RBI/2011-12/66
DBOD.No.BP.BC.12 /21.04.048/2011-12

July 1, 2011

All Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs)
Dear Sir

Master C...
MASTER CIRCULAR - PRUDENTIAL NORMS ON INCOME RECOGNITION, ASSET
CLASSIFICATION AND PROVISIONING PERTAINING TO ADVANCES
TAB...
PROVISIONING NORMS

17

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10

General
Loss assets
Doubtful assets
Substandard assets
S...
12.1
12.2
12.3
13

13.1
13.2
13.3
14
14.1
14.2
15
16
17
18

Asset classification norms
Income recognition norms
Valuation ...
Master Circular - Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset
Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances
Par...
i.

interest and/ or instalment of principal remain overdue for a period of more
than 90 days in respect of a term loan,

...
recognised on accrual basis but is booked as income only when it is actually
received. Therefore, the banks should not cha...
3.3.2

In the absence of a clear agreement between the bank and the borrower for

the purpose of appropriation of recoveri...
4.1.2

Doubtful Assets

With effect from March 31, 2005, an asset would be classified as doubtful if it has
remained in th...
4.2.4

Accounts with temporary deficiencies

The classification of an asset as NPA should be based on the record of recove...
recorded before the balance sheet date should be handled with care and without
scope for subjectivity. Where the account i...
v)
If the client concerned is also a borrower of the bank enjoying a Cash
Credit or Overdraft facility from the bank, the ...
category and provisioning should be made as applicable to doubtful assets.
ii.
If the realisable value of the security, as...
i.
A loan granted for short duration crops will be treated as NPA, if the
instalment of principal or interest thereon rema...
NPA is not for the purpose of recognition of income. The requirement of invocation of
guarantee has been delinked for deci...
4.2.15.3
(i)

Project Loans for Infrastructure Sector
A loan for an infrastructure project will be classified as NPA durin...
a.

In cases where there is moratorium for payment of interest, banks should

not book income on accrual basis beyond two ...
The other conditions applicable would be :
a.

In cases where there is moratorium for payment of interest, banks should

n...
(d)

On re-rating, (if already rated) the new rating is not below the previous

rating by more than one notch.
(iii)

Thes...
provision would be in addition to the amount of provision that may be
necessary for the depreciation in the value of the e...
recovery, it should be classified accordingly. The lending institution should not
recognise income on accrual basis and ac...
4.2.19 Advances under rehabilitation approved by BIFR/ TLI
Banks are not permitted to upgrade the classification of any ad...
ii.

In regard to the secured portion, provision may be made on the following

basis, at the rates ranging from 25 percent...
securities like guarantees (including State government guarantees), comfort letters etc.

(iii)

In order to enhance trans...
Assets' under 'Other Liabilities and Provisions Others' in Schedule 5 of the balance
sheet.
(iv)

It is clarified that the...
general melt down in the markets, which affects the entire financial system.
Among the credit category, only exceptional c...
arrive at the net NPAs
5.8

Provisions on Leased Assets
i)

Substandard assets
a)

15 percent of the sum of the net invest...
classification as substandard or doubtful asset.
(ii)
As regards the additional facilities sanctioned as per package final...
Value of security held
(excludes worth of Rs.)

Rs. 1.50 lakhs

Provision required to be made
Outstanding balance

Rs. 4.0...
Less: Value of security
Unsecured amount
Less: CGTSI cover (75%)
Net unsecured and uncovered
portion:

Rs. 8.50 lakh
Rs. 6...
according to the risk categories mentioned below. To begin with, banks shall make
provisions as per the following schedule...
Accordingly, these excess provisions that arise on sale of NPAs would be
eligible for Tier II status in terms of paragraph...
been also observed that many banks at the time of initial loan appraisal, do not take
into account the repaying capacity o...
standards as are being currently developed by Basel Committee on Banking
Supervision (BCBS) and other provisioning norms, ...
offered by the SC/RC are given below. The prudential guidelines have been grouped
under the following headings:
i)

Financ...
ensure that the effect of the sale of the financial assets should be such that the asset
is taken off the books of the ban...
(h)

In cases of specific financial assets, where it is considered necessary, banks/

FIs may enter into agreement with SC...
(iv)

The securities must provide for part or full prepayment in the event
the SC / RC sells the asset securing the securi...
d.

e.
6.7.

Additional consideration realized in respect of accounts transferred in
earlier years
Aggregate gain / loss o...
7.3

The reference to ‘bank’ in the guidelines on purchase/sale of nonperforming financial

assets would include financial...
efficient manner which will result in value addition to the bank. The Board should also
ensure that appropriate systems an...
selling banks would have to bear a part of the shortfall.
ix)

A nonperforming asset in the books of a bank shall be eligi...
(iii)

Where

the

purchase/sale

does not

satisfy any of

the

prudential

requirements prescribed in these guidelines t...
market risks also. For NBFCs the relevant instructions on capital adequacy would be
applicable.
(E)

Exposure Norms

The p...
8.2

This stipulation is not applicable to provisioning required to be made as indicated

above. In other words, amounts s...
PART B
Prudential Guidelines on Restructuring of Advances by Banks

9.

Background

9.1

The guidelines issued by the Rese...
issued by the RPCD were harmonised in August 2008. These prudential norms applicable to
all restructurings including those...
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
Rbi guidelines   asset classifications july 2011
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Rbi guidelines asset classifications july 2011

