Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
(Defence technology)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

(Defence technology)

13,438
views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

6 Comments
15 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
13,438
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
872
Comments
6
Likes
15
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • 6
  • Transcript

    • 1. Defence Technology
    • 2. DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation) Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was established in 1958 by amalagamating Defence Science Organisation and some of the technical development establishments. A separate Department of Defence Research and Development was formed in 1980 which later on administered DRDO and its 52 laboratories/ establish -ments.
    • 3. DRDO started its first major project in SAM known as Project Indigo in 1960s. Indigo was discontinued in later years without achieving full success. Project Indigo led to Project Devil, along with Project Valiant, to develop short-range surface-to-air missile and ICBM in the 1970s. Project Devil itself led to the later development of the Prithvi missile Under IGMDP in the 1983.
    • 4. IGMDP was an Indian Ministry of Defence program between the early 1980s and 2007 for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles, including the Agni missile, Prithvi ballistic missile, Akash missile, Trishul missile and Nag Missile. In 2010,then defence minister A.K. Antony ordered the restructing of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to give 'a major boost to defence research in the country and to ensure effective participation of the private sector in defence technology'.The key measures to make DRDO effective in its functioning include the establishment of a Defence Technology Commission with the defence minister as its chairman.
    • 5. As early as 26 June 1946, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, soon to be India's first Prime Minister, announced: India's first nuclear test occurred on 18 May 1974. Since then India has conducted another series of tests at the Pokhran test range in the state of Rajasthan in 1998. India has an extensive civil and military nuclear program, which includes at least 10 nuclear reactors, uranium mining and milling sites, heavy water production facilities, a uranium enrichment plant, fuel fabrication facilities, and extensive nuclear research capabilities. In 1998, as a response to the continuing tests, the United States and Japan imposed temporary economic sanctions on India.
    • 6. Command and control India's Strategic Nuclear Command was formally established in 2003, with an Air Force officer, Air Marshal Asthana, as the Commander-in-Chief. The joint services SNC is the custodian of all of India's nuclear weapons, missiles and assets. It is also responsible for executing all aspects of India's nuclear policy. However, the civil leadership, in the form of the CCS (Cabinet Committee on Security) is the only body authorized to order a nuclear strike against another offending strike: In effect, it is the Prime Minister who has his finger "on the button."
    • 7. Integrated Guided Missile Development Program The Government of India launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program in 1983 to achieve self sufficiency in the development and production of wide range of Ballistic Missiles. The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence program between the early 1980s and 2007 for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles, including the intermediate range Agni missile (Surface to Surface), and short range missiles such as the Prithvi ballistic missile (Surface to Surface), Akash missile (Surface to Air), Trishul missile (Surface to Air) and Nag Missile (Anti Tank). The program was managed by Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in partnership with other Indian government labs and research centres.
    • 8. India on Tuesday 07 may, 2008 announced the closing of the strategic integrated guided missile programme, and said the development and production of most of futuristic weapons systems would henceforth be taken up with foreign partnerships.
    • 9. In 1998, the Government of India, signed an agreement with Russia to design, develop, manufacture and market a Supersonic Cruise Missile System which has been successfully accomplished by 2006. BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. At speeds of Mach 2.5 to 2.8, it is the world's fastest cruise missile and is about three and a half times faster than the American subsonic Harpoon cruise missile. BAPL is contemplating a hypersonic Mach 8 version of the missile, named as the BrahMos II. BrahMos II will be the first hypersonic cruise missile and is expected to be ready by 2012-13. The laboratory testing of the missile has started. (codenamed BrahMos)
    • 10. Prithvi Prithvi was the first missile to be developed under the Program. DRDO earlier attempted to reverse engineer SA-2 Surface-to-air Missile under Project devil
    • 11. The Prithvi missile project encompassed developing 3 variants for use by the Indian Army, Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy. The initial project framework of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program outlines the variants in the following manner. This class of Prithvi missile was inducted into the Indian Army in 1994. Prithvi I (SS-150) - Army Version (150 km range with a payload of 1,000 kg) Prithvi II (SS-250) - Air Force Version (250 km range with a payload of 500 kg) Prithvi III (SS-350) - Naval Version (350 km range with a payload of 500 kg) Dhanush- Dhanush is reportedly a naval version of Prithvi which can be launched from Ships. Prithvi III class (codenamed Dhanush meaning Bow) is a two-stage ship-to-surface missile. The first stage is solid fuelled with a 16 metric ton force (157 kN) thrust motor. The second stage is liquid fuelled Over the years these specifications underwent a number of changes. While the codename Prithvi stands for any missile inducted by India into its armed forces in this category, the later developmental versions are codenamed as Prithvi II and Prithvi III. Pradyumna Ballistic Missile The Prithvi Air Defense missile has been named as Pradyumna Ballistic Missile
    • 12. Trishul missile system Trishul is the name of a short range surface-to-air missile developed by India as a part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. It has a range of 9 km and is fitted with a 5.5 kg warhead . Designed to be used against low-level (sea skimming) targets at short range, the system has been developed to defend naval vessels against missiles and also as a short range surface to air missile on land. Guidance consists of three different guiding beams, with the guidance handed over progressively to a narrower beam as the missile approaches the target. According to reports, the range of the missile is 12 km and is fitted with a 15 kg warhead. The weight of the missile is 130 kg. The length of the missile is 3.1 m. India had Officially shut down Trishul Missile project on February 27, 2008.
