Dr. Ravi Dhar reviews " Bioincubators in India 2014"

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Dr. Ravi Dhar reviews " Bioincubators in India 2014"

  1. 1. Brief Review on Bio-incubator Scenario in India Ravi Dhar, Ph.D. 2014 (rdhar_in@yahoo.com) 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 1
  2. 2. Information Sources • DBT website • ISBA (2013) conference • BIRAC website • BioSpectrum, India • Venture Center, NCL, Pune • National News papers • Various Books, Journals & numerous websites • Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 2
  3. 3. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 3 WHAT IS A BIOINCUBATOR? “A bio-incubator is a program designed to promote the successful development of biotechnology start-ups and early-stage companies, mostly prior to proof-of-concept. Similar to business incubator programs, which offer an array of business support resources and services to stimulate the entrepreneurial development of young companies, a bio-incubator is targeted towards the Life Sciences industry. Biotech start-ups benefit from seed capital, use of research and development facilities and an array of business support resources to accelerate successful development”. (Wikipedia)
  4. 4. Definition as Perceived “A Bioincubator is a building designed for housing R&D driven companies active in Life sciences. It is mostly closely related to a neighbouring university. A Bioincubator is a Business incubator targeted towards Life Sciences helping start-up companies. Entrepreneurs with feasible projects in Life Sciences are selected and admitted into the incubators, where they are offered a specialized menu of support resources and services, including mentoring” 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 4
  5. 5. Models of Incubators 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 5 S. No. Type Remarks 1. Technology Business Incubators Computers, Servers, small investment Generate business 2. Bio-incubators (U.S.A./Europe) Fosters successful entrepreneurs in dozens 3. Bio-incubators (India- DBT_BIRAC) Meant to foster entrepreneurs – some success (2006/ 2010…) 4. Taube-Koret Type, U.S.A. Non-profit incubator + academic interactions; up-scaling by various players (2010) 5. Science Incubators (U.S.A.) Synthesis centers: meant to add value to existing data only (2012…) (compiled by R.D. in 2013)
  6. 6. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 6 Incubators 1. Information Technology Type 2. U.S.A/European (highly evolved) 3. India: DBT_BIRAC (evolving) 4. Taube-Koret Type (Non-profit Incubator + academic interactions; up-scaling by various players)(2010) 5. Science Incubators (Synthesis centers: to add value to existing data)
  7. 7. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 7 Building a Successful Biotech Incubator Proximity to Academic Hubs and Capital Remains a Crucial Factor in Hatching a Thriving Cluster. Examples:- San Francisco companies: University of California at San Francisco Stanford University UC-Berkeley and & to some extent, Cal Tech. Boston has: Harvard University MIT Boston University  Seattle has: University of Washington. Research Triangle Park is relatively near: Duke and the University of North Carolina. Buffalo, NY, cites the Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, as well as the University of New York at Buffalo with its strong departments of chemistry, engineering, and bioinformatics.