  1. 1. RBI/2011-12/66 DBOD.No.BP.BC.12 /21.04.048/2011-12 July 1, 2011 All Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs) Dear Sir Master Circular - Prudential norms on Income Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances Recognition, Asset Please refer to the Master Circular No. DBOD.No.BP.BC. 21/21.04.048/2010-11 dated July 1, 2010 consolidating instructions / guidelines issued to banks till June 30, 2010 on matters relating to prudential norms on income recognition, asset classification and provisioning pertaining to advances. 2. The Master Circular has now been suitably updated by incorporating instructions issued up to June 30, 2011 and is attached. It has also been placed on the RBI web-site (http://www.rbi.org.in). We advise that this revised Master Circular consolidates the instructions contained in the circulars listed in the Annex 9. Yours faithfully (Deepak Singhal) Chief General Manager Encls: As above Î¹ˆ¿ÅŠ¸ œ¸¹£¸¸¥¸›¸ ‚ù£ ¹¨¸ˆÅ¸¬¸ ¹¨¸ž¸¸Š¸, ˆ½Å›Íú¡¸ ˆÅ¸¡¸¸Ä¥¸¡¸, 12¨¸ú Ÿ¸¿¹¸¥¸, ˆ½Å›Íú¡¸ ˆÅ¸¡¸¸Ä¥¸¡¸ ž¸¨¸›¸, ©¸íú™ ž¸Š¸÷¸¢¬¸¿í Ÿ¸¸Š¸Ä, Ÿé¿¸ƒÄ - 400 001. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ th Department of Banking Operations and Development, Central Office, 12 floor, Central Office Building, Mumbai – 400 001. ’½¹¥¸ûÅø›¸ /Tel No: (91-22) 22601000 û¾ÅƬ¸/Fax No. (91-22) 22705691 & (91-22) 22705692 - Email ID:cgmicdbodco@rbi.org.in ¹−›™ú ‚¸¬¸¸›¸ −¾ , ƒ¬¸ˆÅ¸ œÏ¡¸øŠ¸ ¸õ¸ƒ¡ø— DBOD-MC on IRAC Norms-2011
  2. 2. MASTER CIRCULAR - PRUDENTIAL NORMS ON INCOME RECOGNITION, ASSET CLASSIFICATION AND PROVISIONING PERTAINING TO ADVANCES TABLE OF CONTENTS Para No. Particulars Page No. PART A 1 GENERAL 1 2 DEFINITIONS 1 2.1 2.2 2.3 Nonperforming assets ‘Out of Order' status ‘Overdue’ INCOME RECOGNITION 1 2 2 2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Income recognition policy Reversal of income Appropriation of recovery in NPAs Interest Application Computation of NPA levels ASSET CLASSIFICATION 2 3 3 4 4 4 Categories of NPAs Substandard Assets Doubtful Assets Loss Assets Guidelines for classification of assets Availability of security / net worth of borrower/ guarantor Accounts with temporary deficiencies Upgradation of loan accounts classified as NPAs Accounts regularised near about the balance sheet date Asset Classification to be borrower wise and not facility-wise Advances under consortium arrangements Accounts where there is erosion in the value of security Advances to PACS/FSS ceded to Commercial Banks Advances against Term Deposits, NSCs, KVP/IVP, etc Loans with moratorium for payment of interest Agricultural advances Government guaranteed advances Projects under implementation Takeout Finance Post-shipment Supplier's Credit Export Project Finance Advances under rehabilitation approved by BIFR/ TLI 4 4 4 5 5 5 3 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 4.2.12 4.2.13 4.2.14 4.2.15 4.2.16 4.2.17 4.2.18 4.2.19 5 6 6 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 16 16 17 17 DBOD-MC on IRAC Norms-2011
  3. 3. PROVISIONING NORMS 17 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 General Loss assets Doubtful assets Substandard assets Standard assets Floating provisions Provisions for advances at higher than prescribed rates Provisions on Leased Assets Guidelines for Provisions under Special Circumstances Provisioning Coverage Ratio GUIDELINES ON SALE OF FINANCIAL ASSETS TO SECURITISATION COMPANY (SC)/ RECONSTRUCTION COMPANY (RC) 17 18 19 18 19 20 22 22 23 28 29 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Scope Structure Financial assets which can be sold Procedure for sale of banks’/ FIs’ financial assets to SC/ RC, including valuation and pricing aspects Prudential norms for banks/ FIs for the sale transactions Disclosure Requirements Related Issues GUIDELINES ON PURCHASE/SALE OF NON PERFORMING ASSETS 29 29 30 30 Scope Structure Procedure for purchase/ sale of non performing financial assets, including valuation and pricing aspects Prudential norms for banks for the purchase/ sale transactions Disclosure Requirements WRITING OFF OF NPAs 34 34 35 5 6 6.5 6.6 6.7 7 7.1 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 8 32 33 33 34 37 38 39 PART B Prudential guidelines on Restructuring of Advances 9 10 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 12 Background on Restructuring of advances Key Concepts General Principles and Prudential Norms for Restructured Advances Eligibility criteria for restructuring of advances Asset classification norms Income recognition norms Provisioning norms Prudential Norms for Conversion of Principal into Debt / Equity 40 41 41 41 43 44 44 46 DBOD-MC on IRAC Norms-2011
  4. 4. 12.1 12.2 12.3 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 14 14.1 14.2 15 16 17 18 Asset classification norms Income recognition norms Valuation and provisioning norms Prudential Norms for Conversion of Unpaid Interest into 'Funded Interest Term Loan' (FITL), Debt or Equity Instruments Asset classification norms Income recognition norms Valuation and provisioning norms Special Regulatory Treatment for Asset Classification Applicability of special regulatory treatment Elements of special regulatory framework Miscellaneous Disclosures Illustrations Objective of Restructuring 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 51 51 52 52 PART C Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 (ADWDRS)- Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification, Provisioning, and Capital Adequacy 19 20 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 21 21.1 21.2 The background Prudential Norms for the Borrowal Accounts Covered under the ADWDRS Norms for the Accounts subjected to Debt Waiver Norms for the Accounts subjected to the Debt Relief Grant of Fresh Loans to the Borrowers covered under the ADWDRS Capital Adequacy Subsequent Modifications to the Prudential Norms Interest payment by the GOI Change in instalment schedule of “other farmers” under the Debt Relief Scheme 53 53 53 54 57 57 57 57 58 ANNEXES Annex -1 Annex -2 Annex -3 Annex -4 Annex -5 Annex -6 Annex - 7 Annex - 8 Annex - 9 Details of Gross Advances, Gross NPAs, Net Advances and Net NPA List of relevant direct agricultural advances Format for Computing Provisioning Coverage Ratio (PCR) Organisational Framework for Restructuring of Advances Under Consortium / Multiple Banking / Syndication Arrangements Key Concepts in Restructuring Particulars of Accounts Restructured Asset Classification of Restructured Accounts under the Guidelines Special Regulatory Relaxations for Restructuring (Available upto June 30,2009) List of circulars consolidated by the Master Circular 60 61 62 63 75 77 78 80 84 DBOD-MC on IRAC Norms-2011
  5. 5. Master Circular - Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances Part A 1. GENERAL 1.1 In line with the international practices and as per the recommendations made by the Committee on the Financial System (Chairman Shri M. Narasimham), the Reserve Bank of India has introduced, in a phased manner, prudential norms for income recognition, asset classification and provisioning for the advances portfolio of the banks so as to move towards greater consistency and transparency in the published accounts. 1.2 The policy of income recognition should be objective and based on record of recovery rather than on any subjective considerations. Likewise, the classification of assets of banks has to be done on the basis of objective criteria which would ensure a uniform and consistent application of the norms. Also, the provisioning should be made on the basis of the classification of assets based on the period for which the asset has remained nonperforming and the availability of security and the realisable value thereof. 1.3 Banks are urged to ensure that while granting loans and advances, realistic repayment schedules may be fixed on the basis of cash flows with borrowers. This would go a long way to facilitate prompt repayment by the borrowers and thus improve the record of recovery in advances. 1.4 With the introduction of prudential norms, the Health Code-based system for classification of advances has ceased to be a subject of supervisory interest. As such, all related reporting requirements, etc. under the Health Code system also cease to be a supervisory requirement. Banks may, however, continue the system at their discretion as a management information tool. 2. DEFINITIONS 2.1 Non performing Assets 2.1.1 An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank. 2.1.2 A non performing asset (NPA) is a loan or an advance where; DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  6. 6. i. interest and/ or instalment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan, ii. the account remains ‘out of order’ as indicated at paragraph 2.2 below, in respect of an Overdraft/Cash Credit (OD/CC), iii. the bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted, iv. the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for two crop seasons for short duration crops, v. the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for one crop season for long duration crops, vi. the amount of liquidity facility remains outstanding for more than 90 days, in respect of a securitisation transaction undertaken in terms of guidelines on securitisation dated February 1, 2006. vii. in respect of derivative transactions, the overdue receivables representing positive mark-to-market value of a derivative contract, if these remain unpaid for a period of 90 days from the specified due date for payment. 2.1.3 Banks should, classify an account as NPA only if the interest due and charged during any quarter is not serviced fully within 90 days from the end of the quarter. 2.2 ‘Out of Order’ status An account should be treated as 'out of order' if the outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned limit/drawing power. In cases where the outstanding balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned limit/drawing power, but there are no credits continuously for 90 days as on the date of Balance Sheet or credits are not enough to cover the interest debited during the same period, these accounts should be treated as 'out of order'. 2.3 ‘Overdue’ Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is ‘overdue’ if it is not paid on the due date fixed by the bank. 3. INCOME RECOGNITION 3.1 Income Recognition Policy 3.1.1 of The policy of income recognition has to be objective and based on the record recovery. Internationally income from 2 nonperforming assets (NPA) is not DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  7. 7. recognised on accrual basis but is booked as income only when it is actually received. Therefore, the banks should not charge and take to income account interest on any NPA. 3.1.2 However, interest on advances against term deposits, NSCs, IVPs, KVPs and Life policies may be taken to income account on the due date, provided adequate margin is available in the accounts. 3.1.3 Fees and commissions earned by the banks as a result of renegotiations or rescheduling of outstanding debts should be recognised on an accrual basis over the period of time covered by the renegotiated or rescheduled extension of credit. 3.1.4 If Government guaranteed advances become NPA, the interest on such advances should not be taken to income account unless the interest has been realised. 3.2 Reversal of income 3.2.1 If any advance, including bills purchased and discounted, becomes NPA, the entire interest accrued and credited to income account in the past periods, should be reversed if the same is not realised. This will apply to Government guaranteed accounts also. 3.2.2 In respect of NPAs, fees, commission and similar income that have accrued should cease to accrue in the current period and should be reversed with respect to past periods, if uncollected. 3.2.3 Leased Assets The finance charge component of finance income [as defined in ‘AS 19 Leases’ issued by the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)] on the leased asset which has accrued and was credited to income account before the asset became nonperforming, and remaining unrealised, should be reversed or provided for in the current accounting period. 3.3 Appropriation of recovery in NPAs 3.3.1 Interest realised on NPAs may be taken to income account provided the credits in the accounts towards interest are not out of fresh/ additional credit facilities sanctioned to the borrower concerned. 3 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  8. 8. 3.3.2 In the absence of a clear agreement between the bank and the borrower for the purpose of appropriation of recoveries in NPAs (i.e. towards principal or interest due), banks should adopt an accounting principle and exercise the right of appropriation of recoveries in a uniform and consistent manner. 3.4 Interest Application On an account turning NPA, banks should reverse the interest already charged and not collected by debiting Profit and Loss account, and stop further application of interest. However, banks may continue to record such accrued interest in a Memorandum account in their books. For the purpose of computing Gross Advances, interest recorded in the Memorandum account should not be taken into account. 3.5 Computation of NPA levels Banks are advised to compute their Gross Advances, Net Advances, Gross NPAs and Net NPAs, as per the format in Annex -1. 4. ASSET CLASSIFICATION 4.1 Categories of NPAs Banks are required to classify nonperforming assets further into the following three categories based on the period for which the asset has remained nonperforming and the realisability of the dues: i. Substandard Assets ii. Doubtful Assets iii. Loss Assets 4.1.1 Substandard Assets With effect from 31 March 2005, a substandard asset would be one, which has remained NPA for a period less than or equal to 12 months. In such cases, the current net worth of the borrower/ guarantor or the current market value of the security charged is not enough to ensure recovery of the dues to the banks in full. In other words, such an asset will have well defined credit weaknesses that jeopardise the liquidation of the debt and are characterised by the distinct possibility that the banks will sustain some loss, if deficiencies are not corrected. 