    • 13. Nag missile - Nag is a third generation "Fire-and-forget" anti-tank missile developed in India. - The Nag would have been available with three different types of guidance, These included a wire guided version, an infra-red version and a millimetric wave (mmW) version. - The missile has a weight of 42 kg and can engage targets at ranges 4–5 km. The Nag is claimed to be first anti-tank missile which has a complete fiberglass structure. - The land version has been tested from a tracked vehicle known as NAMICA (Nag Missile Carrier). - Nag will be configured to be used on the Advanced Light Helicopter(ALH) and the HAL Light Combat Helicopter(LCH). This version will be known as HELINA (HELIcopter NAg).
    • 14. As originally conceived, the Nag would have been available with three different types of guidance, These included (a) a wire guided version, (b) an infra-red version and (c) a millimetric wave (mmW) version. Currently, guidance is based on an imaging infra-red (IIR) passive seeker that ensures a high-hit accuracy in both top- and front-attack modes. The Nag has a flight speed of 230 metres per second, is armed with a 8 kg tandem shaped-charge warhead, has a rocket motor using nitramine-based smokeless extruded
    • 15. Namica NAMICA (Nag Missile Carrier)is a tank destroyer built for the army. It is equipped with a thermal imager for target acquisition. NAMICA is a modified BMP-2 ICV produced as "Sarath" in India. The carrier weights 14.5 tonnes in full combat load and is capable of moving 7 km/h in water. The carriers are capable of carrying 12 missiles with 8 in ready-to-fire mode. The NAMICA carrier was put through transportation trials covering 155 km during summer trials.
    • 16. Nag was successfully test fired for the second day in a row on August 8, 2008 from the Test Range at Pokhran, Rajastan, marking the completion of the developmental tests. The DRDO and Indian Army plan to hold the user trial shortly. These trials will be the final trials to decide the induction of the missiles. The NAMICA carrier successfully completed its amphibious trials in the Indira Gandhi Canal at Rajastan on August 8, 2008.
    • 17. Agni (missile) The Agni missile is a family of Medium to Intercontinental range ballistic missiles developed by India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. As of 2008, the Agni missile family comprises three deployed variants: Agni-I : short range ballistic missile, 500 - 700 Km range. Agni-II : medium range ballistic missile, 2,000- 3,000 Km range. Agni-III : intermediate range ballistic missile, 3,000 - 5,500 Km range. Agni-IV : 4000- 6000 km Agni-V : intercontinental ballistic missile, 5000 - 6500 Km range (under development). Agni-I was first tested at the Interim Test Range in Chandipur in 1989, and is capable of carrying a conventional payload of 1000 kg (2,200 lb) or a nuclear warhead. Agni missiles consist of one (short range) or two stages (intermediate range). These are rail and road mobile and powered by solid propellants.
    • 18. Akash missile system Akash is a medium range surface-to-air missile developed as part of India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Program to achieve self-sufficiency in the area of surface-to- air missiles. It is the most expensive missile project ever undertaken by the Union government in the 20th century. Development costs skyrocketed to almost $120 million which is far more than other similar systems. Akash is a medium-range surface-to-air missile with an intercept range of 30 km. It has a launch weight of 720 kg, a diameter of 35 cm and a length of 5.8 metres. Akash flies at supersonic speed, reaching around Mach 2.5. It can reach an altitude of 18 km.
    • 19. The entire Akash SAM system allows for attacking multiple targets (up to 4 per Battery). The Akash missile's use of ramjet propulsion system allows it to maintain its speed without deceleration, unlike the Patriot missiles. The missile is supported by a multi- target and multi-function phased array fire control radar called the 'Rajendra' with a range of about 80 km in search, and 60 km in terms of engagement.
    • 20. The first test flight of Akash missile was conducted in 1990, with development flights up to March 1997. The IAF has initiated the process to induct the Akash and Trishul surface-to-air missiles developed as a part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. The Multiple target handling capability of Akash weapon system was demonstrated by live firing in a C4I environment during the trials. Two Akash missiles intercepted two fast moving targets in simultaneous engagement mode in 2005 itself. The Akash System's 3-D central acquisition radar (3-D car) group mode performance was then fully established.
    • 21. Shaurya Missile System The Shaurya Missile launched in November 2008 The Shaurya missile is a short-range surface-to-surface ballistic missile developed by DRDO for use by the Indian Army. Capable of hypersonic speeds, it has a range of 600 km and is capable of carrying a payload of one-tonne conventional or nuclear warhead. It can hit targets deep inside Pakistan and China, both nations having unsettled disputes with India. The Shaurya missile provides India with a significant second strike capability. The missile was tested in November 2008 Shaurya missile is a land version of the under-water launched K-15 missile, Sagarika (missile). This missile is stored in a composite canister just like the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile. The composite canister makes the missile much easier to store for long periods without maintenance as well as to handle and transport. It also houses the gas generator to eject the missile from the canister before its solid propellant motors take over to hurl it at the intended target.
    • 22. Surya missile The report of Surya ICBM has not been confirmed by officials of the Indian government and have repeatedly denied the existence of the project. The Surya ICBM is an ICBM program that has been mentioned repeatedly in the Indian press . Surya (meaning Sun in Sanskrit and many other Indian languages) is the codename for the first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile that India is reported to be developing. The DRDO is believed to have begun the project in 1994. As the missile is yet to be developed, the specifications of the missile are not known and the entire program continues to remain highly speculative. Estimates of the range of this missile vary from 5,000 kms to 10,000 kms. It is believed to be a three-stage design, with the first two stages using solid propellants and the third-stage using liquid. In 2007, the Times of India reported that the DRDO is yet to reveal whether India's currently proposed ICBM will be called Agni-V (or Surya-1). As of 2009 it was reported that the government had not considered an 8,000-km range ICBM.