  8. 8. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 8 A model non-profit biotechnology incubator to facilitate academic drug discovery and development The Taube-Koret Center acts as a bidirectional bridge between academia and industry to reduce the risk in the development of therapeutics. Discoveries with therapeutic potential are made in academic laboratories and are transferred to the Taube-Koret Center within the same institution. The Center maintains the necessary expertise in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry to validate targets and discover and optimize small molecules to modulate these targets. Contract research organizations are used by the Center as needed to carry out specific steps in drug development. Leads that fail to meet performance targets are returned to the academic labs that discovered them for further optimization. Leads that meet milestones are advanced until partners can be found to co-develop them further. The potential paths to therapeutics via partners (black arrows) can involve foundations, the NIH, existing biotechnology companies, new companies created by venture capitalists, or major pharmaceutical (pharma) companies. Since the Center's overarching goal is to find effective therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, rather than to make a profit from proprietary programs, it can make its new technologies, assays and disease models available to external entities that want to evaluate the efficacy of their lead programs (gray arrows). Nature Medicine, 16, 1227–1232 (2010)
  9. 9. Bio-incubator Scenario in India • Life science (mixed) incubators: 52 • North : 10 • South : 27 • East : 5 • West : 8 Exact Classification not clear (Source: VC, NCL, Pune-2012) 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 9
  10. 10. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 10 Development of Bio-incubators is related to Evolution of Biotechnology over years Basic Research/Discovery Innovation Enterprise
  11. 11. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 11 Evolution of Biotechnology in India over years Basic Research/Discovery Innovation Enterprise Govt.FundingSupport
  12. 12. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 12 Evolution of Biotechnology over years Basic Research/Discovery Innovation Enterprise Phase-I:BasicInfrastructure/Capacity FundingSupport
  13. 13. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 13 Evolution of Biotechnology over years Basic Research/Discovery Innovation Enterprise Phase-I:BasicInfrastructure/CapacityPhase-II:ProductDevelopment Public or Private Incubator Space or SMEs FundingSupport I II
  14. 14. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 14 Phase I to II Syndrome ? We need to get out of this syndrome Maintaining a Balance between Basic and Translational Research
  15. 15. Parks & Incubators Govt. of India through DBT & BIRAC initiated several Parks & incubators sometime back Definitions: Science Parks: An area usually linked with a university where scientific research and commercial development are carried on in cooperation Bio-incubators: Incubators specifically are meant to allow young incubatees / start-up companies to initiate and dabble into entrepreneurship 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 15
  16. 16. Indian Govt. Mandate • Funding of various Research & Technology schemes by DBT/DST/ICMR • National Biotech Policy (2007) mandated 30% funding for PPP • BIRAC (=BIRAP) funded schemes: • SBIRI • BIPP • Bio-Incubators • CRS • BIG • Capacity Building + Training • Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives • Technology Acquisition Efforts 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 16 BIRACDBT
  17. 17. Indian Government Mandate on BioIncubators 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 17  Trigger & Transform Biotech Start-ups to convert innovative research in Public and Private sector  Support & Strengthen Entrepreneurship, SME’s, facilitates high risk research, innovation and product development  Financial, Infrastructural, Institutional & Mentoring support for budding entrepreneurs  Encourage Knowledge Networking among biotech entrepreneurs at National International Level  Policy and Institutional Support for all Stakeholders in Biotech  Conceptualize and Support development of affordable, novel, deployable products and technologies in Healthcare, Agriculture, Environment Bio-energy involved in PPP  Promote Secondary Agriculture for providing opportunity in entrepreneurship & employment.
  18. 18. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 18 Evolution of Biotechnology in India over years to foster Public Private Partnerships Basic Research/Discovery Innovation Enterprise Phase-I:BasicInfrastructure/CapacityPhase-II:ProductDevelopment Public or Private Incubator Space or SMEs FundingSupport: (A)TaskForceProjects (B)BIG/SBIRI/BIPP/CRS BIG Grant CRS