4 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  9. 9. 4.1.2 Doubtful Assets With effect from March 31, 2005, an asset would be classified as doubtful if it has remained in the substandard category for a period of 12 months. A loan classified as doubtful has all the weaknesses inherent in assets that were classified as substandard, with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full, – on the basis of currently known facts, conditions and values – highly questionable and improbable. 4.1.3 Loss Assets A loss asset is one where loss has been identified by the bank or internal or external auditors or the RBI inspection but the amount has not been written off wholly. In other words, such an asset is considered uncollectible and of such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not warranted although there may be some salvage or recovery value. 4.2 Guidelines for classification of assets 4.2.1 Broadly speaking, classification of assets into above categories should be done taking into account the degree of well-defined credit weaknesses and the extent of dependence on collateral security for realisation of dues. 4.2.2 Banks should establish appropriate internal systems to eliminate the tendency to delay or postpone the identification of NPAs, especially in respect of high value accounts. The banks may fix a minimum cut off point to decide what would constitute a high value account depending upon their respective business levels. The cut off point should be valid for the entire accounting year. Responsibility and validation levels for ensuring proper asset classification may be fixed by the banks. The system should ensure that doubts in asset classification due to any reason are settled through specified internal channels within one month from the date on which the account would have been classified as NPA as per extant guidelines. 4.2.3 Availability of security / net worth of borrower/ guarantor The availability of security or net worth of borrower/ guarantor should not be taken into account for the purpose of treating an advance as NPA or otherwise, except to the extent provided in Para 4.2.9, as income recognition is based on record of recovery. 5 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  10. 10. 4.2.4 Accounts with temporary deficiencies The classification of an asset as NPA should be based on the record of recovery. Bank should not classify an advance account as NPA merely due to the existence of some deficiencies which are temporary in nature such as non-availability of adequate drawing power based on the latest available stock statement, balance outstanding exceeding the limit temporarily, non-submission of stock statements and nonrenewal of the limits on the due date, etc. In the matter of classification of accounts with such deficiencies banks may follow the following guidelines: i) Banks should ensure that drawings in the working capital accounts are covered by the adequacy of current assets, since current assets are first appropriated in times of distress. Drawing power is required to be arrived at based on the stock statement which is current. However, considering the difficulties of large borrowers, stock statements relied upon by the banks for determining drawing power should not be older than three months. The outstanding in the account based on drawing power calculated from stock statements older than three months, would be deemed as irregular. A working capital borrowal account will become NPA if such irregular drawings are permitted in the account for a continuous period of 90 days even though the unit may be working or the borrower's financial position is satisfactory. ii) Regular and ad hoc credit limits need to be reviewed/ regularised not later than three months from the due date/date of ad hoc sanction. In case of constraints such as non-availability of financial statements and other data from the borrowers, the branch should furnish evidence to show that renewal/ review of credit limits is already on and would be completed soon. In any case, delay beyond six months is not considered desirable as a general discipline. Hence, an account where the regular/ ad hoc credit limits have not been reviewed/ renewed within 180 days from the due date/ date of ad hoc sanction will be treated as NPA. 4.2.5 Upgradation of loan accounts classified as NPAs If arrears of interest and principal are paid by the borrower in the case of loan accounts classified as NPAs, the account should no longer be treated as nonperforming and may be classified as ‘standard’ accounts. With regard to upgradation of a restructured/ rescheduled account which is classified as NPA contents of paragraphs 11.2 and 14.2 in the Part B of this circular will be applicable. 4.2.6 Accounts regularised near about the balance sheet date The asset classification of borrowal accounts where a solitary or a few credits are 6 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  11. 11. recorded before the balance sheet date should be handled with care and without scope for subjectivity. Where the account indicates inherent weakness on the basis of the data available, the account should be deemed as a NPA. In other genuine cases, the banks must furnish satisfactory evidence to the Statutory Auditors/Inspecting Officers about the manner of regularisation of the account to eliminate doubts on their performing status. 4.2.7 Asset Classification to be borrower-wise and not facility-wise i) It is difficult to envisage a situation when only one facility to a borrower/one investment in any of the securities issued by the borrower becomes a problem credit/investment and not others. Therefore, all the facilities granted by a bank to a borrower and investment in all the securities issued by the borrower will have to be treated as NPA/NPI and not the particular facility/investment or part thereof which has become irregular. ii) If the debits arising out of devolvement of letters of credit or invoked guarantees are parked in a separate account, the balance outstanding in that account also should be treated as a part of the borrower’s principal operating account for the purpose of application of prudential norms on income recognition, asset classification and provisioning. iii) The bills discounted under LC favouring a borrower may not be classified as a Non-performing advance (NPA), when any other facility granted to the borrower is classified as NPA. However, in case documents under LC are not accepted on presentation or the payment under the LC is not made on the due date by the LC issuing bank for any reason and the borrower does not immediately make good the amount disbursed as a result of discounting of concerned bills, the outstanding bills discounted will immediately be classified as NPA with effect from the date when the other facilities had been classified as NPA. iv) The overdue receivables representing positive mark-to-market value of a derivative contract will be treated as a non-performing asset, if these remain unpaid for 90 days or more. In case the overdues arising from forward contracts and plain vanilla swaps and options become NPAs, all other funded facilities granted to the client shall also be classified as non-performing asset following the principle of borrower-wise classification as per the existing asset classification norms. Accordingly, any amount, representing positive mark-tomarket value of the foreign exchange derivative contracts (other than forward contract and plain vanilla swaps and options) that were entered into during the period April 2007 to June 2008, which has already crystallised or might crystallise in future and is / becomes receivable from the client, should be parked in a separate account maintained in the name of the client / counterparty. This amount, even if overdue for a period of 90 days or more, will not make other funded facilities provided to the client, NPA on account of the principle of borrower-wise asset classification, though such receivable overdue for 90 days or more shall itself be classified as NPA, as per the extant IRAC norms. The classification of all other assets of such clients will, however, continue to be governed by the extant IRAC norms. 7 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  12. 12. v) If the client concerned is also a borrower of the bank enjoying a Cash Credit or Overdraft facility from the bank, the receivables mentioned at item (iv) above may be debited to that account on due date and the impact of its non-payment would be reflected in the cash credit / overdraft facility account. The principle of borrower-wise asset classification would be applicable here also, as per extant norms. vi) In cases where the contract provides for settlement of the current mark-to-market value of a derivative contract before its maturity, only the current credit exposure (not the potential future exposure) will be classified as a non-performing asset after an overdue period of 90 days. vii) As the overdue receivables mentioned above would represent unrealised income already booked by the bank on accrual basis, after 90 days of overdue period, the amount already taken to 'Profit and Loss a/c' should be reversed. 4.2.8 Advances under consortium arrangements Asset classification of accounts under consortium should be based on the record of recovery of the individual member banks and other aspects having a bearing on the recoverability of the advances. Where the remittances by the borrower under consortium lending arrangements are pooled with one bank and/or where the bank receiving remittances is not parting with the share of other member banks, the account will be treated as not serviced in the books of the other member banks and therefore, be treated as NPA. The banks participating in the consortium should, therefore, arrange to get their share of recovery transferred from the lead bank or get an express consent from the lead bank for the transfer of their share of recovery, to ensure proper asset classification in their respective books. 4.2.9 Accounts where there is erosion in the value of security/frauds committed by borrowers In respect of accounts where there are potential threats for recovery on account of erosion in the value of security or non-availability of security and existence of other factors such as frauds committed by borrowers it will not be prudent that such accounts should go through various stages of asset classification. In cases of such serious credit impairment the asset should be straightaway classified as doubtful or loss asset as appropriate: i. Erosion in the value of security can be reckoned as significant when the realisable value of the security is less than 50 per cent of the value assessed by the bank or accepted by RBI at the time of last inspection, as the case may be. Such NPAs may be straightaway classified under doubtful 8 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  13. 13. category and provisioning should be made as applicable to doubtful assets. ii. If the realisable value of the security, as assessed by the bank/ approved valuers/ RBI is less than 10 per cent of the outstanding in the borrowal accounts, the existence of security should be ignored and the asset should be straightaway classified as loss asset. It may be either written off or fully provided for by the bank. 4.2.10 Advances to PACS/FSS ceded to Commercial Banks In respect of agricultural advances as well as advances for other purposes granted by banks to PACS/ FSS under the on-lending system, only that particular credit facility granted to PACS/ FSS which is in default for a period of two crop seasons in case of short duration crops and one crop season in case of long duration crops, as the case may be, after it has become due will be classified as NPA and not all the credit facilities sanctioned to a PACS/ FSS. The other direct loans & advances, if any, granted by the bank to the member borrower of a PACS/ FSS outside the onlending arrangement will become NPA even if one of the credit facilities granted to the same borrower becomes NPA. 4.2.11 Advances against Term Deposits, NSCs, KVP/IVP, etc Advances against term deposits, NSCs eligible for surrender, IVPs, KVPs and life policies need not be treated as NPAs, provided adequate margin is available in the accounts. Advances against gold ornaments, government securities and all other securities are not covered by this exemption. 4.2.12 Loans with moratorium for payment of interest i. In the case of bank finance given for industrial projects or for agricultural plantations etc. where moratorium is available for payment of interest, payment of interest becomes 'due' only after the moratorium or gestation period is over. Therefore, such amounts of interest do not become overdue and hence do not become NPA, with reference to the date of debit of interest. They become overdue after due date for payment of interest, if uncollected. ii. In the case of housing loan or similar advances granted to staff members where interest is payable after recovery of principal, interest need not be considered as overdue from the first quarter onwards. Such loans/advances should be classified as NPA only when there is a default in repayment of instalment of principal or payment of interest on the respective due dates. 4.2.13 Agricultural advances 9 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  14. 