    • 23. According to a report published in The Nonproliferation Review, in the Winter of 1995, Surya (meaning the Sun in Sanskrit and many Indian languages) is the codename for the first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile that India is reported to be developing. The DRDO is believed to have begun the project in 1994. This report has not been confirmed by any other sources until 2009. Officials of the Indian government have repeatedly denied the existence of the project. According to the report, the Surya is an intercontinental- range, surface-based, solid and liquid propellant ballistic missile. The report further adds that Surya is the most ambitious project in India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. The Surya is speculated to have a range between 8,000 to 12,000 kilometers.
    • 24. Speculated specifications Class: ICBM Lasing: Surface based and sometimes also used under water in critical conditions Length: 40.00 m Diameter: 2.8 m Launch Weight: 80,000 kg Propulsion: First/second stage solid, third liquid Warhead Capabilities: 3-10 nuclear warheads of 250 kilotons each Status: Development / Developed to be tested In Service: 2015 Range: 8,000 - 12,000 km
    • 25. International treaties India is not a signatory to either the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), but did accede to the Partial Test Ban Treaty in October 1963. India is a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and four of its 17 nuclear reactors are subject to IAEA safeguards. India announced its lack of intention to accede to the NPT as late as 1997 by voting against the paragraph of a General Assembly Resolution which urged all non- signatories of the treaty to accede to it at the earliest possible date.
    • 26. India voted against the UN General Assembly resolution endorsing the CTBT, which was adopted on 10 September 1996. India objected to the lack of provision for universal nuclear disarmament "within a time-bound framework." India also demanded that the treaty ban laboratory simulations. In addition, India opposed the provision in Article XIV of the CTBT that requires India's ratification for the treaty to enter into force, which India argued was a violation of its sovereign right to choose whether it would sign the treaty. In early February 1997, Foreign Minister Gujral reiterated India's opposition to the treaty, saying that "India favors any step aimed at destroying nuclear weapons, but considers that the treaty in its current form is not comprehensive and bans only certain types of tests."
    • 27. In August 2008, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approved safeguards agreement with India under which the former will gradually gain access to India's civilian nuclear reactors. In September 2008, the Nuclear Suppliers Group granted India a waiver allowing it to access civilian nuclear technology and fuel from other countries. The implementation of this waiver makes India the only known country with nuclear weapons which is not a party to the NPT but is still allowed to carry out nuclear commerce with the rest of the world. Since the implementation of NSG waiver, India has signed nuclear deals with several countries including France, United States, Mongolia, Namibia, and Kazakhstan while the framework for similar deals with Canada and United Kingdom are also being prepared.
    • 28. Cruise missiles Nirbhay Nirbhay is a long range, subsonic cruise missile being developed in India. The missile will have a range of 1,000 km and will arm three services, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. The Nirbhay will be able to be launched from multiple platforms on land, sea and air. The first test flight of the missile is expected in the year 2009. Nirbhay will be a terrain hugging, stealth missile capable of delivering 24 different types of warheads depending on mission requirements and will use inertial navigation system for guidance. 3M-54 Klub India has acquired around 200 3M-54 Klub for arming Talwar class frigate, Shivalik class frigate, Kolkata class destroyer and Sindhughosh class submarine. The Russian 3M-54 Klub is a multi-role missile system developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8) with a range of 250 km-300 km and an average speed of .8 Mach with a maximum of 2.9 Mach Popeye India imported a large number of Israel's Rafael made Popeye Missile in late 1999. Popeye II, an air launched cruise missile capable of carrying nuclear warheads with a range of 80 km can be launched from planes was given to India along with missile defence radars in a deal. It is still not known which planes are armed with these missiles but it is thought to be the Tu-142 and Sukhoi Su-30MKI, which incorporate some Israeli technology.
    • 29. P-70 Ametist India has Soviet P-70 Ametist submarine- launched cruise missiles. The missile were mostly probably bought in the early 90s and may be used today as canistered launched land based cruise missiles instead of submarine launched cruise missiles. The missiles can carry nuclear warheads and have a range of 50–65 km. Although they are extremely old and incompetent due to their low range and speed, there are still reports that they are kept in reserve and can still be used due to their upgrades in the late 90s. Moskit India has a number of operational Moskits. The P-270 Moskit is a Russian supersonic ramjet powered cruise missile capable of being launched from land and ships. India has most probably bought both land and ship variants which have a range of 120 km. India bought around 200 Klub missiles and now it is believed that the Moskit have been kept in reserve but can still be used.
    • 30. Brahmos BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russia's NPO Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed the BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. The acronym BrahMos is perceived as the confluence of the two nations represented by two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia. It travels at speeds of Mach 2.5 to 2.8 and is the world's fastest cruise missile. It is about three-and-a-half times faster than the U.S.A's subsonic Harpoon cruise missile. The ship-launched and land-based missiles can carry a 200 kg warhead, whereas the aircraft-launched variant (BrahMos A) can carry a 300 kg warhead. It has a two-stage propulsion system, with a solid-propellant rocket for initial acceleration and a liquid-fueled ramjet responsible for sustained supersonic cruise. Air-breathing ramjet propulsion is much more fuel-efficient than rocket propulsion, giving the BrahMos a longer range than a pure rocket-powered missile would achieve. The BrahMos is currently being configured for aerial deployment with the Su- 30MKI as its carrier
    • 31. In 1998, the Government of India, signed an agreement with Russia to design, develop, manufacture and market a Supersonic Cruise Missile System which has been successfully accomplished by 2006. BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. At speeds of Mach 2.5 to 2.8, it is the world's fastest cruise missile and is about three and a half times faster than the American subsonic Harpoon cruise missile. BAPL is contemplating a hypersonic Mach 8 version of the missile, named as the BrahMos II. BrahMos II will be the first hypersonic cruise missile and is expected to be ready by 2012-13. The laboratory testing of the missile has started.(codenamed BrahMos).
