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  • This report presents an overview of ongoing and planned information and communications technology (ICT) initiatives in Nigeria. It has been compiled through online research.
  • the largest national population on the African continent and the largest group of  people on earth. This population is made up of about 250 pure ethnic groups
  • There also exist other ethnic groups' languages such as Efik, Ijaw, and Kanuri languages and over 374 dialects within the ethnic groups.
  • The Nigerian coat of arms features an eagle mounted on a black shield, which is trisected by two silvery wavy bands. Two white chargers support the shield, and at its base is a wreath of coctus spectabilis flowers cast in the national colors of white and green. The black shield represents the fertile soil while the silvery bands denote the Rivers Niger and Benue, which form the main inland waterways in the country. The coctus spectabilis is a colorful flower, which grows wildly in Nigeria. The eagle stands for strength and the chargers symbolize dignity. The Nation’s motto, 'Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress' is inscribed at the base of the coat of Arms
  • Description: The Nigerian National Flag is divided vertically into three equal parts. The central part is white and the two other parts are green. The green of the flag represents agriculture and the white Unity and Peace. The white is immaculate white and the emerald green is popularly known as the Nigerian Green.
  • Since it launched its services on August 29, 2003, Glo Mobile has been at the forefront of revolutionary changes in the GSM sector in Nigeria, offering both Prepaid and Contract packages along with a range of Value Added Services.
  • Only two vendors were involved under phase one of the Project.
  • Phase two of the Project is on-going.
  • E-Banking is already in operation

Nigeria briefing Nigeria briefing Presentation Transcript

  • Table of Content
    • Nigeria Briefing
    • Present State of Info-Communication in Nigeria
    • Trend of Info-Communication in Nigeria
    • Conclusion
  • 1.0 Nigeria Briefing Country Name In 1914 the Protectorates of Southern Federal Republic of Nigeria and Northern Nigeria were amalgamated with the Colony (Lagos) by Lord Lugard to form what is now known as Nigeria. officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Federal Republic of Nigeria
    • Independence from the United Kingdom 
    • - Declared and recognized October 1, 1960  
    • - Republic declared October 1, 1963
    • federal constitutional republic comprising of:
    • -thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory
    • -Local Government Areas: 774
  • Thirty-six States and one Federal Capital Territory
  • Location
    • Nigeria is situated in the West African sub region and lies between longitudes 30 0 and 140 0 and latitudes 40 0 and 140 0 .
    • It is bounded on the West by the Republic of Benin on the North by the Republic of Niger and on the East by the Federal Republic of Cameroun . On the North-East border is lake Chad while also extends into the Republic of Niger and Chad and touches the Northernmost part of the Republic of Cameroun. On the South, the Nigerian coast- line is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Location of Nigeria in Africa
  • Nigeria' Land Area
    • It has a landmass of 923,768 sq. km. It is bordered to the north by the Republics of Niger and Chad and to the west with the Republic of Benin. It shares the eastern borders with the Republic of Cameroon right down to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean forming the southern limits of the Nigerian Territory . About 800km of coastline confers on the country the potentials of a maritime power. Arable land is in abundance in Nigeria for agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.
  • International Boundary
  • Population
    • - Nigeria is famous for her huge population of about 140 million people
    •   Density: 145/km² 
    • 374/sq mi
    • GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate 
    • - Total $191.4 billion
    • Per Capita  $1,500 
    • Gini   (2003)43.7 
    • HDI   (2007)▲ 0.470  
  • Population density in Nigeria
  • Climate
    • Although Nigeria is wholly within the tropics, its climate varies from the tropical at the coast to sub-tropical further inland. There are two marked seasons: The rainy season lasting from April to October and the dry season from November to March. The maximum temperature in the coastal areas of the south can go up to 37°c while the absolute minimum temperature is 10°. The climate is drier further north where extremes of temperature range from 45° to 06° are common.