14. i. A loan granted for short duration crops will be treated as NPA, if the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for two crop seasons. A loan granted for long duration crops will be treated as NPA, if the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for one crop season. For the purpose of these guidelines, “long duration” crops would be crops with crop season longer than one year and crops, which are not “long duration” crops, would be treated as “short duration” crops. The crop season for each crop, which means the period up to harvesting of the crops raised, would be as determined by the State Level Bankers’ Committee in each State. Depending upon the duration of crops raised by an agriculturist, the above NPA norms would also be made applicable to agricultural term loans availed of by him. The above norms should be made applicable to all direct agricultural advances as listed at items 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 1.1.4, 1.1.5, 1.1.6, 1.1.7 and 1.2.1, 1.2.2 and 1.2.3 of Master Circular on lending to priority sector RPCD. No.Plan. BC. 10 /04.09.01/ 2010-2011 dated July 1, 20010. An extract of the list of these items is furnished in the Annex - 2. In respect of agricultural loans, other than those specified in the Annex - 2 and term loans given to non-agriculturists, identification of NPAs would be done on the same basis as non-agricultural advances, which, at present, is the 90 days delinquency norm. ii. Where natural calamities impair the repaying capacity of agricultural borrowers, banks may decide on their own as a relief measure conversion of the short-term production loan into a term loan or re-schedulement of the repayment period; and the sanctioning of fresh short-term loan, subject to guidelines contained in RBI circular RPCD. No.PLFS.BC.1/ 05.04.02/ 201011 dated July 1, 2010. iii. In such cases of conversion or re-schedulement, the term loan as well as fresh short-term loan may be treated as current dues and need not be classified as NPA. The asset classification of these loans would thereafter be governed by the revised terms & conditions and would be treated as NPA if interest and/or instalment of principal remains overdue for two crop seasons for short duration crops and for one crop season for long duration crops. For the purpose of these guidelines, "long duration" crops would be crops with crop season longer than one year and crops, which are not 'long duration" would be treated as "short duration" crops. iv. While fixing the repayment schedule in case of rural housing advances granted to agriculturists under Indira Awas Yojana and Golden Jubilee Rural Housing Finance Scheme, banks should ensure that the interest/instalment payable on such advances are linked to crop cycles. 4.2.14 Government guaranteed advances The credit facilities backed by guarantee of the Central Government though overdue may be treated as NPA only when the Government repudiates its guarantee when invoked. This exemption from classification of Government guaranteed advances as 10 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  15. 15. NPA is not for the purpose of recognition of income. The requirement of invocation of guarantee has been delinked for deciding the asset classification and provisioning requirements in respect of State Government guaranteed exposures. With effect from the year ending 31 March 2006 State Government guaranteed advances and investments in State Government guaranteed securities would attract asset classification and provisioning norms if interest and/or principal or any other amount due to the bank remains overdue for more than 90 days. 4.2.15 Projects under implementation 4.2.15.1 For all projects financed by the FIs/ banks after 28th May, 2002, the date of completion of the project should be clearly spelt out at the time of financial closure of the project. 4.2.15.2 Project Loans There are occasions when the completion of projects is delayed for legal and other extraneous reasons like delays in Government approvals etc. All these factors, which are beyond the control of the promoters, may lead to delay in project implementation and involve restructuring / reschedulement of loans by banks. Accordingly, the following asset classification norms would apply to the project loans before commencement of commercial operations. These guidelines will, however, not be applicable to restructuring of advances covered under the paragraph 14.1 of this Master Circular (Advances classified as Commercial Real Estate exposures; Advances classified as Capital Market exposure; and Consumer and Personal Advances) which will continue to be dealt with in terms of the extant provisions i.e paragraph 14.1 of the circular. For this purpose, all project loans have been divided into the following two categories : (a) Project Loans for infrastructure sector (b) Project Loans for non-infrastructure sector 'Project Loan' would mean any term loan which has been extended for the purpose of setting up of an economic venture. Banks must fix a Date of Commencement of Commercial Operations (DCCO) for all project loans at the time of sanction of the loan / financial closure (in the case of multiple banking or consortium arrangements). 11 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  16. 16. 4.2.15.3 (i) Project Loans for Infrastructure Sector A loan for an infrastructure project will be classified as NPA during any time before commencement of commercial operations as per record of recovery (90 days overdue), unless it is restructured and becomes eligible for classification as 'standard asset' in terms of paras (iii) to (v) below. (ii) A loan for an infrastructure project will be classified as NPA if it fails to commence commercial operations within two years from the original DCCO, even if it is regular as per record of recovery, unless it is restructured and becomes eligible for classification as 'standard asset' in terms of paras (iii) to (v) below. (iii) If a project loan classified as 'standard asset' is restructured any time during the period up to two years from the original date of commencement of commercial operations (DCCO), in accordance with the provisions of Part B of this Master Circular, it can be retained as a standard asset if the fresh DCCO is fixed within the following limits, and further provided the account continues to be serviced as per the restructured terms. (a) Infrastructure Projects involving court cases Up to another 2 years (beyond the existing extended period of 2 years i.e total extension of 4 years), in case the reason for extension of date of commencement of production is arbitration proceedings or a court case. (b) Infrastructure Projects delayed for other reasons beyond the control of promoters Up to another 1 year (beyond the existing extended period of 2 years i.e. total extension of 3 years), in other than court cases. (iv) It is re-iterated that the dispensation in para 4.2.15.3 (iii) is subject to adherence to the provisions regarding restructuring of accounts as contained in the Master Circular which would inter alia require that the application for restructuring should be received before the expiry of period of two years from the original DCCO and when the account is still standard as per record of recovery. The other conditions applicable would be : 12 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  17. 17. a. In cases where there is moratorium for payment of interest, banks should not book income on accrual basis beyond two years from the original DCCO, considering the high risk involved in such restructured accounts. b. Banks should maintain provisions on such accounts as long as these are classified as standard assets as under : Until two years from the original DCCO 0.40% During the third and the fourth years after the 1.00% original DCCO. (v) For the purpose of these guidelines, mere extension of DCCO will also be treated as restructuring even if all other terms and conditions remain the same. 4.2.15.4 (i) Project Loans for Non-Infrastructure Sector A loan for a non-infrastructure project will be classified as NPA during any time before commencement of commercial operations as per record of recovery (90 days overdue), unless it is restructured and becomes eligible for classification as 'standard asset' in terms of paras (iii) to (v) below. (ii) A loan for a non-infrastructure project will be classified as NPA if it fails to commence commercial operations within six months from the original DCCO, even if is regular as per record of recovery, unless it is restructured and becomes eligible for classification as 'standard asset' in terms of paras (iii) to (v) below. (iii) In case of non-infrastructure projects, if the delay in commencement of commercial operations extends beyond the period of six months from the date of completion as determined at the time of financial closure, banks can prescribe a fresh DCCO, and retain the "standard" classification by undertaking restructuring of accounts in accordance with the provisions contained in this Master Circular, provided the fresh DCCO does not extend beyond a period of twelve months from the original DCCO. This would among others also imply that the restructuring application is received before the expiry of six months from the original DCCO, and when the account is still "standard" as per the record of recovery. 13 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  18. 18. The other conditions applicable would be : a. In cases where there is moratorium for payment of interest, banks should not book income on accrual basis beyond six months from the original DCCO, considering the high risk involved in such restructured accounts. b. Banks should maintain provisions on such accounts as long as these are classified as standard assets as under : Until the first six months from the original DCCO During the next six months (iv) 0.40% 1.00% For this purpose, mere extension of DCCO will also be treated as restructuring even if all other terms and conditions remain the same. 4.2.15.5 (i) Other Issues All other aspects of restructuring of project loans before commencement of commercial operations would be governed by the provisions of Part B of Master Circular on Prudential norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning Pertaining to Advances. Restructuring of project loans after commencement of commercial operations will also be governed by these instructions. (ii) Any change in the repayment schedule of a project loan caused due to an increase in the project outlay on account of increase in scope and size of the project, would not be treated as restructuring if : (a) The increase in scope and size of the project takes place before commencement of commercial operations of the existing project. (b) The rise in cost excluding any cost-overrun in respect of the original project is 25% or more of the original outlay. (c) The bank re-assesses the viability of the project before approving the enhancement of scope and fixing a fresh DCCP. 14 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  19. 19. (d) On re-rating, (if already rated) the new rating is not below the previous rating by more than one notch. (iii) These guidelines would apply to those cases where the modification to terms of existing loans, as indicated above, are approved by banks from the date of this circular. 4.2.15.6 (i) Income recognition Banks may recognise income on accrual basis in respect of the projects under implementation, which are classified as ‘standard’. (ii) Banks should not recognise income on accrual basis in respect of the projects under implementation which are classified as a ‘substandard’ asset. Banks may recognise income in such accounts only on realisation on cash basis. Consequently, banks which have wrongly recognised income in the past should reverse the interest if it was recognised as income during the current year or make a provision for an equivalent amount if it was recognised as income in the previous year(s). As regards the regulatory treatment of ‘funded interest’ recognised as income and ‘conversion into equity, debentures or any other instrument’ banks should adopt the following: a) Funded Interest: Income recognition in respect of the NPAs, regardless of whether these are or are not subjected to restructuring/ rescheduling/ renegotiation of terms of the loan agreement, should be done strictly on cash basis, only on realisation and not if the amount of interest overdue has been funded. If, however, the amount of funded interest is recognised as income, a provision for an equal amount should also be made simultaneously. In other words, any funding of interest in respect of NPAs, if recognised as income, should be fully provided for. b) Conversion into equity, debentures or any other instrument: The amount outstanding converted into other instruments would normally comprise principal and the interest components. If the amount of interest dues is converted into equity or any other instrument, and income is recognised in consequence, full provision should be made for the amount of income so recognised to offset the effect of such income recognition. Such 15 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  20. 20. provision would be in addition to the amount of provision that may be necessary for the depreciation in the value of the equity or other instruments, as per the investment valuation norms. However, if the conversion of interest is into equity which is quoted, interest income can be recognised at market value of equity, as on the date of conversion, not exceeding the amount of interest converted to equity. Such equity must thereafter be classified in the “available for sale” category and valued at lower of cost or market value. In case of conversion of principal and /or interest in respect of NPAs into debentures, such debentures should be treated as NPA, ab initio, in the same asset classification as was applicable to loan just before conversion and provision made as per norms. This norm would also apply to zero coupon bonds or other instruments which seek to defer the liability of the issuer. On such debentures, income should be recognised only on realisation basis. The income in respect of unrealised interest which is converted into debentures or any other fixed maturity instrument should be recognised only on redemption of such instrument. Subject to the above, the equity shares or other instruments arising from conversion of the principal amount of loan would also be subject to the usual prudential valuation norms as applicable to such instruments. 