  19. 19. Funding Support (loans or grants) in INR BIG SIBRI BIPP CRS BISS +UIC 50 Lacs 2 Cr 50 Cr > Case to case Case to case National Biotechnology Policy 7.2.2013 19RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 + UIC
  20. 20. An Ideal Incubator • Building designed for housing incubatees or start-up entrepreneurs active in Life Science • Presence of neighbouring academic organizations or universities or hospitals or R&D Industrial units. • It, therefore, is a like a Business Incubator targeted towards Life Sciences helping start-ups. • Entrepreneurs with feasible projects in Biotechnology are selected and admitted into the incubators as tenants, where they are offered a specialized menu of support resources and services, including mentoring. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 20
  21. 21. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 21 Wet Lab space & Equipment Office Cubicles for Incubatees/Data Admin/IT/ Security/ services/Library Food Court/ Canteen Resting space Reagents & Chemical Store
  22. 22. Who Occupies the Bio-incubator • Incubatees (fresh M.Tech/Ph.D./M.B.B.S/ M.Sc etc) • Entrepreneurs • Parties graduating to be SMEs 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 22
  23. 23. Bio-incubation is a Time Consuming Process • Biotech requires more time • Biotech requires more funding • Importance of shared infrastructure • Specialized management is crucial • Special mentors for incubatees 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 23
  24. 24. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 24 Benefits of Incubators • Job Creation • Building or accelerating growth of local academic and industry clusters • Fostering a community's entrepreneurial climate • Technology commercialization • Diversifying local economies • Business creation and retention • Encouraging women or minority entrepreneurship • Identifying potential spin-in or spin-out business opportunities • Community revitalization
  25. 25. Scientific Quality/Quantum is Essential for Entrepreneurship...... Canada Korea Italy Netherlands Switzerland India Belgium Sweden Russian Federation Poland Australia Brazil Spain United States Germany France China Japan United Kingdom 1998 2008/2010 Canada Korea Italy Netherlands Switzerland India Belgium Sweden Russian Federation. Poland China Japan Australia Brazil Spain United States Germany France United Kingdom Source: OECD (2010) Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective (modified) ? 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 ? 25
  26. 26. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 26 Support system for Scientific Output, Entrepreneurship & Job Creation
  27. 27. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 27 Where is India Positioned? TDB-TBIs/NSTEDB/Private players DBT Bio-incubators CIC at Delhi University & Baroda Seed fund for 1 year only UIC: National Knowledge Commission + Initiated BIRAC
  28. 28. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 28 University Innovation Biocluster & Bio-incubators 2014 Approval Granted to 5 Universities (Source: BIRAC website + Newspapers)
  29. 29. Issues in India • Seed Funding • Long term Sustainability • Business Models in mind: – Incubatees : generally bereft – SMEs: have a strategy • Technology Platform Model: (Start-ups that rent/sell their technology/product to pharma/biotech companies) (?) • RIPCO Model: (Start-ups that research and develop a new product to finally license it to a big pharma/biotech company in exchange for a royalty on sales) • FIPCO Model: (Start-ups that launch their own Product) • NRDO model: (Start-ups that buy a “discarded” promising drug from big pharma and use their technology to bring it to market) 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 29
  30. 30. Indian Govt. Initiative on Bio-Incubator 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 30 Department of Biotechnology Ministry of Science and Technology Government of India Call for Letters of Intent (LOI) (2010) For DBT-BIRAP Support for Establishing and Strengthening Bio-Incubators/Innovation Centers for Research, Innovation and Technopreneurship. Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Programme, (BIRAP) is a programme of the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, with an objective to assist and promote emerging biotech entrepreneurs and facilitate innovative research and development in existing small, medium as well as large industries. Biotech incubator acts as a catalyst that would stimulate research & develop and for creating of new biotechnology ventures/startups. In order to give thrust to the biotechnology industry in the country, DBT-BIRAP aims to provide financial support in form of soft loans and grants for Strengthening the already existing Bio-incubators and also for establishing new generation Biotechnology Incubators with an objective to create knowledge and develop entrepreneurship in biotechnology. The focus could be on the following areas in the biotechnology sectors: Biopharma, Bioagri, Industrial Biotechnology, Bioenergy and other areas of life sciences. The