  • Language
    • The official language is English. There are 3 main indigenous languages spoken by the 3 predominant ethnic groups in Nigeria. These are
    • Yorubas in the west,
    • Hausa-Fulani in the North
    • and the Igbos in the East.
  • The Resources
    • Nigeria , in addition to her huge population, is endowed with significant agricultural, mineral, marine and forest resources. Her multiple vegetation zones, plentiful rain, surface and underground water resources and moderate climatic extremes, allow for production of diverse food and cash crops. Over 60 per cent of the population is involved in the production of the food crops such as cassava, maize, rice, yams, various beans and legumes, soya, sorghum, ginger, onions, tomatoes, melons and vegetable. The main cash crops are cocoa, cotton, groundnuts, oil palm and rubber. Extractions from these for export and local industrial use include cocoa flour and butter, rubber crumb, vegetable oil, cotton fibre and yarn. The rain forests have been well exploited for timber and wood products of exotic and popular species. Oil and Gas, by value, are the most important minerals. They are exploited and produced in the Niger Delta basin and offshore on the continental shelf and in the deep-sea of the territorial waters. Nevertheless, there are significant non-oil mineral deposits on land many of which have been identified and evaluated: coal, bitumen, iron ore, gypsum, kaolin, phosphates, limestone, marble, columbite, baryte and gold.
  • The Nigerian Currency
    • The currency is expressed in Naira (N) and kobo (K).
    • 100K equal One Naira (N1).
    • The currency denominations are in N5, N10, N20, N50, N100, N200, N500 and N1000.
  • National Identity
    • The National Anthem
    • The National Pledge
    • Motto: Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress
  • Government -Presidential Federal Republic Dr Goodluck Jonathan, Vice President Umaru Yar’Adua Nigeria President
  • Economy of Nigeria
    • The country is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is one of the fastest growing in the world with the International Monetary Fund projecting growth of 9% in 2008 and 8.3% in 2009.
  • Foreign Trade
    • Exports are dominated by oil: the trade surplus is estimated at US$23.6bn in 2007. Since oil prices are forecast to remain relatively high against a background of rising production, substantial trade surpluses are forecast for 2007-11.
  • Nigerian Oil and Gas Infrastructure
  • 2.0 Present State of Info-Communication in Nigeria
    • National Carrier
    • The Incumbent National Carrier – NITEL
    • NITEL is the premier telecommunications company in Nigeria.
    • Incorporated in 1985 after it was broken out of the Postal & Telegraph department (P & T)
    • It was sole national phone provider until deregulation began in 1992.
    • The Second National Carrier - Globacom Limited
    • This wholly-owned Nigerian company was named as the second national operator with basket of licences, among which are:
    • Fixed line phone;
    • Mobile;
    • International gateway services
    • Globacom - Network size & Installations
    • In August 2004, Globacom deployed a 2.5G GPRS network supporting both voice and high-speed data transmission.
    • Globacom has lay a 2,800 fiber optic national backbone to provide broadband access and reliable voice and data transmission
    • The operation is backed by four state-of-the-art gateways in Nigeria located in Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt.
    • in line with its commitment to avail Nigerians the benefits of advances made in telecommunications technology, Globacom has launched the 3G Plus network
    • This followed a successful test-run of the platform by telecom vendors Alcatel.
    • Glo Mobile subscriber figure
    • The subscriber figure at the moment stands at over 13 million with coverage extending to over 40,000 cities, towns, communities and major roads, thus making the company the second largest operator in Nigeria.
  • Other Mobile Telephone Operators
    • MTN Nigeria Communication Limited
    • Network Information
    • Operator Name: MTN Nigeria Communications Limited
    • Network Name: MTN Nigeria
    • Technology: GSM 900/1800
    • Network Status: Live August 2001
    • Web Site: www.mtnonline.com
  • Coverage quality (high/variable):        GSM 900/1800 Coverage Map   MTN Coverage Map  
  • MTN Transmission Backbone
    • MTN commission its own backbone network in January 2003, was called Y’hellobahn
    • The $120m microwave transmission backbone spans some 3,400km, and traverses 120 towns.