4.2.15.7 Provisioning While there will be no change in the extant norms on provisioning for NPAs, banks which are already holding provisions against some of the accounts, which may now be classified as ‘standard’, shall continue to hold the provisions and shall not reverse the same. 4.2.16 Takeout Finance Takeout finance is the product emerging in the context of the funding of long-term infrastructure projects. Under this arrangement, the institution/the bank financing infrastructure projects will have an arrangement with any financial institution for transferring to the latter the outstanding in respect of such financing in their books on a predetermined basis. In view of the time-lag involved in taking-over, the possibility of a default in the meantime cannot be ruled out. The norms of asset classification will have to be followed by the concerned bank/financial institution in whose books the account stands as balance sheet item as on the relevant date. If the lending institution observes that the asset has turned NPA on the basis of the record of 16 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  21. 21. recovery, it should be classified accordingly. The lending institution should not recognise income on accrual basis and account for the same only when it is paid by the borrower/ taking over institution (if the arrangement so provides). The lending institution should also make provisions against any asset turning into NPA pending its take over by taking over institution. As and when the asset is taken over by the taking over institution, the corresponding provisions could be reversed. However, the taking over institution, on taking over such assets, should make provisions treating the account as NPA from the actual date of it becoming NPA even though the account was not in its books as on that date. 4.2.17 Post-shipment Supplier's Credit i. In respect of post-shipment credit extended by the banks covering export of goods to countries for which the ECGC’s cover is available, EXIM Bank has introduced a guarantee-cum-refinance programme whereby, in the event of default, EXIM Bank will pay the guaranteed amount to the bank within a period of 30 days from the day the bank invokes the guarantee after the exporter has filed claim with ECGC. ii. Accordingly, to the extent payment has been received from the EXIM Bank, the advance may not be treated as a nonperforming asset for asset classification and provisioning purposes. 4.2.18 Export Project Finance i. In respect of export project finance, there could be instances where the actual importer has paid the dues to the bank abroad but the bank in turn is unable to remit the amount due to political developments such as war, strife, UN embargo, etc. ii. In such cases, where the lending bank is able to establish through documentary evidence that the importer has cleared the dues in full by depositing the amount in the bank abroad before it turned into NPA in the books of the bank, but the importer's country is not allowing the funds to be remitted due to political or other reasons, the asset classification may be made after a period of one year from the date the amount was deposited by the importer in the bank abroad. 17 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  22. 22. 4.2.19 Advances under rehabilitation approved by BIFR/ TLI Banks are not permitted to upgrade the classification of any advance in respect of which the terms have been renegotiated unless the package of renegotiated terms has worked satisfactorily for a period of one year. While the existing credit facilities sanctioned to a unit under rehabilitation packages approved by BIFR/term lending institutions will continue to be classified as substandard or doubtful as the case may be, in respect of additional facilities sanctioned under the rehabilitation packages, the Income Recognition, Asset Classification norms will become applicable after a period of one year from the date of disbursement. 5 PROVISIONING NORMS 5.1 General 5.1.1 The primary responsibility for making adequate provisions for any diminution in the value of loan assets, investment or other assets is that of the bank managements and the statutory auditors. The assessment made by the inspecting officer of the RBI is furnished to the bank to assist the bank management and the statutory auditors in taking a decision in regard to making adequate and necessary provisions in terms of prudential guidelines. 5.1.2 In conformity with the prudential norms, provisions should be made on the nonperforming assets on the basis of classification of assets into prescribed categories as detailed in paragraphs 4 supra. Taking into account the time lag between an account becoming doubtful of recovery, its recognition as such, the realisation of the security and the erosion over time in the value of security charged to the bank, the banks should make provision against substandard assets, doubtful assets and loss assets as below: 5.2 Loss assets Loss assets should be written off. If loss assets are permitted to remain in the books for any reason, 100 percent of the outstanding should be provided for. 5.3 Doubtful assets i. 100 percent of the extent to which the advance is not covered by the realisable value of the security to which the bank has a valid recourse and the realisable value is estimated on a realistic basis. 18 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  23. 23. ii. In regard to the secured portion, provision may be made on the following basis, at the rates ranging from 25 percent to 100 percent of the secured portion depending upon the period for which the asset has remained doubtful: Period for which the advance has remained in ‘doubtful’ category Up to one year One to three years More than three years Provision requirement (%) 25 40 100 Note: Valuation of Security for provisioning purposes With a view to bringing down divergence arising out of difference in assessment of the value of security, in cases of NPAs with balance of Rs. 5 crore and above stock audit at annual intervals by external agencies appointed as per the guidelines approved by the Board would be mandatory in order to enhance the reliability on stock valuation. Collaterals such as immovable properties charged in favour of the bank should be got valued once in three years by valuers appointed as per the guidelines approved by the Board of Directors. 5.4 Substandard assets (i) A general provision of 15 percent on total outstanding should be made without making any allowance for ECGC guarantee cover and securities available. (ii) The ‘unsecured exposures’ which are identified as ‘substandard’ would attract additional provision of 10 per cent, i.e., a total of 25 per cent on the outstanding balance. However, in view of certain safeguards such as escrow accounts available in respect of infrastructure lending, infrastructure loan accounts which are classified as sub-standard will attract a provisioning of 20 per cent instead of the aforesaid prescription of 25 per cent. To avail of this benefit of lower provisioning, the banks should have in place an appropriate mechanism to escrow the cash flows and also have a clear and legal first claim on these cash flows. The provisioning requirement for unsecured ‘doubtful’ assets is 100 per cent. Unsecured exposure is defined as an exposure where the realisable value of the security, as assessed by the bank/approved valuers/Reserve Bank’s inspecting officers, is not more than 10 percent, ab-initio, of the outstanding exposure. ‘Exposure’ shall include all funded and non-funded exposures (including underwriting and similar commitments). ‘Security’ will mean tangible security properly discharged to the bank and will not include intangible 19 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  24. 24. securities like guarantees (including State government guarantees), comfort letters etc. (iii) In order to enhance transparency and ensure correct reflection of the unsecured advances in Schedule 9 of the banks' balance sheet, it is advised that the following would be applicable from the financial year 2009-10 onwards : a) For determining the amount of unsecured advances for reflecting in schedule 9 of the published balance sheet, the rights, licenses, authorisations, etc., charged to the banks as collateral in respect of projects (including infrastructure projects) financed by them, should not be reckoned as tangible security. Hence such advances shall be reckoned as unsecured. b) However, banks may treat annuities under build-operate-transfer (BOT) model in respect of road / highway projects and toll collection rights, where there are provisions to compensate the project sponsor if a certain level of traffic is not achieved, as tangible securities subject to the condition that banks' right to receive annuities and toll collection rights is legally enforceable and irrevocable. b) Banks should also disclose the total amount of advances for which intangible securities such as charge over the rights, licenses, authority, etc. has been taken as also the estimated value of such intangible collateral. The disclosure may be made under a separate head in "Notes to Accounts". This would differentiate such loans from other entirely unsecured loans. 5.5 Standard assets (i) The provisioning requirements for all types of standard assets stands as below.. Banks should make general provision for standard assets at the following rates for the funded outstanding on global loan portfolio basis: (a) direct advances to agricultural and Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) sectors at 0.25 per cent; (b) advances to Commercial Real Estate (CRE) Sector at 1.00 per cent; (c) housing loans extended at teaser rates and restructured advances as as indicated in Para 5.9.13 and 5.9.14 respectively (d) all other loans and advances not included in (a) (b) and (c) above at 0.40 per cent (ii) The provisions on standard assets should not be reckoned for arriving at net NPAs. (iii) The provisions towards Standard Assets need not be netted from gross advances but shown separately as 'Contingent Provisions against Standard 20 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  25. 25. Assets' under 'Other Liabilities and Provisions Others' in Schedule 5 of the balance sheet. (iv) It is clarified that the Medium Enterprises will attract 0.40% standard asset provisioning. The definition of the terms Micro Enterprises, Small Enterprises, and Medium Enterprises shall be in terms of Master Circular RPCD.SME&NFS.BC.No. 9/06.02.31/2010-11 dated July 1, 2010 on Lending to Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) Sector. 5.6 Prudential norms on creation and utilisation of floating provisions 5.6.1 Principle for creation of floating provisions by banks The bank's board of directors should lay down approved policy regarding the level to which the floating provisions can be created. The bank should hold floating provisions for ‘advances’ and ‘investments’ separately and the guidelines prescribed will be applicable to floating provisions held for both ‘advances’ & ‘investment’ portfolios. 5.6.2 i Principle for utilisation of floating provisions by banks The floating provisions should not be used for making specific provisions as per the extant prudential guidelines in respect of nonperforming assets or for making regulatory provisions for standard assets. The floating provisions can be used only for contingencies under extraordinary circumstances for making specific provisions in impaired accounts after obtaining board’s approval and with prior permission of RBI. The boards of the banks should lay down an approved policy as to what circumstances would be considered extraordinary. ii To facilitate banks' boards to evolve suitable policies in this regard, it is clarified that the extra-ordinary circumstances refer to losses which do not arise in the normal course of business and are exceptional and non-recurring in nature. These extra-ordinary circumstances could broadly fall under three categories viz. General, Market and Credit. Under general category, there can be situations where bank is put unexpectedly to loss due to events such as civil unrest or collapse of currency in a country. Natural calamities and pandemics may also be included in the general category. Market category would include events such as a 21 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  26. 26. general melt down in the markets, which affects the entire financial system. Among the credit category, only exceptional credit losses would be considered as an extra-ordinary circumstance. iii In terms of the Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008, lending institutions shall neither claim from the Central Government, nor recover from the farmer, interest in excess of the principal amount, unapplied interest, penal interest, legal charges, inspection charges and miscellaneous charges, etc. All such interest / charges will be borne by the lending institutions. In view of the extraordinary circumstances in which the banks are required to bear such interest / charges, banks are allowed, as a one time measure, to utilise, at their discretion, the Floating Provisions held for 'advances' portfolio, only to the extent of meeting the interest / charges referred to above. 5.6.3 Accounting Floating provisions cannot be reversed by credit to the profit and loss account. They can only be utilised for making specific provisions in extraordinary circumstances as mentioned above. Until such utilisation, these provisions can be netted off from gross NPAs to arrive at disclosure of net NPAs. Alternatively, they can be treated as part of Tier II capital within the overall ceiling of 1.25 % of total risk weighted assets. 5.6.4 Disclosures Banks should make comprehensive disclosures on floating provisions in the “notes on accounts” to the balance sheet on (a) opening balance in the floating provisions account, (b) the quantum of floating provisions made in the accounting year, (c) purpose and amount of draw down made during the accounting year, and (d) closing balance in the floating provisions account. 