions for risk mitigation.  The advantages offered by HAZOP over other process risk analysis tools are numerous, not least the following: It has a rigorous character: structured, systematic and comprehensive. It helps to anticipate potential accidents and it is easy to learn and apply. It is adaptable to the majority of process industry operations. It allows the interchange of the knowledge and experience of the participants. It acts as sort of a training for participating personnel; the participants are looking at the process from another perspective; not “how should it run”, but “how can it fail to run correctly”. 19
  20. 20. HAZOP Study can be applicable to… Process development Process definition Process Design Procurement & construction Commissioning Operation 20
  21. 21. A typical HAZOP WORK SHEET Design Conditions/parameters Flow rate: Temperature: Pressure: Level: Node: Deviation: Type: Causes Consequences Risk Matrix S S - Hazard Severity L Safeguards Recommendations RR L – Likelihood of hazard occurrence RR – Risk Rank 21
  22. 22. Risk Matrix HAZARD SEVERITY(S) No Injury Likelihood of Hazard Occurrence (L) Minor Injury Injury or Moderate Health Impact Death or severe health Impact Unlikely A A C C Possible A C C N Likely C C N U Very Liely C N U U A- Acceptable (No Risk control measures are needed) C- Acceptable with control( Risk control measure are in place) N-Not desirable (Risk control measure are to be introduced within a specified time period) U - Unacceptable 22
  23. 23. 7 Conclusions  The study of past accidents is an effective method to learn lessons to avoid recurrence of similar situations in the future. For the analysis of specific cases involving chemical reactivity, the possible failures during a process included in the HAZOP methodology gives a good possibility to identify the causes of the accidents.  The lessons learned should be included in the operating procedures of chemical companies whenever necessary. These lessons involve both organizational and technical issues; from the management point of view, a true commitment of all staff is required in order to develop an appropriate safety culture in the establishment.  Considering the complexity of today's chemical processes, the challenges involved in facilitating a PHA study, and the potential liabilities from an incident, your best option for completing PHAs may be to seek the assistance of expert specialists.  An important benefit of HAZOP studies is that the resulting knowledge, obtained by identifying potential hazards and operability problems in a structured and systematic manner, is of great assistance in determining appropriate remedial measures.  Thus the HAZOP methodology represents an extremely powerful tool for the identification, semi-quantification and mitigation of risks/ accidents in process plants. 23

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