Cetking statement argument verbal reasoning cet mba mms pdf Maharashtra MBA CET MH IBPS
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Cetking statement argument verbal reasoning cet mba mms pdf Maharashtra MBA CET MH IBPS

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Cetking statement argument verbal reasoning cet mba mms pdf Maharashtra MBA CET MH IBPS

Cetking statement argument verbal reasoning cet mba mms pdf Maharashtra MBA CET MH IBPS

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    Cetking statement argument verbal reasoning cet mba mms pdf Maharashtra MBA CET MH IBPS Cetking statement argument verbal reasoning cet mba mms pdf Maharashtra MBA CET MH IBPS Document Transcript

    • Cetking Must do Verbal Reasoning No one knows CET better than CETing Verbal Reasoning Workshops Cetking famous 10 workshops for Verbal Reasoning  Verbal Reasoning workshop 1  Verbal Reasoning workshop 2  Verbal Reasoning workshop 3  Verbal Reasoning workshop 4  Verbal Reasoning workshop 5  Verbal Reasoning workshop 6  Verbal Reasoning workshop 7  Verbal Reasoning workshop 8  Verbal Reasoning workshop 9  Verbal Reasoning workshop 10 Basic Handout Cetking.com No. 1 Classes for CET CAT CMAT in India Call 9820500380 | cetking.com
    • Reasoning STATEMENT & ARGUMENTS Reasoning is the act of methodically usic logic to derive a conclusion from certain premises. There are two ways of solving analytical reasoning questions. The first way is the one which consists of the general method for solving any type of analytical reasoning questions. This method consists of a standaed approach which must be followed by all the analytical reasoning questions. The other way is based on the specific type of approach. In analytical reasoning the question itself consists of the answer. In Order to solve any analytical reasoning question, candidates must read the Statements very thorougly and repeatedly to clearly understand the meanings and implications which they convey truly, with a very cool, cautious and patient mind. In this type of questions, a Statement (usually an interrogative sentence) in the form of a suggested course of action is followed by two arguments. One argument generally Supports the given Statement (or suggested course of action) by pointing out some positive features or positive results of that action while the second argument denies the Statement or argues against it by pointing out the negative features or deleterious effect/result ofthat action. In order to determine the forcefulness of the arguments we have to decide whether the argument is perfect or not. If an argument is hundred per cent perfect, it would be forceful. Remember that: (i) The argument should not be just an opinion. It must answer one of the questions—Why, How, Wben, What—of the Statement. Otherwise it is not an argument. (ii) An argument also depends on the language used because by changing a few words we can make a weak argument forceful. (iii) The argument must be judged as an argument and not with what somebody or newspapers say (s). Ex. Statement : Should we follow non-alignment as foreign policy ? Argument: Yes, because Ft. Jawaharlal Nehru advocated it. Explanation : The argument is not forceful. If somebody says in favour of any policy or adopts it, that does not mean that it is a correct policy. (iv) If some one is quoted in support of the Statement it cannot be a forceful argument. Ex. Statement: Is child the father of man ? Argument: Yes, because Words-worth has said, "Heaven lies about us in our infancy." Explanation : The argument cannot be forceful only because someone has quoted in support of the Statement. SOME IMPORTANT TIPS (A) If an argument is an assumption. (hat is. if it assumes somethiiig to be true whereas in reaüty it may or may not be true, the argument cannot be forceful. Ex. Statement : Should school teachers be banned to take any private tuitions ? Argument : Yes, only then the quality of teaching in schools will improve. [SBI Associate Banks P.O. Exam, 2009] Explanation : The argument is based on an assumption and hence it cannot be forceful. (B) An ambiguous argument cannot be forceful. The argument must be clear in meaning otherwise it may not bc forceful or strong. An ambiguous argument leaves a doubtful and confused impression. Ex. Statement: Should education be made compulsory for all children upto the age of 14 ? Argument : Yes, This would improve the Standard ol living. Explanation : The argument is ambiguous. It is not clear how the compulsory education for all children upto the age of 14 could raise the Standard of living. (C) Ifthe argument is in form of a simple sentence lacking anyfacts orestahlished notions hui is not ambiguous rwmot be forceful. Such argument shows proper relation with the Statement but due to its simplicity, it cannot be considereda forceful or st roi ig argument. Ex. Statement: Should terminal