    • 32. Nirbhay India is said to be in the intermediate stages of developing a new cruise missile, Nirbhay. The subsonic Nirbhay is said to be 6 m in length with a 520 mm diameter, weigh 1,000 kg and have a 1,000 km range with a speed of 0.7 mach. The technology demonstrator flight is planned for end- 2009.
    • 33. India Nuclear program start date 1967 First nuclear weapon test 18 May 1974 (Smiling Buddha) First fusion weapon test 11 May 1998 (disputed) Last nuclear test 13 May 1998 Largest yield test • Underground - 20-60 Kt total in Pokhran-II (yield is disputed) (11 May 1998) Total tests 6 Peak stockpile 45-80 (2009 est.) Current stockpile 45-80 (2009 est.) Maximum missile range 2,500km (Agni-II) NPT signatory No
    • 34. Name Class Range Payload Status Agni-I SRBM 850 km 1,000 kg Operational Agni-II MRBM 2,500 km 500 kg - 1,000 kg Operational Agni-III IRBM 3,500 km - 5,500 km 2,490 kg In Testing Agni-V ICBM 5,000 km - 6,000 km 3,000 kg+ Under Development Agni 3SL ICBM 5,200 km - 11,600 km 700 kg - 1,400 kg Under Development Dhanush SRBM 350 km 500 kg Operational Nirbhay Subsonic Cruise Missile 1,000 km ? Under Development Brahmos Supersonic Cruise Missile 290 km 300 kg Operational P-70 Ametist Anti-shipping Missile 65 km 530 kg Operational P-270 Moskit Supersonic Cruise Missile 120 km 320 kg Operational Popeye ASM 78 km 340 kg Operational Prithvi-I SRBM 150 km 1000 kg Operational Prithvi-II SRBM 250 km 500 kg Operational Prithvi-III SRBM 350 km 500 kg Operational Sagarika SLBM 700 km - 2,200 km 150 kg - 1000 kg Under Development Shaurya TBM 700 km - 2,200 km 150 kg - 1,000 kg Under Development Surya-I ICBM 9,000 km - 12,000 km 3,000 kg+ Under Development
    • 35. Name Class Range Payload Status Agni-I MRBM 850 km 1,000 kg Operational Agni-II MRBM 2,500 km 500 kg - 1,000 kg Operational Agni-III Agni IV IRBM IRBM 3,500 km - 5,500 km 4000 km - 6000 km 2,490 kg 2500 kg In Testing In Testing Agni-V ICBM 5,000 km - 6,000 km 3,000 kg+ In Testing Agni 3SL ICBM 5,200 km - 11,600 km 700 kg - 1,400 kg Under Development Dhanush SRBM 350 km 500 kg Operational Nirbhay Subsonic Cruise Missile 1,000 km ? Under Development Brahmos Supersonic Cruise Missile 290 km 300 kg Operational P-70 Ametist Anti-shipping Missile 65 km 530 kg Operational
    • 36. P-270 Moskit Supersonic Cruise Missile 120 km 320 kg Operational Popeye ASM 78 km 340 kg Operational Prithvi-I SRBM 150 km 1000 kg Operational Prithvi-II SRBM 250 km 500 kg Operational Prithvi-III SRBM 350 km 500 kg Operational Sagarika SLBM 700 km - 2,200 km 150 kg - 1000 kg Under Development Shaurya TBM 700 km - 2,200 km 150 kg - 1,000 kg Under Development Surya-I ICBM 9,000 km - 12,000 km 3,000 kg+ Under Development Surya-II ICBM >12,000 km ? Under Development
    • 37. Nuclear submarines India currently maintains six submarines of the Sindhughosh Class that can launch the nuclear-capable 3M-54 Klub cruise missiles. Former Leasing of Soviet submarines In 1988 INS Chakra , a Charlie-class submarine was leased by the Indian Navy for three years from the Soviet Union, until 1991. The submarine was leased to India between 1988 and 1991 mainly for India to gain experience in the operations of a nuclear submarine. It was later decommissioned in 1991. Arihant class submarine The Arihant class submarines are a class of nuclear-powered Ballistic Missile submarines being constructed for the Indian Navy at Visakhapatnam, India under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) Project The ATV is an SSBN and will be armed with ballistic missiles. The first of these, INS Arihant was launched on 26 July 2009 Nuclear submarines India currently maintains six submarines of the Sindhughosh Class that can launch the nuclear-capable 3M-54 Klub cruise missiles. Former Leasing of Soviet submarines In 1988 INS Chakra , a Charlie-class submarine was leased by the Indian Navy for three years from the Soviet Union, until 1991. The submarine was leased to India between 1988 and 1991 mainly for India to gain experience in the operations of a nuclear submarine. It was later decommissioned in 1991. Arihant class submarine The Arihant class submarines are a class of nuclear-powered Ballistic Missile submarines being constructed for the Indian Navy at Visakhapatnam, India under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) Project The ATV is an SSBN and will be armed with ballistic missiles. The first of these, INS Arihant was launched on 26 July 2009
    • 38. INS Cruise Missile Submarines The INS Sindhuraj, INS Sindhuvir, INS Sindhuratna, INS Sindhushastra , INS Sindhukesari and INS Sindhuvijay are capable of launching 3M-54 Klub and BrahMos nuclear-capable cruise missiles. India bought 10 Kilo class (in India known as Sindhughosh Class) submarine of which 6 have been refitted by the Russian Navy so that the they can launch cruise missiles such as nuclear capable 3M-54 Klub. Leasing of Russian Akula and Amur Submarines In 2000, negotiations between India and Russia were conducted into the leasing of two incomplete Akula class. The Akulas were to be delivered to the Indian Navy in 2008 on a lease of at least seven years and up to ten years, in which at the end of the lease, it has an option to buy them.
