the ninth largest country in the world
it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its
territory of 2,727,300 square kilometers (1,053,000
sq mi) is greater than Western Europe.
landlocked country- is a country entirely enclosed by
land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
It is neighbored clockwise from the north by Russia,
China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan,
It has a population of 16,009,597
Economy and resources of Kazakhstan
The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central
Asia. It possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as
minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural
potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both
livestock and grain production, as well as developed space
infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International
Space Station from the Space Shuttle.
Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and
processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively
large machine building sector specializing in construction
equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military
GDP growth 1.2%
Inflation (CPI) 7.3%
Main industries - oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead,
zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron
and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric
motors, construction materials
Main import partners – Russia, China, Germany, Ukraine
Government - Republic
• The Government of the Republic of
A presidential republic.
The President of Kazakhstan, currently Nursultan Nazarbayev,
is head of state and nominates the head of
government. Executive power is exercised by the
government. Legislative power is vested in both
the government and the two chambers of parliament.
• Executive branch
• -The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term
• -The prime minister and first deputy prime minister are appointed by
• -The president is the head of state. He also is the commander in chief
of the armed forces and may veto legislation that has been passed by
• -Agencies and committees
• Kazakhstan's National Security Committee (KNB) was established on 13
June 1992. It includes the Service of Internal Security, Military
Counterintelligence, Border Guard, several Commandos units, and
Foreign Intelligence (Barlau).
• Legislative branch
• The legislature, known as the Parliament (Parliament), has
two chambers. The Assembly (Mazhilis) has 77 seats, elected for
a four year term, 67 in single seat constituencies and 10
by proportional representation. The Senate has 47 members, 40
of whom are elected for six-year terms in double-seat
constituencies by the local assemblies, half renewed every two
years, and 7 presidential appointees.
• Judicial branch
• There are 44 judges on the Supreme Court of the Republic of
Kazakhstan. There are seven members of the Constitutional
Kazakhs are historically a nomadic people
Kazakhs love horses, riding them for transportation in the
villages, using them for farming, racing them for fun, and
eating them for celebrations. Many Kazakhs own horses and
keep pictures of them in their houses or offices.
Also central to Kazakh symbolism are Muslim symbols. Kazakhs
are Muslim by history, and even after seventy years of Soviet
atheism, they incorporate Islamic symbols in their everyday
life. The traditionally Muslim star and crescent can be widely
seen, as can small Muslim caps and some traditionally Muslim
robes and headscarves in the villages.
The entrance to Kazakh yurta
The chest with bedclothes
Pots and pans
Located in Central Asia, landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan
is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the
west, Tajikistan to the southwest and People's Republic of
China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.
"Kyrgyz", is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word
for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary
hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghers.
Literally it means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th
century AD, the Uyghers dominated much of Central Asia
(including Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, and parts of Russia and China.
• By extension, Kyrgyz is also thought to mean
"unconquerable" or "undefeatable".
• The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference
to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in
the sun's center depicts the wooden crown of a yurt – a
portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the
steppes of Central Asia.
• At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghers
dominated much of Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan),
Mongolia, and parts of Russia and China.
Issyk Kul Province
Issyk Kul Province
• The Kyrgyz economy was severely affected by the collapse of
the Soviet Union and the resulting loss of its vast market. In
• While economic performance has improved considerably in the
last few years, and particularly since 1998, difficulties remain in
securing adequate fiscal revenues and providing an
adequate social safety net. Remittances of around 800,000
Kyrgyz migrants working in Russia represent 40% of
• Through economic stabilization and reform, the government
seeks to establish a pattern of long-term consistent growth.
Reforms led to Kyrgyzstan's accession to the World Trade
Organization (WTO) on 20 December 1998.