examination in India's present presant education System be abolished altogether. Argument: Yes, It has outlived altogether. [Bank P.O. Exam, 2008] Explanation : Although the argument talks about the Suggestion given in the Statement, it simply Supports the Suggestion without giving proper reason. ( D ) Ifthe argument the superßuous and only glances at the theme without making an indepth analysis of the facts or infonnation, the argument cannot be forceful. Ex. Statement : Should open book examinations be introduced for professional courses in India V Argument: Yes, All candidates can pass easily and can start their professional life. [Banks P.O. Exam, 2008] Explanation : The argument is superfluous. It does not delve into the core of the topic. Therefore, it is a weak argument. (E) The "Law ofldentity" must not be violated. In other words. a uxird orphrase should be used in the sarne sense in the Statement as well as in the argument. Ex. Statement: Should religion and politics be divorced? Argument : No, because religion and politics are not husband and wife. Explanation : In the Statement, the word "divorce" has been used in one sense whereas in the argument it has been used in different context and sense. Therefore, the argument is not forceful. In the foregoing discussion, we bave provided sufficient Clues for rejecting an argument at a glance. However, it does not v/ork in every type of arguments. In some cases, an argurrv appears to be forceful at a first glance but
    • when we analyse it propcrly, it does not hold strong. Therefore, it ia necessaiy lo providc Borne basic tips oo thatyou can identify such argumenta. WEAK ARGUMENTS Weak argumenta are those which are of minor importance and also may not be directly related to the Statement or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question/statement. You can declare an argument as weak on the basis of the following grounds : I. If it is an established fact that such a result as mentioned in the argument would not follow an action suggested in the Statement. Ex. Statement: Should we use bottled water for health and hygiene reason ? Argument : No. Bottled waters are not fresh and so may be contaminated. Explanation : The argument is incorrect because it is an established fact that the bottled water is good for health and it is hygienic too. n. If experiences predict that the result. will not follow. Ex. Statement: Should love marriages be preferred to arranged marriages ? Argument: Yes, because love. marriages are more stable. Explanation: The argument stipulates that love marriages are more stable but our experiences reflect that love marriages are not stable as that of arranged marriages and in most cases love marriages lack social recognition too. III. Iflogically the result is not probable. That means. if we analyse the result ü does not appear to be logicalhj sound. Ex. Statement: Should India take seriously the proxy war on the part of Pakistan ? Argument : No, because it will invitc international criticism. Explanation : The argument does not sound logically. If one nation tries to protect its sovereignty how it will be objectionable internationally. It is the prime duty of any nation to protect its sovereignty and integrity. IV. An argument should not be factually incorrect. The argument must not violate the prevailing notion of truth or ideas. An argument can be rejectedifit violates the prevoüing notion of truth. Suppose. an argument is that "Man is not social", it is not forceful because it is factually incorrect. Ex. Statement : Should religion be taught in the Government Institution ? Argument : Yes, because it is necessary to promote religion. Explanation : The argument is against the philosophy of secularism and hence it is not forceful. The argument is not aecording our prevailing ideals. V. Sometimes an argument Supports an action on the basis ofconsequences which are not universaUy aeeepted and which are not logically sound. Such an argument can only be described as the assumption or individual pereeption of the Speaker or arguer. In no case such an a rgument be forceful. Ex Statement: Should India remain non-aligned ? Argument: Yes, because this policy will do us a lot of good. Explanation : The argument is vague and is more or less an individual opinion. How will it do good ? What good will it do ? These questions remain unanswered. Therefore, the argument is not strong. VI. Sometimes an argument anserts something on the basis ofe: pteceda it or an exumple. A n emmpie or an analogy is usually argunientation. Just because somebody did something in the past, the same cannot be declared as pursuable. Tims, if an argument consists of an example. it cannot be forceful because an example cannot justify anything. Ex. Statement: Should System of reservation of posts for socially and economically disadvantaged groups/castes be introduced in the private sector ? Argument : No. Nowhere else in the world such a praclice is being followed. [Bank P.O. Exam, 2010] Explanation : The argument is based on example and hence it cannot be forceful. AFTER discussing in detail the various facets of a "week argument" we should aitempt to analyse the features of a "strong argument". An argument ran be considered as "strong" or "forceful" if it is important and directly related to the Statement. In order to determine the forcefulness of the arguments, the following three Steps should be followed. STEP-I In the first step. we have to determine the validity of the result as indicated in the argument. In other words, we have to determine whether the positive feature or result mentioned in the argument really follows. We can judge this by an intuitive idea and applying sorne common sense. Some typical cases, in which result will follow, have been discussed below : (A) A result will follow if it is an established fact or universaUy aeeepted/acknowledged notion of truth. An established fact may be scientißcally proved or it may be universaUy acktiowledged. Thus. a result will follow a course of action ifitisan establishedfact that such a result usually follows such a course of action. Ex. Statement : Should number of holidays of Government employees be reduced ? Argument: Yes, it will result in increased produeüvity of Government offices. (Bank P.O. Exam. 2009] Explanation: In the above mentioned example whatever has been stipulated in the argument can follow because more or less it is an established fact It is an established fact that if work hour is increased the produetivity will also increase. Therefore we can say that the argument is suitable for further consideration. The argument ably withstands the first yardstick. Here, it must be noted tb&t we have not yet determined the forcefulness of the argument. In this step it is not possible to determine whether the arguments are forceful or not. We have only determined that the argument has satisfied the first condition. An argument can be declared "strong" or "weak" only after the Step III. (B) We can evaluate the arguments on the basis of our experiences. Ttuis, in this category are the results which can be expected to follow because experiences indicate this. Ex. Statement : Should the age of voting be raised to 21 years in India ? Argument : Yes, by that age people develop sense of responsibility and higher level of maturity. [Banks P.O. Exam, 2008]
    • Explanaticn : In the above mentioned example, liie resiilt that hasbeen stipulaied tr the argument is probable uecaujn. ourexperiences Indicatethls. Forexa mple, eonsidertit£ the mature a ge il ca n bc a ssumed sa fety tha t people would tako iight decision. (C) IJthe result is logically probable, it wül follow. In such cases we /iuue to ascertain with proper logic wheiher the resull will follow or not. The rcasoning or logic applied in dctermining the validity of a result must be self-suffLcienl. Ex. Statement : Should open book exa mina tions be introduced for professional courses in India? Argument: Yes, all candidates can pass ea sly a nd can start their professional life. [Banks P.O. Exam, 2009] Exploration : The a rgument mentioned abuve seerns to be logica lly convincing. For exa mple, if open book exarninations be introduced in professiona l courses all candidates could pass the exams easily. STEP-II This step is mea nt to check whether the result is desirable or the benefits mentioned in the a rgument will follow beyond a reasonable doubt or the results a re really harmful (in ca sc of negative results). Ex. Statement: Should Central Government open well equipped hospila l for every sub-division of every district? Argument: Yes, hea lth and well-being of every Citizen is the prima ry responsibility of the Government. iBank P.O. Exam, 2009] Explanation : Ma npower is the most importa nt resource of a country. Well being a nd good hea lth of every Citizen is the prime duty of the Government. In order to ensure better hea lth there should be sufficient number of hospita ls a nd prima ry hea lth ca re centres with a ll the fa cilities. Therefore, the fa ct sta ted in the argument is desira ble. STEP-III We can reject an argument solely on the basis what the argument sa ys seerns to ha ve no connection with the Statement. That tneans, an argument cannot be forceful or strong if it is not properly rela ted with the Sta tement. A strong a rgument must be directly connected with the Statement. If its implica tion is connected, it ca nnot be a forceful argument. Thus, strong arguments are those which are both important and directly related to the statement. A strong argument should highlight the main issuc invoK'ed in the sta tement. It should not empha sise a ny irreleva nt, insignifleant or minor issues. Ex. Statement : Should the age of voting be raised to 21 years in India? Argument : Yes, by tha