    • 39. Frigates, destroyers and aircraft carriers Other than submarines, India also maintains ships such as destroyers, modified patrol crafts and frigates which can launch nuclear capable ballistic and cruise missiles.
    • 40. FRIGATES : Talwar class frigate and Shivalik class frigate are frigates of the Indian Navy that can fire nuclear capable cruise missiles. INS Tabar and INS Trishul are Talwar class vessel armed with supersonic nuclear 3M-54 Klub cruise missiles while INS Shivalik was the first vessel of the Shivalik class to incorporate the 3M-54 Klub. Other vessels of the Shivalik Class and Talwar Class are to be armed with the BrahMos and 3M-54 Klub missiles by 2009 and 2010 respectively. All these frigates are also equipped with Barak missiles or other SAMs and harbour helicopters such as the HAL Dhruv. In years to come, the Nirbhay missile is also to be incorporated into Talwar class frigates and Shivalik class frigates.
    • 41. DESTROYER : Rajput Class, Kolkata Class and Delhi Class are Destroyers of the Indian Navy that may be armed with nuclear capable missile-Nirbhay. In addition Kolkata Class will also incorporate the Russian nuclear 3M-54 Klub cruise missile. The ship launched Dhanush Ballistic Missile was tested from INS Subhadra of the Sukanya class patrol craft in 2000. INS Subhadra is a patrol vessel which was modified and the missile was launched from the reinforced helicopter deck. The 250 km variant was tested but the tests were considered partially successful. In 2004, the missile was again tested from the INS Subhadra and was this time successful. Then the following year in December the missile's 350 km version was tested from the INS Rajput and hit the land based target.
    • 42. AIR CRAFT CARRIER : INS Vikramaditya Aircraft Carrier (formerly known as Admiral Gorshkov) was fitted with P- 500 Bazalt nuclear capable cruise missiles of the range of 550 km. The Vikramaditya could still be armed with this after its refit. India is also a potential customer for a Slava class cruiser which also incorporates the P-500 Bazalt
    • 43. Nuclear-capable aircraft India currently has Fourth generation jet fighters capable of launching nuclear weapons. Sukhoi Su-30MKI, Dassault Mirage 2000 (French) MiG-29 MiG-27 Tejas Due to similar features and components, the MKI variant is often considered to be a customized Indian variant of the Sukhoi Su-35. The Mirage 2000Hs were heavily customised during the Kargil War and is the only other version, other than the French 2000N, to be able to be armed with nuclear weapons.
    • 44. Both the HAL Tejas and Su-30MKI can travel excess of 3,000 km without refueling; this allows India to attack targets far away in an effective manner only using planes rather than delivery systems such as the Agni. The HAL Tejas is India's only indigenous plane to be armed with nuclear weapons, thus making India less dependent on Russia. India has leased four Russian Tupolev Tu-22M3 bombers, which could carry air-launched cruise missiles. India has reportedly upgraded its Russian-built Tu-142 maritime patrol aircraft to carry air-launched cruise missiles.
    • 45. TEJAS The HAL Tejas is a 4th generation lightweight multirole jet fighter being developed by India. It is a tailless, compound delta wing design powered by a single engine. Originally known as the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)—a designation which continues in popular usage—the aircraft was officially named "Tejas" by then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The IAF is reported to have a requirement for 200 single-seat and 20 two-seat conversion trainers, while the Indian Navy may order up to 40 single-seaters to replace its Sea Harrier FRS.51 and Harrier T.60. During its sea level flight trials off Goa, Tejas notched a speed of over 1,350 km per hour, thus becoming the second supersonic fighter manufactured indigenously by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited after the HAL Marut.
    • 46. Chemical weapons In 1992 India signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), stating that it did not have chemical weapons and the capacity or capability to manufacture chemical weapons. By doing this India became one of the original signatories of the Chemical Weapons Convention [CWC] in 1993, and ratified it on 2 September 1996.
    • 47. Abhay The DRDO is developing futuristic infantry combat vehicle (ICV) Abhay as a technology demonstrator for replacement of BMP-II (Russia) vehicle, which are presently in service. Abhay ICV has taken best of BMP and western equipment and will be designed for more firepower. Various systems of this vehicle are in advanced stage of development.
    • 48. Arjun (tank) Arjun is a main battle tank developed by India's largest defense contractor, the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), for the Indian Army. The delays and failures in its development from the 1990s to the 2000s prompted the Indian Army to order vast numbers of T-90S tanks(BHISHMA) from Russia to meet the defense needs that the Arjun had been expected to fulfill.
    • 49. Unmanned aerial vehicles The DRDO has also developed two unmanned aerial vehicles- the Nishant (Restless) tactical UAV and the Lakshya (Target) Pilotless Target Aircraft (PTA). The Lakshya PTA has been ordered by all three services for their gunnery target training requirements. Efforts are on to develop the PTA further, with an improved all digital flight control system, and a better turbojet engine. The Nishant is a hydraulically launched short ranged UAV for the tactical battle area. It is currently being evaluated by the Indian Navy and the Indian Paramilitary forces as well.