Agriculture is an important sector of the economy in Kyrgyzstan
By the early 1990s, the private agricultural sector provided
between one-third and one-half of some harvests. In 2002,
agriculture accounted for 35.6% of GDP and about half of
employment. Kyrgyzstan's terrain is mountainous, which
accommodates livestock raising, the largest agricultural activity,
so the resulting wool, meat and dairy products are major
commodities. Main crops include wheat , sugar
beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and fruit. As the
prices of imported agrichemicals and petroleum are so high, much
farming is being done by hand and by horse, as it was generations
ago. Agricultural processing is a key component of the industrial
economy as well as one of the most attractive sectors for foreign
• Because of the many mountains of Kyrgyzstan, animal
husbandry remains a significant part of the agricultural
• Cultivation is centered in the Ferghana Valley, Talas
Province, and Chuy Province.
• Among Kyrgyzstan's agricultural products
are tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits,
and berries. As far as total production, the largest crop is
assorted types of animal fodder to feed the livestock of the
country. The second largest crop is winter wheat, followed
by barley, corn, and rice.
• The Politics of Kyrgyzstan takes place in the
framework of a parliamentary representative
democratic republic, whereby the President is head
of state and the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstanis head
of government. Executive power is exercised by the
government. Legislative power is vested in both the
government and parliament.
The 'White House‘ in Bishkek is the presidential office building
where the work of the executive branch of the Kyrgyz government
is carried out.
• One of the most popular sports in Kyrgyzstan is football (soccer).
The official governing body is the Football Federation of Kyrgyz
Republic, It administers the Kyrgyzstan national football team
• Wrestling is also a very popular sport in Kyrgyzstan. In 2008
Beijing Olympic Games, 2 athletes from Kyrgyzstan won medals
in Greco-Roman wrestling: Kanatbek Begaliev (silver) and Ruslan
• In 2011 Kyrgyzstan men's national ice hockey team won 2011 Asian
Winter Games Premier Division dominating in all 6 games with 6
wins. It was the first major international event that Kyrgyzstan's
ice hockey team took part in.
• In addition to celebrating the New Year each January 1, Kyrgyz
observe the traditional New Year festival Nowruz on the vernal
equinox. This spring holiday is celebrated with feasts and
festivities such as the horse game Ulak Tartish.
• Nowruz- originally "New Light") is the name of the Iranian New
Year. in Iranian calendars and the corresponding traditional
celebrations. Nowruz is also widely referred to as the Persian New
• Nowruz marks the first day of spring and the beginning of the year
in Iranian calendar. It is celebrated on the day of the
astronomical vernal equinox, which usually occurs on March 21 or
the previous/following day depending on where it is observed.
• Illegal, but still practiced, is the tradition of bride
• Bride Kidnaping- also known as marriage by
abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice throughout
history and around the world in which a man abducts the
woman he wishes to marry. Bride kidnapping still occurs in
countries spanning Central Asia, some parts of Africa,
South East Asia, Mexico @ Europe.
• - bride kidnapping is considered a sex crime
• - However, even when the practice is against the law,
judicial enforcement remains lax, particularly in Kyrgyzstan
• - Islam, Christianity, Roman Catholicism, and Buddhism.
• - Islam is the dominant religion of Kyrgyzstan: 80% of the
population is Muslim while 17% follow Russian
Orthodoxy and 3% other religions
Bishkek Orthodox Church
Karakol Dungan Mosque
• Horse riding
• - The traditional national sports reflect the importance of horse
riding in Kyrgyz culture.
• -Very popular, as in all of Central Asia, is Ulak Tartysh, a team
game resembling a cross between polo and rugby in which two
teams of riders wrestle for possession of the headless carcass of
a goat, which they attempt to deliver across the opposition's goal
line, or into the opposition's goal: a big tub or a circle marked on
• Ulak Tartysh- is a traditional Central Asian team sport played on
horseback in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan,
northern Pakistan and Kazakhstan.
