Chemistry of CarbonChemistry of CarbonCompoundsCompoundsProperties of CarbonProperties of CarbonAllotropesAllotropesInorganic Compounds of CarbonInorganic Compounds of CarbonOrganic ChemistryOrganic Chemistry
CARBONCARBON non-metallic element of group IV-A whichnon-metallic element of group IV-A whichconstitutes only about 0.009 % by mass ofconstitutes only about 0.009 % by mass ofEarth’s crust. (but it is the 6Earth’s crust. (but it is the 6ththmost abundantmost abundantelement in the universe)element in the universe) exists in three isotopes:exists in three isotopes: 1212C,C, 1313C,C, 1414CC has the unique ability to form long chainshas the unique ability to form long chains(consisting of more than 50 C atoms) and(consisting of more than 50 C atoms) andstable five or six-membered rings calledstable five or six-membered rings calledcatenation.catenation.
AllotropesAllotropes two or more forms of the same elementtwo or more forms of the same elementthat differ significantly in chemical &that differ significantly in chemical &physical properties.physical properties.
Allotropes of Carbon Crystalline-Crystalline- have highly ordered 3D structurehave highly ordered 3D structure1.1. graphitegraphite2.2. diamonddiamond3.3. fullerenesfullerenes AmorphousAmorphous1.1. carbon blackcarbon black2.2. charcoalcharcoal3.3. cokecoke
GraphiteGraphite graphite is derived from the Greek wordgraphite is derived from the Greek word“graphein” which means“graphein” which means to writeto write. It was. It wasnamed by the German Geologistnamed by the German GeologistAbraham Werner in 1789.Abraham Werner in 1789.
Properties & Uses ofGraphite soft, greasy feel black mineralsoft, greasy feel black mineral is made up of layers of carbon, the Carbon atomsis made up of layers of carbon, the Carbon atomsarranged in rings of 6 atoms.arranged in rings of 6 atoms. layers slide easily over each other because of thelayers slide easily over each other because of theweak inter-layer forces (Van der Waal’s forces) butweak inter-layer forces (Van der Waal’s forces) butinter atomic bonds are strong covalent bondsinter atomic bonds are strong covalent bonds contains free electrons, which move along layerscontains free electrons, which move along layers good conductor of heat & electricitygood conductor of heat & electricity used as pencil lead, lubricants, electrodes & rawused as pencil lead, lubricants, electrodes & rawmaterial for making synthetic diamondsmaterial for making synthetic diamonds
DiamondDiamond transparent crystalline solid, with high densitycompared to other carbon allotropes hardest naturally occurring substance carbon atom is joined to 4 other Carbon atoms,forming a Tetrahedron, or 4 sided figure heldtogether by covalent bonds used as cutting material, jewelries & fordecorative purposes
FullerenesFullerenes a class of carbon molecules in which thea class of carbon molecules in which thecarbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonalcarbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonalfaces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form afaces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form ahollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure.hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. the most prominent of the fullerenes isthe most prominent of the fullerenes isbuckminsterfullerenebuckminsterfullerene , a spheroidal, a spheroidalmolecule, resembling a soccer ball, consistingmolecule, resembling a soccer ball, consistingof 60 carbon atoms.of 60 carbon atoms.
FullerenesFullerenes fullerene research is expected to lead to newfullerene research is expected to lead to newmaterials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts,materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts,electro-optical devices, and medicalelectro-optical devices, and medicalapplications.applications. were first identified in 1985 by R. F. Curl, Jr.,were first identified in 1985 by R. F. Curl, Jr.,R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto (who shared theR. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto (who shared the1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)
Carbon BlackCarbon Black formed when hydrocarbons suchformed when hydrocarbons suchas methane are heated in a veryas methane are heated in a verylimited supply of oxygen:limited supply of oxygen:CHCH44 + O+ O22 →→ CC(s)(s) + H+ H22OO used as pigment in black inksused as pigment in black inksand making automobile tiresand making automobile tires
CharcoalCharcoal formed when wood is heated strongly informed when wood is heated strongly inthe absence of airthe absence of air used in filters to remove offensive odorsused in filters to remove offensive odorsfrom air and colored or bad-tastingfrom air and colored or bad-tastingimpurities form waterimpurities form water
CokeCoke impure form of carbon formed when coalimpure form of carbon formed when coal((coalcoal- a fuel substance of plant origin, largely- a fuel substance of plant origin, largelyor almost entirely composed of carbon withor almost entirely composed of carbon withvarying amounts of mineral matter) is heatedvarying amounts of mineral matter) is heatedstrongly in the absence of air.strongly in the absence of air. used as a reducing agent in metallurgicalused as a reducing agent in metallurgicalprocess.process.