    • 50. The DRDO is also going ahead with its plans to develop a new class of UAVs. These draw upon the experience gained via the Nishant program, and will be substantially more capable. Referred to by the HALE (High Altitude Long Endurance) and MALE (Medium Altitude Long Endurance) designations. The MALE UAV has been tentatively named the Rustom, and will feature canards and carry a range of payloads, including optronic, radar, laser designators and ESM. The UAV will have conventional landing and take off capability. The HALE UAV will have features such as SATCOM links, allowing it to be commanded beyond line of sight. Other tentative plans speak of converting the LCA into a UCAV (unmanned combat aerial vehicle), and weaponizing UAVs.
    • 51. The LCA programme was launched in 1983 for two primary purposes. The principal and most obvious goal was the development of a replacement aircraft for India's ageing MiG-21 fighters. The MiG-21 has been the mainstay of the Indian Air Force since the 1970s. The "Long Term Re-Equipment Plan 1981" noted that the MiG-21s would be approaching the end of their service lives by the mid-1990s, and that by 1995 the IAF would lack 40% of the aircraft needed to fill its projected force structure requirements. The LCA programme's other main objective was to serve as the vehicle for an across-the-board advancement of India's domestic aerospace industry. The value of the aerospace "self-reliance" initiative is not simply the production of an aircraft, but also the building of a local industry capable of creating state-of-the-art products with commercial spin-offs for a global market. The LCA program was intended in part to further expand and advance India's indigenous aerospace capabilities.
    • 52. Nishant
    • 53. Features Day/night capability Battlefield reconnaissance & surveillance Target tracking and localization Artillery fire correction All terrain mobility Target designation (using integral laser target designator) Endurance: 4 h 30 min Ground support systems Mobile hydropneumatic launcher (MHPL) Ground control station (GCS) Antenna vehicle Avionics preparation/maintenance fehicle Mechanical maintenance vehicle UAV transportation vehicle Power supply vehicle List of Nishant operators Indian Army - 4
    • 54. Specifications (DRDO Nishant) General characteristics Crew: None Length: 4.63 m (15.2 ft) Wingspan: 6.57 m (21.6 ft) Height: () Empty weight: 380 kg (840 lb) Useful load: 45 kg (99 lb) Powerplant: 1× RE-2-21-P or RE-4-37-P Performance Maximum speed: 185 km/h Cruise speed: 125 km/h to 150 km/h Range: 160 km (100 mi) Service ceiling: 3,600 m (up to 11,800 ft) Launch & recovery Launch: Mobile hydropneumatic launcher (MHPL) system Recovery: Parachute + landing nags
    • 55. Lakshya
    • 56. The Lakshya is an Indian remotely piloted high speed target drone system developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of DRDO. The drone, remote piloted by a ground control station provides realistic towed aerial sub-targets for live fire training. The drone is ground or ship launched from a zero length launcher and recovery is by a two stage parachute system developed by ADE (DRDO), for land or sea based recovery. The drone has a crushable nose cone, which absorbs the impact of landing, minimizing damage. The flight path may be controlled or pre- programmed, based upon the type of mission. Rustam
    • 57. Operators Indian Air Force Indian Navy Indian Army Aviation Research Centre Specifications (Lakshya PTA) General characteristics Crew: None Length: 2385 mm Height: (500-5000 m) Wing area: 2.27 m2 Max takeoff weight: 705 kg (1554 lb) Powerplant: 1× HAL PTAE-7 turbojet Performance Maximum speed: Mach 0.7 Range: 150 km Service ceiling: 9000 m Rate of climb: 25 m/s Launch & recovery Launch: Rocket Assisted Recovery: Two stage parachute
    • 58. Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher
    • 59. Pinaka is a multiple rocket launcher produced in India and developed by the DRDO for the Indian Army. The system has a maximum range of 39–40 km. Pinaka saw service during the Kargil War, where it was successful in neutralizing enemy positions on the mountain tops. It has since been inducted into the Indian Army in large numbers. Pinaka is a complete MBRL system, each Pinaka battery consists of six launcher vehicles, each with 12 rockets, six loader cum replenishment vehicles, three replenishment vehicles, two Command Post vehicle (one stand by) with a Fire Control computer and the DIGICORA MET radar. A battery of six launchers can neutralize an area of 1000 m x 800 m.
    • 60. Modes of operation The launcher can operate in the following modes: 1. Autonomous mode. The launcher is fully controlled by a fire control computer (FCC). The microprocessor on the launcher automatically executes the commands received from the FCC, giving the operator the status of the system on displays and indicators. 2. Stand-alone mode: In this mode, the launcher is not linked to the FCC operator, and the operator at the console enters all the commands for laying of the launcher system and selection of firing parameters. 3. Remote mode: In this mode, a remote control unit carried outside the cabin up to a distance of about 200 m can be used to control the launcher system, the launcher site and to unload the fired rocket pods from the launcher. 4. Manual mode: All launcher operations including laying of the system and firing are manually controlled. This mode is envisaged in the situations where the microprocessor fails or where there is no power to activate the microprocessor-based operator’s console. The Pinaka was tested in the Kargil conflict and proved its effectiveness. Since then it has been inducted into the Indian Army and series production has been ordered. The Pinaka MBRL is stated to be cheaper than other systems. It costs 23 million per system compared to the M270 which costs 195 million.