5.7 Additional Provisions for NPAs at higher than prescribed rates The regulatory norms for provisioning represent the minimum requirement. A bank may voluntarily make specific provisions for advances at rates which are higher than the rates prescribed under existing regulations, to provide for estimated actual loss in collectible amount, provided such higher rates are approved by the Board of Directors and consistently adopted from year to year. Such additional provisions are not to be considered as floating provisions. The additional provisions for NPAs, like the minimum regulatory provision on NPAs, may be netted off from gross NPAs to 22 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  27. 27. arrive at the net NPAs 5.8 Provisions on Leased Assets i) Substandard assets a) 15 percent of the sum of the net investment in the lease and the unrealised portion of finance income net of finance charge component. The terms ‘net investment in the lease’, ‘finance income’ and ‘finance charge’ are as defined in ‘AS 19 Leases’ issued by the ICAI. b) Unsecured lease exposures, as defined in paragraph 5.4 above, which are identified as ‘substandard’ would attract additional provision of 10 per cent, i.e., a total of 25 per cent. ii) Doubtful assets 100 percent of the extent to which, the finance is not secured by the realisable value of the leased asset. Realisable value is to be estimated on a realistic basis. In addition to the above provision, provision at the following rates should be made on the sum of the net investment in the lease and the unrealised portion of finance income net of finance charge component of the secured portion, depending upon the period for which asset has been doubtful: Period for which the advance has remained in ‘doubtful’ category Up to one year One to three years More than three years iii) Provision requirement (%) 25 40 100 Loss assets The entire asset should be written off. If for any reason, an asset is allowed to remain in books, 100 percent of the sum of the net investment in the lease and the unrealised portion of finance income net of finance charge component should be provided for. 5.9 Guidelines for Provisions under Special Circumstances 5.9.1 Advances granted under rehabilitation packages approved by BIFR/term lending institutions (i) In respect of advances under rehabilitation package approved by BIFR/term lending institutions, the provision should continue to be made in respect of dues to the bank on the existing credit facilities as per their 23 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  28. 28. classification as substandard or doubtful asset. (ii) As regards the additional facilities sanctioned as per package finalised by BIFR and/or term lending institutions, provision on additional facilities sanctioned need not be made for a period of one year from the date of disbursement. (iii) In respect of additional credit facilities granted to SSI units which are identified as sick [as defined in Section IV (Para 2.8) of RPCD circular RPCD.PLNFS.BC. No 83 /06.02.31/20042005 dated 1 March 2005] and where rehabilitation packages/nursing programmes have been drawn by the banks themselves or under consortium arrangements, no provision need be made for a period of one year. 5.9.2 Advances against term deposits, NSCs eligible for surrender, IVPs, KVPs, gold ornaments, government & other securities and life insurance policies would attract provisioning requirements as applicable to their asset classification status. 5.9.3 Treatment of interest suspense account Amounts held in Interest Suspense Account should not be reckoned as part of provisions. Amounts lying in the Interest Suspense Account should be deducted from the relative advances and thereafter, provisioning as per the norms, should be made on the balances after such deduction. 5.9.4 Advances covered by ECGC guarantee In the case of advances classified as doubtful and guaranteed by ECGC, provision should be made only for the balance in excess of the amount guaranteed by the Corporation. Further, while arriving at the provision required to be made for doubtful assets, realisable value of the securities should first be deducted from the outstanding balance in respect of the amount guaranteed by the Corporation and then provision made as illustrated hereunder: Example Outstanding Balance Rs. 4 lakhs ECGC Cover 50 percent Period for which the advance has remained doubtful More than 2 years remained doubtful (say as on March 31, 2012) 24 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  29. 29. Value of security held (excludes worth of Rs.) Rs. 1.50 lakhs Provision required to be made Outstanding balance Rs. 4.00 lakhs Less: Value of security held Rs. 1.50 lakhs Unrealised balance Rs. 2.50 lakhs Less: ECGC Cover Rs. 1.25 lakhs (50% of unrealisable balance) Net unsecured balance Rs. 1.25 lakhs Provision for unsecured portion of Rs. 1.25 lakhs (@ 100 percent of advance unsecured portion) Provision for secured portion of advance Rs.0.60 lakhs (@ 40 per cent of the (as on March 31, 2012) secured portion) Total provision to be made 5.9.5 Rs.1.85 lakhs (as on March 31, 2012) Advance covered by CGTSI guarantee In case the advance covered by CGTSI guarantee becomes nonperforming, no provision need be made towards the guaranteed portion. The amount outstanding in excess of the guaranteed portion should be provided for as per the extant guidelines on provisioning for nonperforming advances. Two illustrative examples are given below: Example Outstanding Balance Rs. 10 lakhs CGTISI Cover 75% of the amount outstanding or 75% of the unsecured amount or Rs.37.50 lakh, whichever is the least Period for which the advance has remained doubtful More than 2 years remained doubtful (say as on March 31, 2012) Value of security held (excludes worth of Rs.) Rs. 1.50 lakhs Provision required to be made Balance outstanding Rs.10.00 lakh 25 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  30. 30. Less: Value of security Unsecured amount Less: CGTSI cover (75%) Net unsecured and uncovered portion: Rs. 8.50 lakh Rs. 6.38 lakh Rs. 2.12 lakh Provision for Secured portion @ 40% of Rs.1.50 lakh Rs.0.60 lakh Provision for Unsecured & uncovered portion @ 100% of Rs.2.12 lakh Total provision required 5.9.6 Rs. 1.50 lakh Rs.2.12 lakh Rs.2.72 lakh Takeout finance The lending institution should make provisions against a 'takeout finance' turning into NPA pending its takeover by the taking-over institution. As and when the asset is taken-over by the taking-over institution, the corresponding provisions could be reversed. 5.9.7 Reserve for Exchange Rate Fluctuations Account (RERFA) When exchange rate movements of Indian rupee turn adverse, the outstanding amount of foreign currency denominated loans (where actual disbursement was made in Indian Rupee) which becomes overdue, goes up correspondingly, with its attendant implications of provisioning requirements. Such assets should not normally be revalued. In case such assets need to be revalued as per requirement of accounting practices or for any other requirement, the following procedure may be adopted: The loss on revaluation of assets has to be booked in the bank's Profit & Loss Account. Besides the provisioning requirement as per Asset Classification, banks should treat the full amount of the Revaluation Gain relating to the corresponding assets, if any, on account of Foreign Exchange Fluctuation as provision against the particular assets. 5.9.8 Provisioning for country risk Banks shall make provisions, with effect from the year ending 31 March 2003, on the net funded country exposures on a graded scale ranging from 0.25 to 100 percent 26 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  31. 31. according to the risk categories mentioned below. To begin with, banks shall make provisions as per the following schedule: Risk category ECGC Classification Insignificant Low Moderate High Very high Restricted Offcredit A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D Provisioning Requirement (per cent) 0.25 0.25 5 20 25 100 100 Banks are required to make provision for country risk in respect of a country where its net funded exposure is one per cent or more of its total assets. The provision for country risk shall be in addition to the provisions required to be held according to the asset classification status of the asset. In the case of ‘loss assets’ and ‘doubtful assets’, provision held, including provision held for country risk, may not exceed 100% of the outstanding. Banks may not make any provision for ‘home country’ exposures i.e. exposure to India. The exposures of foreign branches of Indian banks to the host country should be included. Foreign banks shall compute the country exposures of their Indian branches and shall hold appropriate provisions in their Indian books. However, their exposures to India will be excluded. Banks may make a lower level of provisioning (say 25% of the requirement) in respect of short-term exposures (i.e. exposures with contractual maturity of less than 180 days). 5.9.9 Excess Provisions on sale of Standard Asset / NPAs (a) If the sale is in respect of Standard Asset and the sale consideration is higher than the book value, the excess provisions may be credited to Profit and Loss Account. (b) Excess provisions which arise on sale of NPAs can be admitted as Tier II capital subject to the overall ceiling of 1.25% of total Risk Weighted Assets. 27 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  32. 32. Accordingly, these excess provisions that arise on sale of NPAs would be eligible for Tier II status in terms of paragraph 4.3.2 of Master Circular DBOD.No.BP.BC.15/21.06.001/2010-11 dated July 01, 2010 on Prudential guidelines on Capital Adequacy and Market Discipline - New Capital Adequacy Framework (NCAF) and paragraph 2.1.1.2.C of Master Circular DBOD.No.BP.BC.4/21.01.002/2010-11 dated July 1, 2010 on Prudential Norms on Capital adequacy - Basel I Framework. 5.9.10 Provisions for Diminution of Fair Value Provisions for diminution of fair value of restructured advances, both in respect of Standard Assets as well as NPAs, made on account of reduction in rate of interest and / or reschedulement of principal amount are permitted to be netted from the relative asset. 5.9.11 Provisioning norms for Liquidity facility provided for Securitisation transactions The amount of liquidity facility drawn and outstanding for more than 90 days, in respect of securitisation transactions undertaken in terms of our guidelines on securitisation dated February 1, 2006, should be fully provided for. 5.9.12 Provisioning requirements for derivative exposures Credit exposures computed as per the current marked to market value of the contract, arising on account of the interest rate & foreign exchange derivative transactions, and gold, shall also attract provisioning requirement as applicable to the loan assets in the 'standard' category, of the concerned counterparties. All conditions applicable for treatment of the provisions for standard assets would also apply to the aforesaid provisions for derivative and gold exposures. 5.9.13 Provisioning for housing loans at teaser rates It has been observed that some banks are following the practice of sanctioning housing loans at teaser rates i.e. at comparatively lower rates of interest in the first few years, after which rates are reset at higher rates. This practice raises concern as some borrowers may find it difficult to service the loans once the normal interest rate, which is higher than the rate applicable in the initial years, becomes effective. It has 28 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  33. 33. been also observed that many banks at the time of initial loan appraisal, do not take into account the repaying capacity of the borrower at normal lending rates. Therefore, in view of the higher risk associated with such loans, the standard asset provisioning on the outstanding amount has been increased from 0.40 per cent to 2.00 per cent with immediate effect. The provisioning on these assets would revert to 0.40 per cent after 1 year from the date on which the rates are reset at higher rates if the accounts remain ‘standard’. 5.9.14 Restructured Advances: i. Restructured accounts classified as standard advances will attract a provision of 2 per cent in the first two years from the date of restructuring. In cases of moratorium on payment of interest/principal after restructuring, such advances will attract a provision of 2 per cent for the period covering moratorium and two years; and ii. Restructured accounts classified as non-performing advances, when upgraded to standard category will attract a provision of 2 per cent in the first year from the date of upgradation 5.10 Provisioning Coverage Ratio i. Provisioning Coverage Ratio (PCR) is essentially the ratio of provisioning to gross non-performing assets and indicates the extent of funds a bank has kept aside to cover loan losses. ii. From a macro-prudential perspective, banks should build up provisioning and capital buffers in good times i.e. when the profits are good, which can be used for absorbing losses in a downturn. This will enhance the soundness of individual banks, as also the stability of the financial sector. It was, therefore, decided that banks should augment their provisioning cushions consisting of specific provisions against NPAs as well as floating provisions, and ensure that their total provisioning coverage ratio, including floating provisions, is not less than 70 per cent. Accordingly, banks were advised to achieve this norm not later than end-September 2010. iii. Majority of the banks had achieved PCR of 70 percent and had represented to RBI whether the prescribed PCR is required to be maintained on an ongoing basis. The matter was examined and till such time RBI introduces a more comprehensive methodology of countercyclical provisioning taking into account the international 29 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  34. 