t a ge people develop sense of responsibility and higher level of maturity. Explanation: The argument shows proper relation with the statement and also argues important issue. Therefore, it is forceful. Through voting we elect a resporisible Government a nd, therefore, people should ha ve proper understanding aboui. the righl and wi ong choices. FORMAT OF THE QUESTION Directions : In ma king decision a bout importa nt questiona, il is desirable to be able to distinguish between "Strong" arguments and "Weak" a rguments so far as they relate to the question. "Strong" arguments are those which are both importa nt a nd directly rela ted to the question. "Weak" arguments are those which are of minor importance and also may not be directly related to the question or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question. Instructions : Ea ch qciesiion below is followed by a statement and two arguments numbered I and II. You lave to decide which of the arguments is a "Strong" a rgument and which is a Wea k" argument. Give answer (1) if only argument I is strong Give answer (2) il only argument il is strong Give answer (3) il either I or II is strong. Give answer (4) il neither I nur II is strong Give answer (5) if both I and Ii a re strong. ON THE BASIS of foregoing discussion we ca n devise systematic approach for solving questions on forcefulness of Arguments. We do suggest tha t you should follow the procedure given below : A. Prcliminary Screening First of all check whether the given a rgument is a/an: (i) wea k a rgument, (ii) a mbiguous a rgument, (iii) assumption, (iv) superfluous a rgument, or (v) question thrown back argument. if a n a rgument fa lls in a ny of the a bove mentioned categories, then it cannot be forceful and hence you should reject such arguments al the very beginning. If an argument does not belong to these categories, you should analyse it fuither step-by-step to determine its validity. B. Step I: To test whether a result will follow or not? A result will follow a course of action, if : (i) it is an esta blished fa ct, or (ii) experiences indica te this or (iii) it is logically probable A result will not follow a course of action, if : (i) it is against the established fact, or (ii) past experiences indicate so, or (iii) it is not logically probable. If a n a rgument eonforms to Step I, niove to Step II otherwise the argument is not forceful. C. Step I I : To test the desirabiiity of the result. If a n a rgument ca n pa ss this Step, move to Step III otherwise the argument is not forceful. D. Step III: To test whether the argument is properly related with the statement or not If an a rgument is directly rela ted with the sta tement and highlights the main issue, then it is forceful. Above mentioned Information can be tabulated as : Test Argument A. Preliminary Screening √ √ B. Step I C Step II √ D. Step III √ In this ca se, Uie a rgument is forceful or strong. But whenever you get a cross-ma rk, your ta sk is Over. You should not waste time in analysing the argument further. NOTE : Since prelimina ry Screening is somewha t exhaustive exercise a nd hence it cannot be equa ted with the subsequent steps which are not so exhaustive. That is why, we tend to categorise it separately. EXAMPLES Directions (1-25): In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between 'sirong' a rguments a nd wea k' a rguments so fa r a s they relate to the question. 'Strong' arguments are those which are both importa nt a nd directly related to the questions. 'Weak' a rguments are those which are of minor imponance and a lso ma y not be directly rela ted to the questions or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question.
    • Exptanaticn : In the above rnentioned example, the result tlial has been stipulated in the argument is probable because our experiences indicate this. For example, considering the mature age it can b c assumed safely tb at people woukl tako right decision. (C) Ifthe result is Icgically probable, it wül follow. In such cases we have to ascertain with proper logic whether the result will follow or not. The reasoning or logic applied in dctermining the validity of a result neust be seif-sufficienl. Ex. Statement : Should open book examinations be introduced for professional courses in India? Argument: Yes. all candidates can pass easily and can start their professional life. [Banks P.O. Exam, 2009] Exploration : The argument mentioned ab ove seems to b e logically convincing. For example, if open b o o k examinations b e introduced in professional courses all candidates could p a s s the exams easily. STEP-D This step is meant to check whether t h e result is desirable or the benefits mentioned in the argument w i l l follow b eyond a reasonable doubt or the results are really harmful (in case of negative results). Ex. Statement: Should Central Governmeni open well equipped hospital for every