    • 61. Salient features * Use of state-of-the-art technologies for improved combat performance. * Total operational time optimised for shoot & scoot capability Cabin pressurisation for crew protection in addition to blast shields. * Microprocessor-based fully automatic positioning and fire control console. * Night vision devices for driver and crew. * Neutralisation/destruction of the exposed troop concentrations, ‘B’ vehicles and other such soft targets. * Neutralisation of enemy guns/rocket locations. * Laying of antipersonnel and antitank mines at a short notice.
    • 62. Specifications Range: 7 km - 40 km (4.4 - 26 mi) Rocket Diameter: 214 mm (8.42 in) Length: 4.95 m (16.24 ft) Warhead weight: 100 kg (220 lbs) Total weight: 276 kg (608 lbs) Warheads: Fragmentation high explosive Incendiary Anti-Tank and Anti-Personnel minelettes Anti-Tank bomblettes
    • 63. Launcher Based on a Kolos Tatra truck for high mobility. The truck is license manufactured by BEML. The truck features a central type regulation system; the driver can adjust the tire pressure to suit the terrain for optimum mobility. Two rocket pods per launcher, with a total of twelve rockets between them. A total of six launchers per battery. Launchers are NBC protected, have their own computerized fire control system, and automatic positioning system. The Pinaka system and the launchers are designed for shoot and scoot fire missions thanks to the use of an inertial navigation system SIGMA 30. A battery of six launchers can neutralize an area of roughly 1000 * 800 meters at 40 km range. The launcher assembly has electromagnetic elevation and traverse, with traverse being 90º left and right of the centerline and elevation up to 55º Rate of Fire for a complete salvo from a launcher: Approximately 44 seconds.
    • 64. Sukhoi Su-30 The Sukhoi Su-30 is a twin-engine, multi- role military aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation. It is a two- seat, dual-role fighter for all-weather, air- to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions. The Su-30 was introduced into operational service in 1996.
    • 65. Su-30 Indian Air Force Su-30MKI landing with an airbrake. Role Multi-role fighter Manufacturer Sukhoi First flight 31 December 1989 Introduction 1996 Status Operational Primary users PLA Air Force (China) Indian Air Force Venezuelan Air Force See Operators section for others Unit cost US$33–45 million Developed from Sukhoi Su-27 Variants SukhoiSu-30MKI Sukhoi Su-30MKK
    • 66. Admiral Gorshkov Admiral Gorshkov was a modified Kiev class aircraft carrier of the Russian Navy, originally named Baku. Sometimes Gorshkov is considered a separate class due to its improvements including a phased array radar, extensive electronic warfare installations, and an enlarged command and control suite. In 2004, she was sold to India for conversion into a STOBAR carrier to be named INS Vikramaditya. History The ship was laid down in 1978 at Nikolayev South (Shipyard No.444) in Ukraine, launched in 1982, and commissioned in 1987. The delay in commissioning was largely caused by software bugs in the new command and control system. The ship was renamed Admiral Gorshkov after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, as the city of Baku was now in independent Azerbaijan. Sergey Gorshkov was responsible for the expansion of the Soviet Navy during the Cold War.
    • 67. In 1994, following a boiler room explosion, the ship was docked for a year of repairs. Although she returned to service in 1995, she was finally withdrawn in 1996 and offered for sale. On January 20, 2004, Russia agreed to sell the Admiral Gorshkov to India, though payment details are still being worked out. The original price was $947 million. The upgrade would be undertaken by Russia’s major shipyard, Sevmash Enterprise. As of 2009, Russia is upgrading the ship by stripping all the weaponry from the ship's foredeck to make way for a Short Take-Off But Arrested Recovery configuration, with a ski- jump on the bow. The carrier will be named INS Vikramaditya in Indian Navy service. Russia would also change the boilers to diesel fuel. On December 17, 2009, it was reported that India and Russia ended the stalemate over Gorshkov price deal by agreeing on a price of USD 2.3- billion.
    • 68. Name: Admiral Gorshkov Namesake: Sergey Gorshkov Builder: Chernomorskiy yard, Nikolayev Laid down: December 1978 Launched: April 17, 1982 Commissioned: January 1987 Decommissioned: 1996 Fate: Sold to January 20, 2004 General characteristics Displacement: 45,000 tons full load Length: 273.1 m overall Beam: 31.0 m Draught: 8.2 m Propulsion: 4 shaft geared steam turbines, 200,000 shp Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h) Endurance: 13,500 nautical miles (25,000 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) Armament: 6 × twin SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM launchers (12 missiles), 24 × 8-cell SA-N-9 vertical SAM launchers (192 missiles), 2 × 100 mm guns, 8 × AK-630 30 mm CIWS, 10 × 533 mm torpedo tubes, 2 × RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers Aircraft carried: 12 Yak-38M fighter aircraft 20 Kamov Ka-25 or Kamov Ka-27 helicopters
    • 69. AWACS systems
    • 70. What is the Phalcon? The Phalcon is an Israeli manufactured Airborne Early Warning, Command and Control (AEWC&C) system. It is one of the most powerful such systems in the world. India] is buying three of them for $1.1 billion (approximately Rs 5,000 crore or Rs 50 billion). What does the Phalcon do? It provides real time surveillance of a few hundred kilometres of territory and also command and control. It can pick up a low flying aircraft, a missile or communication and provide advance warning after correlation. It will help the Indian Air Force to maintain air superiority in a battle. It can pick up an incoming object in all weather conditions, reportedly up to some 300 miles. It can also pick up all sorts of communications from air, sea or land. All the information collected can be conveyed live to the control centre in the headquarters. How does it pick up information of enemy objects in its area of coverage? The Phalcon system has four sensors, which coordinate with each other. If one of the sensors picks up an incoming object or enemy communication it automatically co-relates with other sensors and reconfirm.