The carcass of
a headless goat
• Other popular games on horseback include:
• At Chabysh – a long-distance horse race, sometimes over a
distance of more than 50 km
• Jumby Atmai – a large bar of precious metal (the "jumby") is tied
to a pole by a thread and contestants attempt to break the thread
by shooting at it, while at a gallop
• Kyz Kuumai – a man chases a girl in order to win a kiss from her,
while she gallops away; if he is not successful she may in turn
chase him and attempt to beat him with her "kamchi" (horsewhip)
• Oodarysh – two contestants wrestle on horseback, each
attempting to be the first to throw the other from his horse
• Tyin Emmei – picking up a coin from the ground at full gallop
• officially the Republic of Tajikistan
• is a mountainous landlocked country in Central
Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the
west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and People's Republic of China to
• Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The word Tajik was used
by medieval Turks to refer to Iranian-speaking peoples
• The territory of what is now Tajikistan has been inhabited
continuously since 4000 BC. It has been under the rule of various
empires throughout history, for the longest period being part of
the Persian Empire.
• Economy of Tajikistan
• Tajikistan was the poorest republic of the Soviet Union and
is the poorest country in Central Asia as well as in the
former Soviet Union today. The current economic situation
remains fragile, largely owing to corruption, uneven
economic reforms, and economic mismanagement.
• . With foreign revenue precariously dependent upon
remittances from migrant workers overseas, exports of
aluminum and cotton, the economy is highly vulnerable to
• -Although the government has announced an expedited land
reform program, many Soviet-era state farms still existed in
2006, and the state retains control of production and harvesting
on privatized farms. Privatization of cotton farms has been
especially slow, and unresolved debts of cotton farmers remained
a problem in 2006.
• - In the early 2000s, the major crops were cotton (which occupied
one-third of arable land in 2004 but decreased after that
date), cereals (mainly wheat), potatoes, vegetables (mainly onions
and tomatoes), fruits, and rice.
• More than 80 percent of the 8,800 square kilometers of land in
use for agriculture depends on irrigation. Tajikistan must import
grain from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
• -About 5 percent of Tajikistan is wooded, mainly at elevations
between 1,000 and 3,000 meters. No forest region is classified as
commercially usable; most are under state protection. Wood
production is negligible, but local inhabitants harvest non-wood
• -Streams and lakes produce a limited amount of fish, and some
fish is produced by aquaculture. In 2003 some 158 tons of fish
were caught and 167 tons raised on fish farms.
Aquaculture, also known
as aquafarming, is the
farming of aquatic organisms
as fish, crustaceans,molluscs
and aquatic plants.
cultivating freshwater and
saltwater populations under
controlled conditions, and can
with commercial fishing,
which is the harvesting
of wild fish.
• Mining and Minerals
• -Tajikistan has rich deposits of gold, silver, and antimony.
The largest silver deposits are in Sughd Province, where
Tajikistan’s largest gold mining operation also is located.
• -Tajikistan also
produces strontium, salt, lead, zinc, fluorspar,
• - Tajikistan’s extensive aluminium processing industry
depends entirely on imported ore.
• The politics of Tajikistan
• -takes place in a framework of a presidential republic,
whereby the President is both head of state and head of
government, and of a multi-party system. Legislative
power is vested in both the executive branch and the two
chambers of parliament.
• Executive branch
• -The president, who is directly elected, is both the head of state
and the head of government.
• -The president appoints the prime minister and all the members of
the government, with parliamentary approval. Tajikistan is thus
a presidential republic. Tajikistan held a constitutional referendum
on 22 June 2003 and the 2003 Constitution, among other
amendments, set a limit of two seven-year terms for the
• -Emomalii Rahmon's election to the office of the president in 2006
counts as his first 7-year term under the 2003 Constitution, and in
principle he may be re-elected for a second term in 2013,
remaining in office until 2020.
• Legislative branch
• -The bicameral Supreme Assembly
• - (Majlisi Oli)-includes the 63-seat Assembly of
• -(Majlisi namoyandagon)-which meets year-round (from
November through end of June), and the 33-seat National
• -(Majlisi milli)-which meets at least twice per year
• Judicial branch
• -The constitution provides for an independent judiciary. The
Supreme Court is the highest court. Other high courts
include the Supreme Economic Court and the Constitutional
Court, which decides questions of constitutionality.