34. standards as are being currently developed by Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and other provisioning norms, banks were advised that : a) the PCR of 70 percent may be with reference to the gross NPA position in banks as on September 30, 2010; b) the surplus of the provision under PCR vis-a-vis as required as per prudential norms should be segregated into an account styled as “countercyclical provisioning buffer”, computation of which may be undertaken as per the format given in Annex - 3; and c) this buffer will be allowed to be used by banks for making specific provisions for NPAs during periods of system wide downturn, with the prior approval of RBI. iv. Some of the banks that had been granted extension of time beyond the stipulated date i.e. September 30, 2010 for achieving the PCR of 70 percent on their request, should calculate the required provisions for 70 percent PCR as on September 30, 2010 and compute the shortfall there from. This shortfall should be built up at the earliest and these banks should reassess the further time required beyond March 31, 2011, if any, to build up the buffer and seek approval from RBI. v. The PCR of the bank should be disclosed in the Notes to Accounts to the Balance Sheet. 6. Guidelines on sale of financial assets to Securitisation Company (SC)/ Reconstruction Company (RC) (created under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002) and related issues 6.1 Scope These guidelines would be applicable to sale of financial assets enumerated in paragraph 6.3 below, by banks/ FIs, for asset reconstruction/ securitisation under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002. 6.2 Structure The guidelines to be followed by banks/ FIs while selling their financial assets to SC/RC under the Act ibid and investing in bonds/ debentures/ security receipts 30 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  35. 35. offered by the SC/RC are given below. The prudential guidelines have been grouped under the following headings: i) Financial assets which can be sold. ii) Procedure for sale of banks’/ FIs’ including valuation and pricing aspects. iii) Prudential norms, in the following areas, for banks/ FIs for sale of their financial assets to SC/ RC and for investing in bonds/ debentures/ security receipts and any other securities offered by the SC/RC as compensation consequent upon sale of financial assets: financial a) SC/ RC, Capital adequacy norms c) to Provisioning / Valuation norms b) assets Exposure norms iv) Disclosure requirements 6.3 Financial assets which can be sold A financial asset may be sold to the SC/RC by any bank/ FI where the asset is: i) A NPA, including a non-performing bond/ debenture, and ii) A Standard Asset where: (a) (b) at least 75% by value of the asset is classified as nonperforming asset in the books of other banks/FIs, and (c) 6.4. the asset is under consortium/ multiple banking arrangements, at least 75% (by value) of the banks / FIs who are under the consortium / multiple banking arrangements agree to the sale of the asset to SC/RC. Procedure for sale of banks’/ FIs’ SC/ RC, including valuation and pricing aspects (a) financial assets to The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (SARFAESI Act) allows acquisition of financial assets by SC/RC from any bank/ FI on such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon between them. This provides for sale of the financial assets on ‘without recourse’ basis, i.e., with the entire credit risk associated with the financial assets being transferred to SC/ RC, as well as on ‘with recourse’ basis, i.e., subject to unrealized part of the asset reverting to the seller bank/ FI. Banks/ FIs are, however, directed to 31 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  36. 36. ensure that the effect of the sale of the financial assets should be such that the asset is taken off the books of the bank/ FI and after the sale there should not be any known liability devolving on the banks/ FIs. (b) Banks/ FIs, which propose to sell to SC/RC their financial assets should ensure that the sale is conducted in a prudent manner in accordance with a policy approved by the Board. The Board shall lay down policies and guidelines covering, inter alia, i. Financial assets to be sold; ii. Norms and procedure for sale of such financial assets; iii. Valuation procedure to be followed to ensure that the realisable value of financial assets is reasonably estimated; iv. Delegation of powers of various functionaries for taking decision on the sale of the financial assets; etc. (c) Banks/ FIs should ensure that subsequent to sale of the financial assets to SC/RC, they do not assume any operational, legal or any other type of risks relating to the financial assets sold. (d) Each bank / FI will make its own assessment of the value offered by the SC / RC for the financial asset and decide whether to accept or reject the offer. (ii) In the case of consortium / multiple banking arrangements, if 75% (by value) of the banks / FIs decide to accept the offer, the remaining banks / FIs will be obligated to accept the offer. (iii) (e) (i) Under no circumstances can a transfer to the SC/ RC be made at a contingent price whereby in the event of shortfall in the realization by the SC/RC, the banks/ FIs would have to bear a part of the shortfall. Banks/ FIs may receive cash or bonds or debentures as sale consideration for the financial assets sold to SC/RC. (f) Bonds/ debentures received by banks/ FIs as sale consideration towards sale of financial assets to SC/RC will be classified as investments in the books of banks/ FIs. (g) Banks may also invest in security receipts, Pass-through certificates (PTC), or other bonds/ debentures issued by SC/RC. These securities will also be classified as investments in the books of banks/ FIs. 32 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  37. 37. (h) In cases of specific financial assets, where it is considered necessary, banks/ FIs may enter into agreement with SC/RC to share, in an agreed proportion, any surplus realised by SC/RC on the eventual realisation of the concerned asset. In such cases the terms of sale should provide for a report from the SC/RC to the bank/ FI on the value realised from the asset. No credit for the expected profit will be taken by banks/ FIs until the profit materializes on actual sale. 6.5. Prudential norms for banks/ FIs for the sale transactions (A) Provisioning/ valuation norms (a) (i) When a bank / FI sells its financial assets to SC/ RC, on transfer the same will be removed from its books. (ii) If the sale to SC/ RC is at a price below the net book value (NBV) (i.e., book value less provisions held), the shortfall should be debited to the profit and loss account of that year. (iii) If the sale is for a value higher than the NBV, the excess provision will not be reversed but will be utilized to meet the shortfall/ loss on account of sale of other financial assets to SC/RC. (iv) When banks/ FIs invest in the security receipts/ pass-through certificates issued by SC/RC in respect of the financial assets sold by them to the SC/RC, the sale shall be recognised in books of the banks / FIs at the lower of: the redemption value of the security receipts/ pass-through certificates, and the NBV of the financial asset. The above investment should be carried in the books of the bank / FI at the price as determined above until its sale or realization, and on such sale or realization, the loss or gain must be dealt with in the same manner as at (ii) and (iii) above. (b) The securities (bonds and debentures) offered by SC / RC should satisfy the following conditions: (i) The securities must not have a term in excess of six years. (ii) The securities must carry a rate of interest which is not lower than 1.5% above the Bank Rate in force at the time of issue. (iii) The securities must be secured by an appropriate charge on the assets transferred. 33 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  38. 38. (iv) The securities must provide for part or full prepayment in the event the SC / RC sells the asset securing the security before the maturity date of the security. (v). The commitment of the SC / RC to redeem the securities must be unconditional and not linked to the realization of the assets. (vi) Whenever the security is transferred to any other party, notice of transfer should be issued to the SC/ RC. (c) Investment in debentures/ bonds/ security receipts/ Pass-through certificates issued by SC/ RC All instruments received by banks/FIs from SC/RC as sale consideration for financial assets sold to them and also other instruments issued by SC/ RC in which banks/ FIs invest will be in the nature of non SLR securities. Accordingly, the valuation, classification and other norms applicable to investment in non-SLR instruments prescribed by RBI from time to time would be applicable to bank’s/ FI’s investment in debentures/ bonds/ security receipts/PTCs issued by SC/ RC. However, if any of the above instruments issued by SC/RC is limited to the actual realisation of the financial assets assigned to the instruments in the concerned scheme the bank/ FI shall reckon the Net Asset Value (NAV), obtained from SC/RC from time to time, for valuation of such investments. (B) Exposure Norms Banks’/ FIs’ investments in debentures/ bonds/ security receipts/PTCs issued by a SC/RC will constitute exposure on the SC/RC. As only a few SC/RC are being set up now, banks’/ FIs’ exposure on SC/RC through their investments in debentures/ bonds/security receipts/PTCs issued by the SC/ RC may go beyond their prudential exposure ceiling. In view of the extra ordinary nature of event, banks/ FIs will be allowed, in the initial years, to exceed prudential exposure ceiling on a case-to-case basis. 6.6. Disclosure Requirements Banks/ FIs, which sell their financial assets to an SC/ RC, shall be required to make the following disclosures in the Notes on Accounts to their Balance sheets: Details of financial assets sold during the year to SC/RC for Asset Reconstruction a. No. of accounts b. Aggregate value (net of provisions) of accounts sold to SC / RC c. Aggregate consideration 34 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  39. 39. d. e. 6.7. Additional consideration realized in respect of accounts transferred in earlier years Aggregate gain / loss over net book value. Related Issues (a) (b) 7. SC/ RC will also take over financial assets which cannot be revived and which, therefore, will have to be disposed of on a realisation basis. Normally the SC/ RC will not take over these assets but act as an agent for recovery for which it will charge a fee. Where the assets fall in the above category, the assets will not be removed from the books of the bank/ FI but realisations as and when received will be credited to the asset account. Provisioning for the asset will continue to be made by the bank / FI in the normal course. Guidelines on purchase/ sale of Non - Performing Financial Assets In order to increase the options available to banks for resolving their non performing assets and to develop a healthy secondary market for nonperforming assets, where securitisation companies and reconstruction companies are not involved, guidelines have been issued to banks on purchase / sale of NonPerforming Assets. Since the sale/purchase of nonperforming financial assets under this option would be conducted within the financial system the whole process of resolving the non performing assets and matters related thereto has to be initiated with due diligence and care warranting the existence of a set of clear guidelines which shall be complied with by all entities so that the process of resolving nonperforming assets by sale and purchase of NPAs proceeds on smooth and sound lines. Accordingly guidelines on sale/purchase of nonperforming assets have been formulated and furnished below. The guidelines may be placed before the bank's /FI's /NBFC's Board and appropriate steps may be taken for their implementation. Scope 7.1 These guidelines would be applicable to banks, FIs and NBFCs purchasing/ selling non performing financial assets, from/ to other banks/FIs/NBFCs (excluding securitisation companies/ reconstruction companies). 7.2 A financial asset, including assets under multiple/consortium banking arrangements, would be eligible for purchase/sale in terms of these guidelines if it is a nonperforming asset/non performing investment in the books of the selling bank. 35 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  40. 40. 7.3 The reference to ‘bank’ in the guidelines on purchase/sale of nonperforming financial assets would include financial institutions and NBFCs. Structure 7.4 The guidelines to be followed by banks purchasing/ selling nonperforming financial assets from / to other banks are given below. The guidelines have been grouped under the following headings: i) Procedure for purchase/ sale of non performing financial assets by banks, including valuation and pricing aspects. ii) Prudential norms, in the following areas, for banks for purchase/ sale of non performing financial assets: a) b) Accounting of recoveries d) Capital adequacy norms e) 7.5 Provisioning norms c) iii) Asset classification norms Exposure norms Disclosure requirements Procedure for purchase/ sale of non performing financial assets, including valuation and pricing aspects i) A bank which is purchasing/ selling nonperforming financial assets should ensure that the purchase/ sale is conducted in accordance with a policy approved by the Board. The Board shall lay down policies and guidelines covering, inter alia, a) b) Norms and procedure for purchase/ sale of such financial assets; c) Valuation procedure to be followed to ensure that the economic value of financial assets is reasonably estimated based on the estimated cash flows arising out of repayments and recovery prospects; d) Delegation of powers of various functionaries for taking decision on the purchase/ sale of the financial assets; etc. e) ii) Non performing financial assets that may be purchased/ sold; Accounting policy While laying down the policy, the Board shall satisfy itself that the bank has adequate skills to purchase non performing financial assets and deal with them in an 36 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  41. 