Bio-incubators for SMEs and start-ups/Innovation Centre only for start-ups could be as a standalone facility or as a part of an existing University/ Institute or Park. They would cater to the requirements of start-up’s and SMEs. BIRAP invites Letters of Intent (LOI) from interested public and private academic institutions (Universities, Research Institutes) / SEZs / etc for the development of Biotechnology Incubator Projects/s. Interested Parties may download the “Project Information Memorandum”, LOI format and other required detailed information from www.birapdbt.nic.in. Short listing of the LOIs would be done in two weeks based on the listed criteria and the selected participants will be informed. Subsequently a detailed proposal will have to be submitted. The last date for submission of LOI documents is 15th July, 2011. LOIs are to be submitted by e-mail with all the documents and attachments in a single file to rdhar.birap@nic.in / rkumar.birap@nic.in For further details contact: Dr. Ravi Dhar, Consultant IP cell, BIRAP Email; rdhar.birap@nic.in Mr. Rajneesh Kumar, Programme Manager, Technology Transfer, BIRAP Email: rkumar.birap@nic.in Phone Number: 011-47744500 (Times of India)
  31. 31. Salient Features of Bio-incubator Support Scheme Support: • Provide incubator space to Start-ups and Entrepreneurs. • Provide access to a pool of special equipments in the Central Equipment Facility. • Connect and facilitate Industry –Academia Interaction • Provide enabling services and required mentorship for IP and Technology Management, Legal and Contract, resource mobilization and networking platform. • Governance models would be cooperative or autonomous. •12 existing Bio-incubatosr across India have been supported; approx. 70,000 sq.ft Bio- Incubator has been created. Target Groups: • Existing Bio-incubators across the country •New Bio-incubators Purpose: (1) Strengthening and Up-gradation of the existing Bio-incubators; and (2) To establish New World Class Bio- incubators in certain strategic locations. 7.2.2013 31RD_Bioincubators in India_2014
  32. 32. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 32 Key features of BISS Scheme Establishing common equipment facility High end equipment facility Man-power-Technical & Business Refurbishing & Renovation Conducting workshops/mentoring of incubatees by incubators Limited support for Journals/books Support for external consultancy to bio-incubator for legal, business & marketing Other administrative & operational expenses
  33. 33. Selection Criteria For Up scaling Existing Incubators • The proposals selected for evaluation based on the following criteria: • Technical merit of the proposal • Target Beneficiaries • Services/facilities to be provided • Respondent’s qualification in the field of the assignment. • Respondent’s technical and managerial capabilities. • Respondent’s core business and years in business, if any • Qualifications of the respondent’s key staff that would work on this assignment specifically. • Respondent’s experience in supporting businesses, notably entrepreneurs in at the national and international level. For New World Class Incubators • High level experts, Policy makers decide to develop New World Class Incubators in R&D Clusters 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 33
  34. 34. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 34 Government Support for Existing Incubators 70,000 sq feet space Equipment Mentoring Other facilities
  35. 35. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 35 Recently Commissioned or Proposed Incubators in India RCB: Target; approved (World Class) (In process) Medical Devices, Diagnostics & Vaccines C_CAMP: for providing cGMP facility to industry KIITs University NABI_Mohali (under consideration) (Agriculture)
  36. 36. Infrastructure Requirements For world Class Bio-incubators 1. Modular lab Infrastructure- PLUG N PLAY 2. C-GMP and GLP labs complying to industry standards 3. Clean room facility 4. Modular Pilot Plant Facility for scale up 5. Plant Tissue culture lab/climate chambers 6. Translational facility:  Investigational Medicine Units  Animal Research Facility  Bio-material development and testing  Toxicology facility  Stem Cell identification and Isolation 7.2.2013 36RD_Bioincubators in India_2014
  37. 37. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 37
  38. 38. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 38 Infrastructure Bio-Incubator I : 12 modules of 250 m² Bio-Incubator II : 24 modules of 125 m² Bio-Incubator III: 24 modules of 125 m² Modules with lab and workspace: State of the art (L2 compatible): • Flexible interior arrangement; • Coupling of multiple modules is possible. Included: • Manager supporting general and technical needs, guiding the demands of necessary environmental licenses and working out solutions for logistical problems; • Meeting rooms & facilities; • Lunch facilities. Extras: • Storage room; • Coordination of installation; • Environmental issues: waste management,…; • Technical support.