    • Celtel Nigeria Ltd
    • Network Information
    • Operator Name: Celtel Nigeria Ltd
    • Network Name: Celtel Nigeria
    • Technology: GSM 900/1800
    • Network Status: Live August 2001
    • Web Site: www.ng.celtel.com
    • Nigerian Mobile Telecommunications Limited (M-TEL)
    • Network Information
    • Operator Name: Nigerian Mobile Telecommunications Limited (M-TEL)
    • Network Name: Mtel
    • Technology: GSM 900/1800
    • Network Status: Live October 2001
    • Web Site: www.mtelnigeria.com
    • M-TEL Coverage Map  
    Coverage quality (high/variable):        GSM 900/1800
  • Resolving the Telecommunications Interconnectivity Battle in Nigeria
  • Intercellular Nigeria Limited
    • Intercllular was incorporated inDecember 1992.
    • It began operations in January 1998 rendering limited Mobile and fixed wireless services.
  • Starcomms Limited
    • The firm commenced network operations in 1998
    • Starcomms provides pre-paid voice and data services
    • The company uses CDMA technology which provides high quality voice and 3G-type telecoms services to its customers
  • 21 st Century Technologies Limited
    • 21 st Century is a pioneer fibre optic based private telephone company
    • The company’s main services are high-speed internet access as well as voice provisioning
  • VGC Communications Limited
    • Its servies include:
    • -FWA
    • -ISP
    • -DSL
  • MTS First Wireless
    • On 8 August 2004, MTS 1st Wireless officially launched commercial services following the deployment of its state-of-the-art infrastructure for nationwide wireless telephony services, national long distance communication carrier services, international data gateway services and Internet services provision
    • MTS is using CDMA 2000 1X technology
  • Prestel
    • It is one of PTOs licensed by NCC to Provide Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) in 3.5GHz band
    • In 2004, the company deployed CDMA 2000 1x
  • Peace Global Satellite Communications Limited
    • The company provides wireline telephone services
    • Peace Globa Satellite offers:
    • -Peace talk;
    • -Peace connect;
    • -And peace Access
    • The edge that peace talk wireline has over other services hinges on the fact that all the cabinets or cross connection points (CCP) are linked to the telephone exchange via the concrete underground duct.
  • Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) Operators
    • Below is a run-down of some of operators that commenced operations in 2003 and 2004, using the 3.5GHz frequency
    • -RainBownet
    • Rainbownet deployed a Synchronouses code Division Multiple Access (S-CDMA)
    • -Odua Telecom Limited (Oduatel)
    • -Startech Connections Limited
    • -Xs Broadband
    • -Swift Networks
  • VSAT Service Providers
    • Accelon (Nigeria) Limited
    • Koochi Communications
    • MWeb Nigeria LtD
    • Linkserve
    • VDT Communication Limited
  • Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
    • In 2002, census showed 420,000 Internet users with over 1,030 ISPs. As a result of the Nigerian governments haste to provide a computer-for-all and technology education, the community at-large is aware of the Internet. The Internet Service Providers are as follows:
    • Trumpet Internet Television (TITV ):
    • The company commenced operations in September 2004, by launch of direct-to-home high speed Internet services as well as a bouquet of television channels via satellite.
  • (ISPs)
    • Frontage Satellite Services (FSTV):
    • FSTV launched mid-2004, offers 20 satellite channels accessible by prepaid subscriptions using a novel pay-as-you go scratch card system.
