Windows network administration Basic theories

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This is the basic slide to understand networking concepts for beginners...

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Windows network administration Basic theories

  1. 1. Cables Coaxial cables Twisted pair cables Cable OHMS meters Mbps Thin 50 185 10 Thick 100 500 10 • Unshielded Twisted Pair(UTP) • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
  2. 2. Network concepts Geographical Topologies Architectures
  3. 3. Geographical LAN(Local) WAN(Wide) MAN(Metro) CAN(Campus) TAN(Tiny) HAN(Home) PAN(Personal) SAN(Storage)
  4. 4. Topologies Mesh Bus Ring Hybrid Tree Star
  5. 5. Architectures Workgroup(peer to peer) Domain(Client/Server)
  6. 6. Hub • Data is sent to all the machines in the network at the same time(broadcasting). • This generates more traffic. So the communication is much slower. • Destination is data is detected by the computers by machine IP and the MAC address. • Data communication is half duplex. • To connect a hub to another hub you must use a hub with a uplink port.
  7. 7. Switch • Data is sent only to the requested destinations (forwarding). • This reduces traffic so communication is much faster. • Data communication is full duplex(can receive and send at the same time). • Destination of data is decided by the switch itself by keeping all MAC addresses in its temporary memory. • Can connect any numbers of switches without using a special port or device.
  8. 8. • No server to control the network. • Less security, restrictions and control. • No centralized user management or administrator. • Administrator must visit each to perform any configurations or management tasks.
  9. 9. • The domain controller control the network. • More security, restrictions and control. • A centralized user management and administrator. • The administrator performs all the tasks through the domain control.
  10. 10. IP addresses Versions Rangers Classes Types IP version 4 (IPV4) Privet Class A Dynamic IP IP version 6 (IPV6) Public Class B Static IP Class C Class D Class E
  11. 11. Versions IPV4 • E.g.: 192.168.10.100 8 bit * 4 = 32 bit IPV4 Octal(8 bit) IPV4 • E.g.: Fe80.0000.0000.1234.0000.0000.0000.abde Hexa decimal(16 bit) 16 bit * 8 = 128 bit IPV
  12. 12. Classes
  13. 13. Class A • Full range Start – 1 . 0 . 0 . 1 End – 126 . 255 . 255 . 254 • Privet range(Only for LAN) Start – 10 . 0 . 0 . 1 End – 10 . 255 . 255 . 254 • Subnet mask 255 . 0 . 0 . 0 Network ID Client/Host ID
  14. 14. Class B • Full range Start – 128 . 0 . 0 . 1 End – 191 . 255 . 255 . 254 • Privet range(Only for LAN) Start – 172 . 16 . 0 . 1 End – 172 . 31 . 255 . 254 • Subnet mask 255 . 255 . 0 . 0 Network ID Client/Host ID
  15. 15. Class C • Full range Start – 192 . 0 . 0 . 1 End – 223 . 255 . 255 . 254 • Privet range(Only for LAN) Start – 192 . 168 . 0 . 1 End – 192 . 168. 255 . 254 • Subnet mask 255 . 255 . 255 . 0 Network ID Client/Host ID
  16. 16. Class D • Used for Multicasting services and applications. Start – 224 . 0 . 0 . 0 End – 239 . 253 . 255 . 255
  17. 17. Class E • Used for Experimental and research purposes. Start – 240 . 0 . 0 . 0 End – 255 . 255 . 255 . 255
  18. 18. Loop back address • Not a IP, only used for self identifications and diagnostic purposes only.
  19. 19. IP Rangers Privet Public • Addresses which are reserved for local area networks/ Intranets. • These addresses freely assigned for our privet networks. • Addresses which are reserved for Wide area networks/ Internet. You must buy this addresses from Internet Service Providers(ISP) or from any internet authority.
  20. 20. IP Types Dynamic IPs • Addresses which are automatically assign by a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service. These addresses are randomly assigned and they changed frequently. Static IPs • Addresses which are manually assigned in the properties of TCP/IP protocol by the administrator. These addresses will not changed unless we changed them.
  21. 21. • DHCP allows to automatically assign IP addresses, subnet masks and other configuration information to client computers on the local network.
  22. 22. Domain Name System ( DNS ) • DNS is a system for naming computers and network services that maps those names to network addresses and organizes them into a hierarchy of domains.
  23. 23. .org Microsoft.com .com Corp.consoto.com Contoso.com root .edu .net .lk Hq.consoto.com
  24. 24. www.microsoft.com Top Level Domain (TLD) .com Commercial entities such as corporations. .edu Educational purposes such as colleges and public and privet schools. .gov Government entities such as federal, state and local government. .net Organizations that provide internet service providers(ISPs). .org Privet nonprofit organizations.
  25. 25. Microsoft Management Console ( MMC ) • MMC is a platform used for running administrative tools in a windows OS. • Start Run MMC
  26. 26. Group Policy • Group policies are used to implement certain restrictions on client machines. • Start Administrative tools Group Policy Management
  27. 27. Group Accounts Types • Security groups • Distribution groups Scopes • Domain local • Global • Universal
  28. 28. Internet Information Service ( IIS ) • IIS is the Microsoft web server use for hosting web sites, virtual directories and FTP sites.
  29. 29. Windows Deployment Service (WDS) • WDS is a service use for installing the operation system through the network to many computers at the same time.
  30. 30. Microsoft Domain Environment Primary Domain Controller Must contain a Server OS (2000,2003,2008) PDC Must be a member of a domain(a client) with a server OS Main Active Directory database Copy of the Active Directory database ADC ADC Any network OS (2000, xp, 7 , 8) Additional domain controller (backup/child domain) PC1 PC2 Clients PC3
  31. 31. IP settings Domain controller IP settings Client IP settings IP 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.1 Subnet 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 Preferred DNS 127.0.0.1 ( loop back ) 192.168.1.200 ( DNS server IP )

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