• -The president appoints the judges of these three courts,
with the approval of the legislature.
• -The judges of all courts are appointed to 10-year terms.
celebrating Eid in
• -Tajikistan's mountains provide many opportunities for
• -hill climbing
• -rock climbing
• -mountain climbing
• -Football is a popular sport. The Tajikistan national football
team competes in the FIFA and AFC leagues. It also hosts
many football clubs.
• - Pamir Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in the
capital, Dushanbe. It is currently used mostly for football
matches. The stadium holds 24,000, and is currently the
home ground of the national football team
• - The Tajikistan national football
team represents Tajikistan in association football and is
controlled by the Tajikistan National Football Federation.
Tajikistan's home ground is Pamir Stadium in Dushanbe and
their head coach is Pulod Kodirov.
• -also known as Turkmenia
• -It is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the
south and southwest, Uzbekistan to the east and
northeast, Kazakhstan to the north and northwest and
the Caspian Sea to the west.
• -It possesses the world's fourth largest reserves of natural gas
resources. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain
areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black
470 km2 (180 sq m
97,160 km2 (37,510
Balkan Province Balkanabat
73,430 km2 (28,35
0 sq mi)
93,730 km2 (36,19
0 sq mi)
87,150 km2 (33,65
• Economy of Turkmenistan
• - The country possesses the world's fourth-largest reserves
of natural gas and substantial oil resources
• - Half of the country's irrigated land is planted with cotton, making
the country the world's tenth-largest producer of it
• - Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic
reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its economy.
In 2004, the unemployment rate was estimated to be 60%;
• - Between 1998 and 2002, Turkmenistan suffered from the
continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from
obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same
time, however, the value of total exports has risen sharply
because of increases in international oil and gas prices. Economic
prospects in the near future are discouraging because of
widespread internal poverty and the burden of foreign debt.
• -President Niyazov spent much of the country's revenue on
extensively renovating cities, Ashgabat in particular.
• - According to the decree of the Peoples' Council of 14
August 2003, electricity, natural gas, water and salt will be
subsidized for citizens up to 2030; however, shortages are
frequent. In addition car drivers are entitled to 120 litres of
free petrol a month. Drivers of buses, lorries and tractors
can get 200 litres of fuel and motorcyclists and scooter
riders 40 litres free.
• Natural gas and export routes
• -Turkmenistan ranks fourth in the world to Russia, Iran and Qatar
in natural gas reserves
• - . Gas production is the most dynamic and promising sector of the
• - Turkmenistan's gas reserves are estimated at 3.5-6.7 cubic
meters and its prospecting potential at up to 21 trillion cubic
• - In addition to supplying Russia, China and Iran, Ashgabat took
concrete measures to accelerate progress in the construction of
the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan and India pipeline (TAPI).
Turkmenistan has previously estimated the cost of the project at
• -Turkmenistan is a net exporter of electrical power to Central
Asian republics and southern neighbors. The most important
generating installations are the Hindukush Hydroelectric Station,
which has a rated capacity of 350 megawatts, and the Mary
Thermoelectric Power Station, which has a rated capacity of 1,370
megawatts. In 1992, electrical power production totaled 14.9 billion
• -Half of the country's irrigated land is planted with cotton, making
the country the world's tenth-largest producer.
• Politics of Turkmenistan
• The politics of Turkmenistan takes place in the framework of
a presidential republic, whereby the President of Turkmenistan is
both head of state and head of government.
• -After 69 years as part of the Soviet Union (including 67 years as
a union republic), Turkmenistan declared its independence on 27
• -The Turkmen government operates as a single-party
system, which does not meet even the most basic standards
of democracy. Turkmenistan was ruled by President for
Life Saparmurat Niyazov until his sudden death on 21
December 2006.Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov was
elected the new president on 11 February 2007.