Carbon MonoxideCarbon Monoxide a colorless, odorless, toxic gas formeda colorless, odorless, toxic gas formedby the incomplete combustion of carbon-by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds.containing compounds. They are used for extracting nickels,They are used for extracting nickels,organic synthesis and production oforganic synthesis and production ofhydrocarbon fuels with hydrogenhydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen
Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide a colorless, odorless, non-toxic gas.a colorless, odorless, non-toxic gas. it is an acidic oxide & used in beverages,it is an acidic oxide & used in beverages,fire extinguishers, manufacture of bakingfire extinguishers, manufacture of bakingsoda, NaHCOsoda, NaHCO33, and soda ash, Na, and soda ash, Na22COCO33.. COCO22 can also exist in solid form, calledcan also exist in solid form, called“dry ice”, which is used as a refrigerant.“dry ice”, which is used as a refrigerant.
CarbonatesCarbonates are compounds containing the anionare compounds containing the anionCOCO332-2- examples are calcium carbonate whichexamples are calcium carbonate whichcan be found in egg shells, shells ofcan be found in egg shells, shells ofmarine organisms & in both limestone &marine organisms & in both limestone &marblemarble
CarbonatesCarbonates Calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate is normally water-is normally water-insoluble. It will only dissolve in waterinsoluble. It will only dissolve in watersaturated with COsaturated with CO22 because carbonatedbecause carbonatedwater (or carbonic acid) reacts withwater (or carbonic acid) reacts withcalcium carbonate to form calciumcalcium carbonate to form calciumbicarbonate, which is water-soluble:bicarbonate, which is water-soluble:CaCOCaCO3(s)3(s) + H+ H22COCO3(aq)3(aq) CaCa2+2+(aq)(aq) + 2HCO+ 2HCO33--(aq)(aq)
BicarbonatesBicarbonates are compounds containing the anion HCOare compounds containing the anion HCO33-- example isexample is sodium bicarbonatesodium bicarbonate or bakingor bakingsoda NaHCOsoda NaHCO33, a weak base added to recipes, a weak base added to recipesto neutralize the acidity of other ingredients.to neutralize the acidity of other ingredients.Baking soda is a mixture of baking soda andBaking soda is a mixture of baking soda anda weak acid, like tartaric acid, that whena weak acid, like tartaric acid, that whenmixed with water, the acid reacts with themixed with water, the acid reacts with theHCOHCO33--ion to form COion to form CO22 gas, which causes thegas, which causes thedough or batter to rise.dough or batter to rise.HCOHCO33--((aqaq)) HH++((aqaq)) HH22COCO3(3(aqaq)) →→ HH22OO((ll)) + CO+ CO2(2(gg))
CarbidesCarbides ionic compounds formed from theionic compounds formed from thecombination of carbon & metalscombination of carbon & metals examples are CaCexamples are CaC22 (“carburo”) and(“carburo”) andBeBe22C in which carbon is in the form ofC in which carbon is in the form ofCC222-2-or Cor C4-4-ions which are strong Bronstedions which are strong Bronstedbases & reacts with water as:bases & reacts with water as:CC222-2-(aq)(aq) + 2H+ 2H22OO(l)(l) →→ 2OH2OH--(aq)(aq) + C+ C22HH2(g)2(g)CC4-4-(aq)(aq) + 4H+ 4H22OO(l)(l) →→ 4OH4OH--(aq)(aq) + CH+ CH4(g)4(g)
CarbidesCarbides another example is the covalentanother example is the covalentcompound of carbon with silicon calledcompound of carbon with silicon called“carborundum” or silicon carbide, SiC.“carborundum” or silicon carbide, SiC. it is almost as hard as diamond & it hasit is almost as hard as diamond & it hasthe diamond structure which can bethe diamond structure which can beprepared from the reaction:prepared from the reaction:SiOSiO2(s)2(s) + 3C+ 3C(s)(s) →→ SiCSiC(s)(s) + 2CO+ 2CO(g)(g)
CyanidesCyanides a carbon compound containing the aniona carbon compound containing the aniongroup :CNgroup :CN≡≡N:N:-- cyanide ions are extremely toxiccyanide ions are extremely toxic used in the metallurgy of gold in the formused in the metallurgy of gold in the formof NaCNof NaCN