sub-division of every district? Argument: Yes, health and well-being of every Citizen is the pnmary responsibility of the Government. [Bank P.O. Exam, 2009] Explanation : Manpower is the most important resource of a country. Well b eing a n d g o o d health of every Citizen is t h e prime duty of t h e Government. In order to ensure better health there should be sufficient number of hospitals a n d primary health care centres with all the facilities. Therefore, t h e fact stated in t h e argument is desirab le. STEP-III We c a n leject an argument solely on the basis what the argument s a y s s e e m s to have no connection with the Statement. That means, an argument cannot be forceful or strong if it is not properly related with the Statement. A strong argument must b e directly connected with the Statement. If its implication is connected, it cannot be a forceful argument. Thus, strong arguments are those which are both important and direcüy related to the Statement. A su ong argument should highlight the main issuc involved in the Statement. It should n o t emphasise any irrelevant, insignificant or minor issues. Ex. Statement : Should t h e a g e of voting be raised to 21 years in India? Argument : Yes, by that a g e people develop s e n s e of responsibility a n d higher level of maturity. Explanation : The argument shows proper relation with the Statement and also argues important issue. Therefore, it is forceful. Through v o t i n g we elect a responsib le Government a n d , therefore, people should have proper understanding ab out the right and w r o n g cheices. FORMAT OF THE QUESTION Oirections : In making decision ab out important questions, it is desirable to*be able to distinguish between "Strong" arguments and "Weak" arguments so far as they relate to the question. "Strong" arguments are those which are both important and directly related to the question. "Weak" arguments are those which are of minor importance and also may not be directly related to the question or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question. Instructions : Each quesiion b elow is followed b y a starement and two arguments numbered I and II. You lave to decide which of the arguments is a "Strong" argument and which is a Weak" argument. Give anser (1) if only argument I is strong Give answer (2) il only argument Ii is strong Give answer (3) il eitner I or II is strong. Give answer (4) il neither I nor II is strong Give answer (5) if both 1 and II are strong. ON THE BASIS of foregoing discussion we can devise systematic approach for solving questions on forcefulness of Arguments-. We do suggest that you should follow the procedure given below : A. Picliminary Screening First of all check whether the given argument is a/an: (i) weak argument, (ii) amb iguous argument, (iii) assumption, (iv) superfluous argument, or (v) questionthrown back argument. If an argument falls in any of the ab ove mentioned categories, then it cannot b e forceful and hence you should reject such arguments al the very beginning. If an argument does not belong to these categories, you should analyse it lurther step-by-step to detennine its validity. B. Step I: To test whether a result will follow or not? A result will follow a course of action, if: 0) it is an estab lished fact, or (ii) experiences indicate this or (iii) it is logically probable A result will not follow a course of action, if : (i) it is against the established fact, or (ii) past experiences indicate so, or (iiij it is not logically probable. If an argument conforms to Step I, niove to Step II otherwise the argument is not forceful. C. Step I I : To test the desirabiiity of the result. If an argument can pass this Step, move to Step III otherwise the argument is not forceful. D. Step III: To test whether the argument is properly related with the Statement or not II an argument is directly related with the Statement and highlights the main issue, then it is forceful. Above mentioned Information can be tabulated as : Test A. Preliminary Screening B. Step I C. Step II D. Step Iii Argument √ √ √ √ In this case, the argument is forceful or strong. Bul whenever you get a cross-mark, your task is over. You should not waste time in analysing the argument further. NOTE : Since preliminary Screening is somewhat exhaustive exercise and hence it cannot be equated with the subsequent Steps which are not so exhaustive. That is why, we tend to categorise it separately. EXAMPLES Dlrections (1-25): In maidng decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between 'strong' arguments and weak arguments so far as they relate to the question. "Strong' arguments are those which are b oth important and directly related to the questions. 'Weak' arguments are those which are of minor imponance and also may not b e directly related to the questions or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question.