    • 71. How different is it from other Airborne Early Warning Systems (AEWS)? Most other AEWS are mechanically rotating antennas, or rotodomes, mounted on an aircraft. In the Phalcon it would be a stationary dome mounted on the aircraft and based on an Active Phased Array Electronic Scanning Technology. It would be able to track continuously any fast, high manoeuvring objects in much shorter period of time than the rotodome-based AWACS. Does it only track incoming objects and communications? No. The Phalcon is also a full-fledged command and control centre mid-air that can be deployed to direct the aircraft, providing them a picture of the entire battlefield thus allowing them superiority over enemy fighters. Do Pakistan and China have it? Neither have it. China was refused the Phalcon in 2000 even after they had paid an advance because of American objections. After India signed the agreement last week Pakistan has threatened to take 'appropriate steps' to match Indian capabilities.
    • 72. Why is US permission so important for buying the Israeli manufactured product? America is Israel's key ally and a collaborator in Israel's development of several cutting edge military technologies. The Israeli Aircraft Industries, which produces the Phalcon, has an agreement with some European and US firms, including Raytheon for further research, development and marketing of the Phalcon. India too was given the Phalcon only after US permission. The US had threatened to withdraw financial assistance to Israel if it went ahead and fitted the system on a Chinese plane, which had landed in Israel in 2000. Is India then the first country to get the Phalcon? No. Countries such as Chile already have it. But India would be the first country to mate the Phalcon system on the Russian manufactured IL-76 plane. In fact there is a trilateral agreement between Israel, India and Russia on the project. Israel has given an undertaking to Russia not to reveal the technology of fitting it on an Ilyusin to any other country. The Phalcon has been mounted on which other aircraft? It can be mounted on various Boeings, C-130 and even an Airbus. Chile's Phalcon system, called Condor, is mounted on a modified Boeing 767.
    • 73. Stealth technology Stealth technology also known as LO technology (low observable technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods. Stealth principles - Stealth technology (or LO for "low observability") is not a single technology. It is a combination of technologies that attempt to greatly reduce the distances at which a person or vehicle can be detected; in particular radar cross section reductions, but also acoustic, thermal, and other aspects.
    • 74. Non-metallic airframe Dielectric composites are more transparent to radar, whereas electrically conductive materials such as metals and carbon fibers reflect electromagnetic energy incident on the material's surface. Composites may also contain ferrites to optimize the dielectric and magnetic properties of the material for its application. Radar-absorbing material Radar-absorbent material (RAM), often as paints, are used especially on the edges of metal surfaces. While the material and thickness of RAM coatings is classified, the material seeks to absorb radiated energy from a ground or air based radar station into the coating and convert it to heat rather than reflect it back.
    • 75. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Signed Location 1 July 1968 New York, United States Effective Condition 5 March 1970 Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. Parties 189 (Complete List)
    • 76. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Signed Location 10 September 1996 New York City Effective Condition Not yet in force 180 days after it is ratified by all 44 Annex 2 countries: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Romania, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Vietnam, Zaire Signatories 182 Ratifiers 153 (including 35 of 44 Annex 2 states)
    • 77. Anti-satellite weapon India had identified development of ASAT weapons "for electronic or physical destruction of satellites in both LEO (2,000-km altitude above earth's surface) and the higher geosynchronous orbit" as a thrust area in its long-term integrated perspective plan (2012-2027) under the management of DRDO. Interceptor An interceptor aircraft (or simply interceptor) is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft, particularly bombers, usually relying on great speed. A number of such aircraft were built in the period starting just prior to World War II and ending in the late 1960s, when they became less important due to the shifting of the strategic bombing role to Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs).
    • 78. Sonars DRDO, BEL and the Indian Navy have developed and productionized a range of Sonars and related systems for the Indian Navy's frontline combat ships. The Shivalik class of frigates contain significant DRDO developed systems These include the: - APSOH (Advanced Panoramic SOnar Hull mounted) - HUMVAD (Hull Mounted Variable Depth sonar) - HUMSA (Follow on to the APSOH series; the acronym HUMSA stands for Hull Mounted Sonar Array) - Nagan (Towed Array Sonar) - Panchendriya (Submarine sonar and fire control system).
    • 79. Other sonars such as the airborne sonar Mihir, are in trials, whilst work is proceeding apace on a new generation of sonars. Sonars may be considered one of DRDO's most successful achievements as the Indian Navy's most powerful ships rely on DRDO made sonars. The standard fit for a frontline Naval ship would include the HUMSA-NG hull mounted sonar, and the Nagan towed array sonar. The Mihir, is a dunking sonar meant for use by the Naval ALH, working in conjunction with its Tadpole sonobuoy. The Panchendriya is in production for the Kilo class submarine upgrades.
    • 80. Torpedoes DRDO is currently engaged in developing multiple torpedo designs. These include a lightweight torpedo that has been accepted by the Navy and cleared for production ). Other projects include the heavy weight wire-guided torpedo called the Varunastra and the Thakshak thermal torpedo suitable for use against both ships and submarines. The electrically powered Varunastra is now stated to be also in production. The DRDO also developed and productionised a microprocessor controlled triple tube torpedo launcher for the Indian Navy as well as a towed torpedo decoy. Shyena is an advanced experimental torpedo developed by the Naval Scientific and Technological Laboratory, India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) wing. Development was started in 1990.
    • 81. Thank you RAVI P. AGRAHARI (Faculty of Science & Tech.)