  39. 39. Issues in India during Project Implementation  Concept not well understood – think as funding instrument only?  Weak project writing skills  Incomplete Paper work, Approvals  Incomplete information given in proposal  Resistance of host organization to address queries raised by various funding agencies  Regulatory issues (Environmental)  SIRO Recognition issues  Customs Issues for equipment 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 39
  40. 40. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 40 Issues: Regulatory Compliance Issues : Infrastructure • Land Issues • Building G-2/G-3 issues related to building • Regulatory Approvals from Pollution Board • Safety norms for incubators • Management Structure • Use of Instruments by incubatees • Display of list of Instruments for optimum use • Operational Model & Log book for use of instruments
  41. 41. Funding - India 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 41 The existing system of public incubators: • Duration: 2-5 years • Funding per project: varies; based on milestones; Funding varies • Government participation: 50%-85% • Ownership: Joint governance during funding; subsequently could belong to host organization! Different models tried
  42. 42. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 42 S.No. Ownership Management Examples 1. Public Public Universities/IARI 2. Private Private IAN-Tie, Delhi 3. Public Private BTIC, Genome Valley 4. Public + Private Private IKP, Hyderabad (compiled by R.D.) Governance Models
  43. 43. Government of India DBT National Incubators • C-CAMP, Bangalore • (Protein Characterization facility under GLP conditions for Industry) • DBT_BIRAC Incubator at Alexandria, Genome Valley, Hyderabad (BTIC) • NABI, Agri Bioincubator, Mohali • RCB Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 43
  44. 44. Translational facilities 1. Clinical research facility for Phase-1 clinical trials EG. AIIMS-CDSA Phase-1 clinical trials proposal. 2. Up gradation of the of the Vaccines units complying international standards e.g., BIBCOL 7.2.2013 44RD_Bioincubators in India_2014
  45. 45. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 45 http://www.biospectrumindia.com/biospecindia/news/158542/incubators-accelerate- entrepreneurial-spirit
  46. 46. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 46 Successful Bio-incubatees from India
  47. 47. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 47
  48. 48. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 48 Companies Graduated from Indian Bio-Incubators
  49. 49. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 49 IKP Knowledge Park encourages companies to graduate from the Park to their own facility or to set up their own facility. 18 companies have successfully graduated from the Park till date. While Optiwave Photonics was the first company to graduate - in 2003, Matrix and GVK Biosciences have achieved phenomenal success after graduating from the Park.
  50. 50. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 50 List of Current or Past Incubatee companies at IKP »i-Trace Nanotech Pvt. Ltd. Technology development and application of nanoparticles. »iSensor Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd. iSensor is a start-up biotech company offering novel low cost diagnostic solutions to point-of-care diagnostics and critical care medical diagnostic instrumentation that dramatically improve the quality of life of patients in developing countries. »Onan Biotech Pvt. Ltd. ONAN Biotech is working on rDNA technology and developing PCR based molecular techniques to develop and manufacture innovative products for the detection of infectious and non infectious diseases. »Regain Biotech Pvt. Ltd. Regain Biotech is focussed on Plant based therapeutics »Remidio Innovative Solutions Pvt. Ltd. Remedio is involved in development of low cost medical devices for the Indian Market. The team has developed an inexpensive retina scanner to detect Diabetic Retinopathy. »Revelations Biotech Pvt. Ltd. Revelations Biotech is involved in structure guided drug design services and traditional medicines/botanicals. Their aim is to leverage on advance molecular biology, system biology and crystallographic techniques for drug design and discovery of new molecules
  51. 51. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 51 Factors Enabling Value Creation in Bio-incubators Bio-environment assets Basic research infrastructure Entrepreneurship Prospecting Selection Technology validation Access to physical infrastructure Mentoring Internal IP services Access to funding Networking Assistance with “exit” strategy
  52. 52. On Incubators World-wide? • No. of Life science incubators, India : 52 mixed • International Scenario: 1100 nos. • U.S.A. : 12% functional • France : 4% functional • Germany : 32% functional • India : Relatively new – growing 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 52
  53. 53. International Models • Alexandria : Private • Israel : Entrepreneur driven • Germany : Entrepreneur driven • Nottingham : Private + Public 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 53