    • Each question below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a 'strong' argument and which is a 'weak' argument. Give answer (1) if only argument I is strong Give answer (2) if only argument II is strong Give answer (3) if either I or II is strong. Give answer (4) if neither I nor II strong. Give answer (5) if both I and II are strong. Ex.l. Should all those who have come in contact with the potients suffering from the dreaded infections respiratory disease be quarantined in their house ? Arguments: I. No, nobody should be quarantined unless they are tested and found to be infected by the virus causing the disease. II. Yes, this is the only way to control the spread of the dreaded disease. Ex. 2. Should there be only one rate of interest for term deposits of varying durations in banks ? Arguments : I. No, people will refrain from keeping money for longer duration resulting into reduction of liquidity level of banks. II. Yes, this will be much simple for the common people and they may be encouraged to keep more money in banks. Ex.3. Should there be a cap on maximum number of contestants for parliamentary elections in any constituency? Arguments : I. Yes, this will make the parliamentary elections more meaningful as the voters can make a considered judgement for casting their vote. II. No, in a democracy any person fulfilling the eligibility criteria can contest parliamentary^elections and there should be no such restrictions. Ex.4. Should all those who are found guilty of committing homicide or abetting homicide be either given capital punishment or be kept in jail for the entire life ? Arguments : 1. Yes, such severe punishments only will make people refrain from committing such heinous acts and the society will be more safe. II. No, those who are repentant for the crime they committed be given a chance to lead a normal life outside the jail. Ex.5. Should there be a restriction on the migration of people from one State to another State in India ? Arguments : I. No, any Indian Citizen has a basic right to stay at any place of their choice and hence they cannot be stopped. II. Yes, this is the way to effect an equitable distribution of resources across the States in India. Ex.6. Should powerful nations attack relatively weaker nations which pose probable danger to world peace ? Arguments: I. Yes. War is justifled for the noble purpose of peace keeping. II. No. War/violence should never be resorted to. Ex. 7. Should those people who get less than Rs. 10 lakh per annum be exempted from the income tax ? Argument: I. Yes. Employees can improve their Standard of living by this. II. No. They should not be debarred from serving the country. Ex. 8. Should there be ban on free movement of people affected by contagious diseases like SARS ? Arguments : I. Yes. This is the way which will benefit such patients. II. No. This will cause further deterioration in their health. Ex.9. Should all slum dwellers of metros in India be forcibly sent to their villages ? Arguments: I. No. Because these people will die of hunger as there are no employment opportunities in villages. II. Yes. Slums create a bad impression of our country in the eyes of the foreign tourists. Ex. 10. Should public sector units of our country discard the policy of making available economic package to eligible poors gradually ? Arguments : I. Yes. It is difficult to define "eligible poors". II. No. It is against the welfare policy adopted by India. Ex. 11. Should there be a compulsory military training for each College Student in India ? Arguments: I. No. Compulsion ahvays leadsto repulsion. II. Yes. This is the only way to impart discipline into young generation. Ex. 12. Should the vehicles older than 15 years be rejected in metros in India ? Arguments : I. This is a significant step to lower down the pollution level in metros. II. No. It will be very difficult for vehicle owners to shift to other parts in country because they will not get suitable job for their very existence. Ex. 13. Should all the Colleges in India be allowed to devise their own curriculum and syllabus for the vocational courses promoting self-employment ? Arguments: I. Yes. This is an important step to generate employment opportunities. II. No. This will affect the quality of education due to lack of uniformity in syllabus. Ex. 14. Should the educated un-employed youth be paid "unemployment allowance" by the Government ? Arguments : I. No. It will dampen their urge to do something to earn their livelihood. II. Yes. It will provide them some monetary help to either seek employment or to kickstart some 'seif employment' venture. Ex. 15. Should private Courier Services in our country be legally banned ? Arguments : I. Yes. They have adversely affected the postal department. II. No. They have been found to be very fast and reliable. Ex. 16. Should all beggars on the roads in the big cities in India be forcibly sent to villages ? Arguments: I. No, this is grossry unfair and these people will die of hunger if they are sent to villages. II. Yes, these people create a bad impression of our country in the eyes of the foreigners who visit our country and hence should be removed. Ex. 17. Should all the criminals convicted for committing murder be awarded capital punishment ? Arguments : I. Yes, this will be a significant step towards reducing cases of murder in future. II. No, nobody has the right to take any person's life irrespective of the acts of such individuals. Ex. 18. Should all the professional Colleges in India be encouraged to run their own courses without affiliation to any university ? Arguments : I. Yes, this is only way to create more opportunities for those who seek professional training.