41. efficient manner which will result in value addition to the bank. The Board should also ensure that appropriate systems and procedures are in place to effectively address the risks that a purchasing bank would assume while engaging in this activity. iii) Banks should, while selling NPAs, work out the net present value of the estimated cash flows associated with the realisable value of the available securities net of the cost of realisation. The sale price should generally not be lower than the net present value arrived at in the manner described above. (Same principle should be used in compromise settlements. As the payment of the compromise amount may be in instalments, the net present value of the settlement amount should be calculated and this amount should generally not be less than the net present value of the realisable value of securities.) iv) The estimated cash flows are normally expected to be realised within a period of three years and at least 10% of the estimated cash flows should be realized in the first year and at least 5% in each half year thereafter, subject to full recovery within three years. v) A bank may purchase/sell nonperforming financial assets from/to other banks only on ‘without recourse’ basis, i.e., the entire credit risk associated with the nonperforming financial assets should be transferred to the purchasing bank. Selling bank shall ensure that the effect of the sale of the financial assets should be such that the asset is taken off the books of the bank and after the sale there should not be any known liability devolving on the selling bank. vi) Banks should ensure that subsequent to sale of the non performing financial assets to other banks, they do not have any involvement with reference to assets sold and do not assume operational, legal or any other type of risks relating to the financial assets sold. Consequently, the specific financial asset should not enjoy the support of credit enhancements / liquidity facilities in any form or manner. vii) Each bank will make its own assessment of the value offered by the purchasing bank for the financial asset and decide whether to accept or reject the offer. viii) Under no circumstances can a sale to other banks be made at a contingent price whereby in the event of shortfall in the realization by the purchasing banks, the 37 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  42. 42. selling banks would have to bear a part of the shortfall. ix) A nonperforming asset in the books of a bank shall be eligible for sale to other banks only if it has remained a nonperforming asset for at least two years in the books of the selling bank. x) Banks shall sell nonperforming financial assets to other banks only on cash basis. The entire sale consideration should be received upfront and the asset can be taken out of the books of the selling bank only on receipt of the entire sale consideration. xi) A nonperforming financial asset should be held by the purchasing bank in its books at least for a period of 15 months before it is sold to other banks. Banks should not sell such assets back to the bank, which had sold the NPFA. (xii) Banks are also permitted to sell/buy homogeneous pool within retail non- performing financial assets, on a portfolio basis provided each of the nonperforming financial assets of the pool has remained as nonperforming financial asset for at least 2 years in the books of the selling bank. The pool of assets would be treated as a single asset in the books of the purchasing bank. xiii) The selling bank shall pursue the staff accountability aspects as per the existing instructions in respect of the nonperforming assets sold to other banks. 7.6. Prudential norms for banks for the purchase/ sale transactions (A) Asset classification norms (i) The nonperforming financial asset purchased, may be classified as ‘standard’ in the books of the purchasing bank for a period of 90 days from the date of purchase. Thereafter, the asset classification status of the financial asset purchased, shall be determined by the record of recovery in the books of the purchasing bank with reference to cash flows estimated while purchasing the asset which should be in compliance with requirements in Para 7.5 (iv). (ii) The asset classification status of an existing exposure (other than purchased financial asset) to the same obligor in the books of the purchasing bank will continue to be governed by the record of recovery of that exposure and hence may be different. 38 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  43. 43. (iii) Where the purchase/sale does not satisfy any of the prudential requirements prescribed in these guidelines the asset classification status of the financial asset in the books of the purchasing bank at the time of purchase shall be the same as in the books of the selling bank. Thereafter, the asset classification status will continue to be determined with reference to the date of NPA in the selling bank. (iv) Any restructure/reschedule/rephrase of the repayment schedule or the estimated cash flow of the nonperforming financial asset by the purchasing bank shall render the account as a nonperforming asset. (B) Provisioning norms Books of selling bank i) When a bank sells its nonperforming financial assets to other banks, the same will be removed from its books on transfer. ii) If the sale is at a price below the net book value (NBV) (i.e., book value less provisions held), the shortfall should be debited to the profit and loss account of that year. iii) If the sale is for a value higher than the NBV, the excess provision shall not be reversed but will be utilised to meet the shortfall/ loss on account of sale of other nonperforming financial assets. Books of purchasing bank The asset shall attract provisioning requirement appropriate to its asset classification status in the books of the purchasing bank. (C) Accounting of recoveries Any recovery in respect of a nonperforming asset purchased from other banks should first be adjusted against its acquisition cost. Recoveries in excess of the acquisition cost can be recognised as profit. (D) Capital Adequacy For the purpose of capital adequacy, banks should assign 100% risk weights to the nonperforming financial assets purchased from other banks. In case the nonperforming asset purchased is an investment, then it would attract capital charge for 39 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  44. 44. market risks also. For NBFCs the relevant instructions on capital adequacy would be applicable. (E) Exposure Norms The purchasing bank will reckon exposure on the obligor of the specific financial asset. Hence these banks should ensure compliance with the prudential credit exposure ceilings (both single and group) after reckoning the exposures to the obligors arising on account of the purchase. For NBFCs the relevant instructions on exposure norms would be applicable. 7.7. Disclosure Requirements Banks which purchase nonperforming financial assets from other banks shall be required to make the following disclosures in the Notes on Accounts to their Balance sheets: A. Details of nonperforming financial assets purchased: (Amounts in Rupees crore) 1. Aggregate outstanding (a) Of these, number of accounts restructured during the year (b) B. No. of accounts purchased during the year (b) 2. (a) Aggregate outstanding Details of nonperforming financial assets sold: (Amounts in Rupees crore) 1. 2. Aggregate outstanding 3. C. No. of accounts sold Aggregate consideration received The purchasing bank shall furnish all relevant reports to RBI, CIBIL etc. in respect of the nonperforming financial assets purchased by it. 8. Writing off of NPAs 8.1 In terms of Section 43(D) of the Income Tax Act 1961, income by way of interest in relation to such categories of bad and doubtful debts as may be prescribed having regard to the guidelines issued by the RBI in relation to such debts, shall be chargeable to tax in the previous year in which it is credited to the bank’s profit and loss account or received, whichever is earlier. 40 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  45. 45. 8.2 This stipulation is not applicable to provisioning required to be made as indicated above. In other words, amounts set aside for making provision for NPAs as above are not eligible for tax deductions. 8.3 Therefore, the banks should either make full provision as per the guidelines or write- off such advances and claim such tax benefits as are applicable, by evolving appropriate methodology in consultation with their auditors/tax consultants. Recoveries made in such accounts should be offered for tax purposes as per the rules. 8.4 Write-off at Head Office Level Banks may write-off advances at Head Office level, even though the relative advances are still outstanding in the branch books. However, it is necessary that provision is made as per the classification accorded to the respective accounts. In other words, if an advance is a loss asset, 100 percent provision will have to be made therefor. 41 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  46. 46. PART B Prudential Guidelines on Restructuring of Advances by Banks 9. Background 9.1 The guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India on restructuring of advances (other than those restructured under a separate set of guidelines issued by the Rural Planning and Credit Department (RPCD) of the RBI on restructuring of advances on account of natural calamities) are divided into the following four categories : (i) Guidelines on restructuring of advances extended to industrial units. (ii) Guidelines on restructuring of advances extended to industrial units under the Corporate Debt Restructuring (CDR) Mechanism (iii) Guidelines on restructuring of advances extended to Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) (iv) Guidelines on restructuring of all other advances. In these four sets of guidelines on restructuring of advances, the differentiation has been broadly made based on whether a borrower is engaged in an industrial activity or a nonindustrial activity. In addition an elaborate institutional mechanism has been laid down for accounts restructured under CDR Mechanism. The major difference in the prudential regulations lies in the stipulation that subject to certain conditions, the accounts of borrowers engaged in industrial activities (under CDR Mechanism, SME Debt Restructuring Mechanism and outside these mechanisms) continue to be classified in the existing asset classification category upon restructuring. This benefit of retention of asset classification on restructuring is not available to the accounts of borrowers engaged in non-industrial activities except to SME borrowers. Another difference is that the prudential regulations covering the CDR Mechanism and restructuring of advances extended to SMEs are more detailed and comprehensive than that covering the restructuring of the rest of the advances including the advances extended to the industrial units, outside CDR Mechanism. Further, the CDR Mechanism is available only to the borrowers engaged in industrial activities. 9.2 Since the principles underlying the restructuring of all advances were identical, the prudential regulations needed to be aligned in all cases. Accordingly, the prudential norms across all categories of debt restructuring mechanisms, other than those restructured on account of natural calamities which will continue to be covered by the extant guidelines 42 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011
  47. 47. issued by the RPCD were harmonised in August 2008. These prudential norms applicable to all restructurings including those under CDR Mechanism are laid down in para 11. The details of the institutional / organizational framework for CDR Mechanism and SME Debt Restructuring Mechanism are given in Annex - 4. It may be noted that while the general principles laid down in para 11 inter-alia stipulate that 'standard' advances should be re-classified as 'sub-standard' immediately on restructuring, all borrowers, with the exception of the borrowal categories specified in para 14.1 below ( i.e consumer and personal advances, advances classified as capital market and real estate exposures), will be entitled to retain the asset classification upon restructuring, subject to the conditions enumerated in para 14.2. 9.3 The CDR Mechanism (Annex - 4) will also be available to the corporates engaged in non-industrial activities, if they are otherwise eligible for restructuring as per the criteria laid down for this purpose. Further, banks are also encouraged to strengthen the coordination among themselves in the matter of restructuring of consortium / multiple banking accounts, which are not covered under the CDR Mechanism. 10. Key Concepts Key concepts used in these guidelines are defined in Annex - 5. 11. General Principles and Prudential Norms for Restructured Advances The principles and prudential norms laid down in this paragraph are applicable to all advances including the borrowers, who are eligible for special regulatory treatment for asset classification as specified in para 14. In these cases, the provisions of paras 11.1.2, 11.2.1 and 11.2.2 would stand modified by the provisions in para 14. 11.1 Eligibility criteria for restructuring of advances 11.1.1 Banks may restructure the accounts classified under 'standard', 'sub- standard' and 'doubtful' categories. 11.1.2 Banks can not reschedule / restructure / renegotiate borrowal accounts with retrospective effect. While a restructuring proposal is under consideration, the usual asset classification norms would continue to apply. The process of reclassification of an asset should not stop merely because restructuring proposal is under consideration. The asset classification status as on the date of approval of the 43 DBOD-MC On IRAC Norms-2011

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