  54. 54. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 54 A model non-profit biotechnology incubator to facilitate academic drug discovery and development The Taube-Koret Center acts as a bidirectional bridge between academia and industry to reduce the risk in the development of therapeutics. Discoveries with therapeutic potential are made in academic laboratories and are transferred to the Taube-Koret Center within the same institution. The Center maintains the necessary expertise in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry to validate targets and discover and optimize small molecules to modulate these targets. Contract research organizations are used by the Center as needed to carry out specific steps in drug development. Leads that fail to meet performance targets are returned to the academic labs that discovered them for further optimization. Leads that meet milestones are advanced until partners can be found to co-develop them further. The potential paths to therapeutics via partners (black arrows) can involve foundations, the NIH, existing biotechnology companies, new companies created by venture capitalists, or major pharmaceutical (pharma) companies. Since the Center's overarching goal is to find effective therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, rather than to make a profit from proprietary programs, it can make its new technologies, assays and disease models available to external entities that want to evaluate the efficacy of their lead programs (gray arrows). Nature Medicine, 16, 1227–1232 (2010)
  55. 55. Bio-incubators in Israel 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 55 The existing system of public incubators: • Duration: up to 2 years • Funding per project: up to $350,000 • Government participation: 85% • Ownership:  Entrepreneur - 50%  Private investors - 20%  Incubator - 20%  Other staff members - 10%
  56. 56. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 56 Bio-incubators for Entrepreneurship Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Feb 7;31(2):104-7. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2493. “Giving voice to India's entrepreneurs” PMID: 23392503 [PubMed - in process]
  57. 57. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 57 CAUTION !!!!! J Homosex. 2013 Feb;60(2-3):232-49. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2013.744669. The rise of repeal: policy entrepreneurship and don't ask, don't tell. Neff CL, Edgell Blas LR. Department of Government and International Relations , University of Sydney , Sydney , Australia. We report on policy entrepreneurship by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network SDN) and how its legislative strategies used mini-windows of opportunity to shift Capitol Hill perspectives of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) from political plutonium to an emerging issue requiring a second look. Four phases in the legislative history of DADT are identified: radioactive, contested, emerging, and viable. In all, this article argues that SLDN's entrepreneurship focused on contesting congressional sensibilities to wait or defer on repeal, maintained that every discharge was damaging and transitioned toward a post-repeal mind set. Finally, we illustrate the importance of these transitions by comparing SLDN’ 2004 estimated vote count for the introduction of the Military Readiness Enhancement Act with the final 2010 voting results on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act. PMID: 23414271 [PubMed - in process]
  58. 58. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 58 Future of Entrepreneurship Intellect Dev Disabil. 2012 Dec;50(6):505-18. doi: 10.1352/1934-9556-50.06.505 The potential of social entrepreneurship: conceptual tools for applying citizenship theory to policy and practice. Caldwell K, Harris SP, Renko M. Department of Disability and Human Development, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1640 West Roosevelt Road (MC626), Chicago, IL 60608, USA. kcaldw3@uic.edu Contemporary policy encourages self-employment and entrepreneurship as a vehicle for empowerment and self-sufficiency among people with disabilities. However, such encouragement raises important citizenship questions concerning the participation of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). As an innovative strategy for addressing pressing social and economic problems, "social entrepreneurship" has become a phrase that is gaining momentum in the IDDcommunity--one that carries with it a very distinct history. Although social entrepreneurship holds the potential to be an empowering source of job creation and social innovation, it also has the potential to be used to further disenfranchise this marginalized population. It is crucial that in moving forward society takes care not to perpetuate existing models of oppression, particularly in regard to the social and economic participation of people with IDD. The conceptual tools addressed in this article can inform the way that researchers, policymakers, and practitioners approach complex issues, such as social entrepreneurship, to improve communication among disciplines while retaining an integral focus on rights and social justice by framing this issue within citizenship theory. PMID: 23256692 [PubMed - in process]
  59. 59. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 59 Startup Companies in Europe
  60. 60. 7.2.2013 RD_Bioincubators in India_2014 60 Thank You (rdhar_in@yahoo.com)

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