    • II. No, this will dilute the quality of professional training as all such Colleges may not be equipped to conduct such courses. Ex. 19. Should there be a maximum ceiling imposed on the earnings of an individual in an Organisation ? Arguments : I. Yes, this will help equitable distribution of earnings to all the employees. II. No, the Organisation should have free hand to decide the pay packets of its employees. Ex.20. Should there be a compulsory military training for each College Student in India ? Arguments : I. No» this goes against the basic democratic right of an individual to choose his/her own programs. II. Yes, this is the only way to build a streng and powerful nation. Ex. 21. Should all those passed out from government run Colleges and desirous of settling abroad be asked to pay back the cost of their education to the government ? Arguments : I. Yes, such students who study on the resources of the exchequer should be discouraged to leave the country. II. No, every Citizen has right to select their place of further study or work and therefore such a condition is unjustified. Ex.22. Should India support all the international policies of United States of America ? Arguments : I. No, many other powerful countries do not support the same. II. Yes, this is the only way to gain access to USA developmental funds. Ex.23. Should there be a complete ban on use of pesticides in agricultural sector ? Arguments : I. Yes, this is the" only way to save the Underground water from getting polluted with such dangerous chemical. II. No, this will adversely affect the agricultural production and the pests will damage the crops. Ex.24. Should the labour reforms be immediately introduced in India? Arguments: I. Yes, thta will help increase the productivity in all the sectors in general and in the public sector in particular. II. No, many other countries have not implemented this so far. Ex.25. Should the subsidy on kerosene be immediately increased further ? Arguments : I. Yes, this will bring considerable relief to the poorer section of the society as they will be the major beneficiary. II. No, our economy is otherwise in a difficult stage and it will not be able to withstand any further bürden on it. EXPLANATIONS 1.(1) Only argument I seems to be streng. The use of term 'only' in the argument II makes it invalid. Any disease can be checked by detecting causative organism and treating it properly. If the disease is contagious, the people suffering from the disease should be provided with suitable treatment. 2.(1) Only argument I seems to be streng. If the rate of interest for term deposits of varying durations in banks be kept uniform, no people will keep their money for longar duration. Argument II is not desirable and hence it is mt strong. 3.(5) Both the arguments seerns to be strong. Ineffecüre candidates should be discouraged to contest elections for sustaining vibrant democracy. On the other hand, it isa democratic right to contest elections and as such no person can be debarred from contesting elections if he is eligibe otherwise. 4.( 1) Only argument I seerns to be strong. The provision of severe punishments may have some effects and people will refrain from committing such heinous acts as homicide. Considering the severity of crimes such persons should be punished necessarily. 5.(1) Only argument I seerns to be strong. Argument I is in accordance with the fundamental rights guaranteed to the Citizens by the Constitution of India. How this step will ensure equitable distribution of resources ? This question remains unanswered. Therefore, argument II is not strong. 6.(4) Neither of the arguments seerns to be strong. War should be avoided at any cost as it aggravates the Situation rather than solving any problem. However, sometimes war becomes inevitable to ensure peace and security environment. 7.(4) Neither of the arguments seerns to be strong. Both the arguments are devoid of facts. 8.(4) Both the arguments lack substance and hence cannot be strong. 9.(4) Neither of the arguments seerns to be strong. 10.(2) Only argument II seerns to be strong. The Constitution of India envisages the policy of welfare State and therefore, weaker sections of society should be given certain concessions. 11.(1) Only argument I seerns to be strong. The use of term 'only' in the argument II makes it invalid. 12.(1) Only argument I seerns to be strong. Pollution is a great menace to the society and its environment. 13.(1) Only argument I seerns to be strong. Uniformity in syllabus can be maintained by adopting suitable measures. 14.(2) Only argument II is strong. 15,(4) Neither of the arguments seems to be strong. 16.(1) The problem of beggars cannot be solved by sending them to villages. Therefore, argument I seems to be strong. 17.(1) Murder is a heinous crime and it should be discouraged earnestly. Severity of punishment may bring some desirable results. 18.(4) Neither of the arguments seems to be strong. The use of term 'only' in the argument I makes it invalid. 19.(4) Neither of the arguments seems to be strong. 20.(1) Only argument I is strong. The use of term only' in the argument II makes it invalid. 21.(1) Only argument I seems to be strong. The problem of brain-drain can be solved to some extent by this measure. 22.(4) Argument I is based on a precedent or an example. We know that citing example or describing precedent is bad argumentation. 23.(2) Only argument 11 seems to be strong. The use of term only' in the argument I makes it invalid. 24.(1) Only argument I seems to be strong. Labour certainly affects productivity. Argument II is based on an example and hence it may not be strong. 25.(2) Only argument II seems to be strong.