Presidential office building
• The Akhal-Teke
• is a horse breed from Turkmenistan, where they are a
• They are noted for their speed and for endurance on long
marches. These "golden-horses" are adapted to severe
climatic conditions and are thought to be one of the oldest
surviving horse breeds.
• There are currently about 3,500 Akhal-Tekes in the world,
mostly in Turkmenistan and Russia, although they are also
found throughout Europe, Australia and North America.
• Turkmen rug
• -A Turkmen rug (or Turkmen carpet) is a type of hand-
made floor-covering textile traditionally originating
in Central Asia (especially in Turkmenistan
• -Such rugs are now mainly produced in, and sold
from, Pakistan and Iran.
• -Various vegetable and other natural dyes are used to
produce the rich colors. Many patterns and colors are
used, but the traditional and most typical is that of
the octagonal elephant's foot (Bukhara) print, often with a
red or tan background
• Islam in Turkmenistan
• -According to a 2009 Pew Research Center report, 93.1%
of Turkmenistan's population is Muslim.
• -Traditionally, the Turkmen of Turkmenistan, like their kin
in Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, are Sunni Muslims. Shia
Muslims, the other main branch of Islam, are not numerous
in Turkmenistan, and the Shia religious practices of
the Azerbaijani and Kurdish minorities are not politicized.
• -The great majority of Turkmen readily identify themselves
as Muslims and acknowledge Islam as an integral part of
their cultural heritage
• -is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It shares borders
with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan to the east,
and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south.
• -Most of Uzbekistan’s population today belong to the Uzbek
ethnic group and speak the Uzbek language, one of the
family of Turkic languages.
• -Capital(Tashkent or toshkent)
Samarqand Viloyati Samarqand
• Economy of uzbekistan
• -Agriculture employs 28% of Uzbekistan's labour force and
contributes 24% of its GDP (2006 data)
• - While official unemployment is very low,
underemployment – especially in rural areas – is estimated
to be at least 20%
• -till, at cotton-harvest time, all students and teachers are
mobilized and enslaved as unpaid labour to help in the fields
• The use of child labour in Uzbekistan has led several
companies, including Tesco,C&A,Marks & Spencer, Gap, and
H&M, to boycott Uzbek cotton.
• Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity
including cotton, gold, uranium, potassium,
and natural gas.
• -Uzbekistan's external position has been strong
since 2003. Thanks in part to the recovery of world
market prices of gold and cotton (the country's key
• Politics of Uzbekistan
• -The politics of Uzbekistan take place in a
framework of a presidential republic, whereby
the President of Uzbekistan is both head of
state and head of government.
• -Executive power is exercised by the government.
• -Legislative power is vested in both
the government and the two chambers of parliament,
the Legislative Chamber and Senate.
• -Uzbekistan is Central Asia's most populous country. Its
28.1 million people (July 2011 estimate)
• -The population of Uzbekistan is very young: 34.1% of its
people are younger than 14
• -According to official sources, Uzbeks comprise a majority
(80%) of the total population. Other ethnic groups
include Russians 5.5%, Tajiks 5%(official estimate and
disputed), Kazakhs 3%
• -Islam is by far the dominant religion in Uzbekistan,
as Muslims constitute 90% of the population while 5% of
the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, and 5%
of the population follow other religion according to a
2009 US State Department release.
• -Although constitutionally maintaining rights to freedom of
religion, Uzbekistan maintains a ban on all religious
activities not approved by that state, with particularly
harsh treatment of Protestant Christians being
• Languages- The Uzbek language is the only official
• Transportation- Tashkent, the nation's capital and
largest city, has a three-line rapid transit
system built in 1977, Uzbekistan is currently the
only country in Central Asia with a subway system
• Military-Uzbekistan possesses the largest military
force in the Central Asian region having around
65,000 people in uniform. Its structure was
inherited from the Soviet Armed Forces' Turkestan
Military District, although it is moving toward a fully
restructured organisation, which is to be based on
motor rifle troops
January 1 – New Year "Yangi Yil Bayrami"
January 14 – Vatan Himoyachilari kuni
March 8 – International Women's Day – "Xalqaro XotinQizlar kuni"
March 21 – Navrooz – "Navro'z Bayrami"
May 9 – Remembrance Day – "Xotira va Qadirlash kuni"
September 1 – Independence Day – "Mustaqillik kuni"
October 1 – Teacher's Day – "O'qituvchi va Murabbiylar"
December 8 – "Constitution Day" – Konstitutsiya kuni
• Sport• Uzbekistan is home to former racing cyclist
Djamolidine Abdoujaparov. Abdoujaparov has won the
points contest in the Tour de France- three times.
• Football is the most popular sport in Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan's premier football league is the Uzbek
League which features 16 teams
• -Rugby, handball, baseball, ice hockey, basketball,
and are becoming popular sports in Uzbekistan.
• Hong Kong
• North Korea
• People's Republic of China
• Republic of China Taiwan
• South Korea
is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern
portion of the Korean Peninsula, It is neighbored by the
People's Republic of China (Mainland China) to the west,
Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East
China Sea and Republic of China (Taiwan) to the south.
South Korea lies in a humid continental and humi
subtropical climate region with a predominantly
mountainous terrain. Its territory covers a total area of
99,392 square kilometers and has a population of almost
50 million. The capital and largest city is Seoul, with a
population of 10,421,782.
• After the invasion of South Korea by forces from the
North on 25 June 1950, the resulting war between
the two Koreas ended with an Armistice Agreement,
but the border between the two nations is the most
heavily fortified in the world. After the war, the South
Korean economy grew significantly and the country
had transformed into a major economy, a full
democracy, and a regional power in East Asia.
Economy and resources of
• South Korea is one of the Asian Tigers, and is the only
developed country so far to have been included in the
group of Next Eleven countries. South Korea had one
of the world's fastest growing economies from the
early 1960s to the late 1990s, and South Korea is still
one of the fastest growing developed countries in the
2000s, along with Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan,
the other three members of Asian Tigers.
• South Korea is still one of the fastest growing
developed countries in the 2000s, along with Hong
Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan, the other three
members of Asian Tigers
• South Koreans refer to this growth as the Miracle
on the Han River.
• The South Korean economy is heavily dependent on
international trade, and in 2010, South Korea was
the sixth largest exporter and tenth largest
importer in the world.
• South Korea suffers perpetual damage to its credit rating
in the stock market due to the belligerence of North
Korea in times of deep military crises, which has an
adverse effect on the financial markets of the South
• economic growth rate reached 6.2 percent in 2010 (the
fastest growth for eight years after significant growth by
7.2 percent in 2002)
• sharp recovery from economic growth rates of 2.3% in
2008 and 0.2% in 2009 when the global financial crisis
hit. The unemployment rate in South Korea also remained
low in 2009 at 3.6%
Transportation and energy
The KTX-II high-speed train can Banpo Bridge connects the
travel at 350 km/h (220 mph). southern and northern parts of
Seoul that are separated by the
Airport is the largest
airport in South Korea.
Nuclear power plants
Gynecoid EveR3 in
Albert HUBO, developed by
KAIST, can make expressive
gestures with its five
-Politics of the Republic of Korea takes place in the
framework of a presidential representative
democratic republic, whereby the President is the
head of state, and of a multi-party system.
-Executive power is exercised by the government.
-Legislative power is vested in both the
government and the National Assembly.
-The Judiciary is independent of the executive and
the legislature and comprises a Supreme Court,
appellate courts, and a Constitutional Court.
• Jinju geommu
• As with music, there is a distinction between court
dance and folk dance.
• The traditional clothing is the genja, it is a special
kind of dress that women wear on festivals.
• According to Buddhist belief, the lighting of a lotus-shaped
lantern symbolizes a devotion to performing good deeds and
lighting up the dark parts of the world that are filled with agony.
• The lantern-lighting practice was developed throughout the
Goryeo and Joseon dynasties and has been preserved through
public demonstrations such as the lotus lantern service (a
Buddhist memorial service held nationwide) and the lotus lantern
• The modern-day Lotus Lantern Festival is designed to bring
multiracial and multicultural crowds together through an array
of festive programs. This year’s event offers visitors the chance
to make their own lantern, taste temple dishes, produce rubbings
of various Buddhist shapes, and much more.
• Tea in Korea dates back over 2000 years
• It was part of a number of worship recipes, hoping
that the good scents would reach the heavenly
gods. Although the origin of tea is obscure, tea was
introduced in Korea, and later gave rise to
the Korean tea ceremony, of which Korea has over
• Originally tea was used for ceremonial purposes or
as part of traditional herbal medicine. Green tea, as
it is used in China and Japan, is not the only kind of
tea drunk in Korea. A great number of teas made of
fruits, leaves, seeds or roots are enjoyed. Five tastes
of tea are distinguished in Korea: sweet, sour, salty,
bitter, and pungent.
A celadon incense burner from
the Goryeo Dynasty with Korean
Traditional house, hanok
Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan,
China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the
Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in
the south. The characters that make up Japan's name mean
"sun-origin", which is why Japan is sometimes referred to as
the "Land of the Rising Sun".
. Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands
The four largest islands are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū and
Shikoku, together accounting for ninety-seven percent of
Japan's land area. Japan has the world's tenth-largest
population, with over 127 million people.
$5.458 trillion (2010 est.) (2010) (nominal; 3rd)
$4.309 trillion (2010 est.) (PPP; 3rd)
4.0% (2010) -3.5% (2011 Q1)
$42,820 (2010 est.) (nominal; 16th)
GDP per capita
$33,805 (2010 est.) (PPP; 24th)
GDP by sector
agriculture: 1.5%, industry: 22.8%, services: 75.7%
0.3% (April 2011)
below poverty line
65.64 million (2010 est.)
agriculture: 4%, industry: 28%, services: 68% (2009
4.7% (April 2011)
motor vehicles industrial and transportation
equipment, electronics, chemicals, steel, machine
tools, processed foods, non-ferrous metals
• Economy of Japan
Japan Airlines, though faced with massive debts as of 2010, is
considered one of the largest airlines in the world.
Lexus LS. The rapid growth and success ofToyota's Lexus and other Japanese
automakers reflects Japan's strength and global dominance in the automobile
• -Japan ranked second in the world behind the
People's Republic of China in tonnage of fish
caught—11.9 million tons in 1989, up slightly from
11.1 million tons in 1980.
• -Only 12% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation.
Due to this lack of arable land, a system of terraces
is used to farm in small areas.
• -Japan's small agricultural sector, however, is also
highly subsidized and protected, with government
regulations that favor small-scale cultivation instead
of large-scale agriculture as practiced in North
Yellow Camaro Chevrolate
• constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary
Painting has been an
art in Japan for a very
long time: the brush is
a traditional writing
tool, and the
extension of that to its
use as an artist's tool
was probably natural
of Buddhist images,
Wood has traditionally
been used as the chief
material in Japan, along
Traditional Japanese clothing
1.3 billion people
(1,330,044,605 as of mid-2008)
• - The People's Republic of China is the world's
second largest economy after the United States. It is
the world's fastest-growing major economy,
with average growth rates of 10% for the past 30
years. China is also the largest exporter and second
largest importer of goods in the world.
• - All power within the government of the People's
Republic of China is divided among three bodies:
• 1. Communist Party of China
• 2. Central People's Government(State Council)
• 3. People's Liberation Army (PLA)
• Culture of China
• The Culture of China is one of the world's oldest and
most complex cultures. The area in which the culture is
dominant covers a large geographical region in eastern
Asia with customs and traditions varying greatly
between towns, cities and provinces.
• Most social values are derived
from Confucianism and Taoism. The subject of which
school was the most influential is always debated as
many concepts such as NeoConfucianism, Buddhism and many others have come
about. Reincarnation and other rebirth concept is a
reminder of the connection between real-life and the
Demonstrating Kung Fu at
Monastery, Kaifeng, Henan.
A Luohan, one of the spiritual
figures of Chinese Buddhism.
• - also known, especially in the past, as Formosa
• - Taiwan has significant coal deposits and some
insignificant petroleum and natural gas deposits.
Electrical power generation is nearly 55% coalbased, 18%nuclear power, 17% natural gas, 5% oil,
and 5% from renewable energy sources.
• Taiwan is rich in wind energy resources, with wind
farms both onshore and offshore, though limited
land area favors offshore wind resources
• Hong Kong
• - special administrative regions (SARs) of the
People's Republic of China (PRC)
• - With a land mass of 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi)
and a population of seven million people,
Hong Kong is one of the most densely
populated areas in the world
• - Hong Kong has a major capitalist service
economy characterised by low taxation and
free trade, and the currency, Hong Kong
dollar, is the ninth most traded currency in the
• The Government of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of
China, commonly the Hong Kong Government, is
led by the Chief Executive as Head of the
Government, who is also the head of the Hong
Kong SAR. The affairs of the Government are
decided by secretaries, who are appointed by the
Chief Executive and endorsed by the Central
People's Government in Beijing. Under the "One
Country, Two Systems" policy, Hong Kong has a high
degree of autonomy.
• is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special
administrative regions of thePeople's Republic of
China. It lies on the western side of the Pearl River
Delta, bordering Guangdong province to the north
and facing the South China Sea to the east and
• - Macau's economy is based largely on tourism.
Other chief economic activities in Macau are
export-geared textile and garment manufacturing,
banking and other financial services
• - The clothing industry has provided about three
quarters of export earnings, and the gaming,
tourism and hospitality industry is estimated to
contribute more than 50% of Macau's GDP, and 70%
of Macau government revenue
• - Under the policy of "one country, two systems",
the PRC's Central People's Government is
responsible for the territory's defense and foreign
affairs, while Macau maintains its own legal
system, police force, monetary system, customs
policy, and immigration policy.
• - According to the CIA factbook, Macau has the
second highest life expectancy in the world
• Government of Macau
• -are headed by secretariats or commissioners and
report directly to the Chief Executive of Macau.
• - The affairs of the Government are decided
by secretaries, who are appointed by the Chief
Executive and endorsed by the Central People's
Government in Beijing. As a special administrative
region of the PRC, Macau has a high degree of
autonomy, in light of the "One Country, Two
Systems" policy. The Macau Government, financially
independent from the CPG, oversees the affairs of
• North Korea
• - is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern
half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest
city is Pyongyang.
• - The North Korean Government is the executive
branch of the state.
• - North Korea's Songun "Military First" policy
elevates the Korean People's Army within North
Korea as an organization and as a state function,
granting it the primary position in the North Korean
government and society. It guides domestic
policy and international interactions
• - is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It
is bordered by Russia to the north and the People's
Republic of China to the south, east and west.
Although Mongolia does not share a border with
Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only 38
kilometres (24 mi) from Kazakhstan's eastern tip
• - Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city, is home to
about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political
system is a parliamentary republic.
• Government and politics
• - Mongolia is a parliamentary republic
• - The parliament is elected by the people and in turn
elects the government.
• Mongolia's constitution guarantees full freedom of
expression, religion, and gives other freedoms
• - Mongolia's president has a largely symbolic role, but
can block the Parliament's decisions.
• - Mongolia's constitution provides three requirements
for taking office as president; the candidate must be a
native-born Mongolian, be at least 45 years of age, and
have resided in Mongolia for five years prior to taking
office. The president is also required to formally resign
his or her party membership.
• The current president is Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, a
former two-time prime minister and member of
the Democratic Party. He was elected as president
on May 24, 2009 and inaugurated on June 18.
Thank you for listening
Mark Raven G. Cancino
Bachelor of Secondary Education
Social Science Major