    • And others
  • CDMA2000 1x RTT Starcomms Nigeria Ltd Starcomms CDMA2000 1 Reliance Telecommunications Limited Reltel Nigeria GSM 900 / 1800/ GPRS Nigerian Telecommunications Limited MTel Nigeria CDMA2000 1X Multi-links Telecommunications Ltd Multi-Links CDMA2000 1x MTS First Wireless MTS 1st Wireless GSM 900 / 1800/ GPRS MTN Communications Nigeria Limited MTN Nigeria (mtn4u) CDMA2000 1X Intercellular Nigeria Ltd. Intercellular GSM 900 / 1800/ GPRS Globacom Nigeria Limited (not Globalcom ) glo mobile ( glomobile nigeria ) GSM 900/ 1800 / GPRS Celtel International Celtel Nigeria (formerly Vmobile Nigeria) Technology Name of operator Network name Mobile / Cellular / Wireless Phone Network(s) in Nigeria
  • Equipment Suppliers & Vendors
    • Ericsson Nigeria;
    • Siemens Nigeria;
    • Accat Nigeria;
    • ZTE Corporation;
    • Huawei Technologies;
    • Motorola Nigeria Limited;
    • Alcatel Shangai Bell (ASB/CMEC);
    • FiberHome;
  • 3.0 Trend of Info-Communication In Nigeria
    • - By mid 2001, Nigeria had only about 400,000 connected telephone lines and just 25,000 analogue mobile lines. Total teledensity stood at a paltry 0.4 lines per 100 inhabitants. Connection costs were prohibitively high and waiting time for fixed lines ran into years. Mobile phone usage was only available and affordable to just a privileged few
    • Today, owing to several factors including:
    • government sector reform policy,
    • a stable regulatory regime,
    • the worldwide trend of rapid development in telecommunications and information technology
    • and the huge potential of the Nigerian market,
    • the story is now very different. Over the years, the NCC has licensed Digital mobile operators, Fixed wireless Access Operators, Long Distance Operators, Internet Service Providers, a National Carrier and Unified services operators; to promote competition in all segments of the market.
    • This open market approach has promoted rapid deployment of ICT services nationwide, resulting in exponential growth in the number of telephone lines
    • Open market approach has promoted rapid deployment of ICT services nationwide,
    • resulting in exponential growth in the number of telephone lines
    • In the four decades between independence in 1960 and end of 2000, connected lines only grew at an average of 10,000 lines per annum, seven years from 2001 to 2008, an average growth rate of 6 million lines per annum was attained.
    • As of end of March 2008, Nigeria had attained 45.9 million of (fixed & mobile) active subscriber base. Total teledensity which was less than 0.4% (0.4 lines per 100
    • inhabitants) in 2000 soared to 32.8% by end of March 2007 (using the current population figure of 140 million). The active-subscriber figure is estimated to exceed 55 million by
    • end of December 2008.
  • TABLE 1: TELECOMS SUBSCRIBER INFORMATION (YEAR 2001-MARCH,  2008) [1] Teledensity was calculated based on population estimate of 126million people up till Dec 2005; from Dec 2006, Teledensity was based on a       population estimate of 140m. [2] Teledensity from  December 2007 was based on active subscribers     32.79 31.67 30.65 [2] 29.98 24.18 16.27 8.50 3.35 1.89 0.73 [1] Teledensity   88,471,789 86,841,789 84,698,559 84,663,611 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Total 5,676,481 5,576,481 5,633,251 6,578,303 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Fixed Wired/ Wireless 3,170,000 3,720,000 1,520,000 1,540,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mobile (CDMA) 79,625,308 77,545,308 77,545,308 76,545,308 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mobile (GSM) Installed Capacity 45,899,711 44,338,032 42,915,867 41,975,275 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Total 1,545,984 1,430,616 1,453,566 1,579,664 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Fixed Wired/ Wireless 567,185 424,325 413,198 384,315 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mobile (CDMA) 43,786,542 42,483,091 41,049,103 40,011,296 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mobile (GSM) Active Lines 60,941,343 60,840,633 59,568,302 57,687,544 33,858,022 19,519,154 10,201,728 4,021,945 2,271,050 866,782 Total 2,537,504 2,417,705 2,454,443 2,449,019 1,673,161 1,223,258 1,027,519 872,473 702,000 600,321 Fixed Wired/ Wireless 780,938 702,146 621,604 824,741 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mobile (CDMA) 57,622,901 57,720,782 56,492,255 54,413,784 32,184,861 18,295,896 9,174,209 3,149,472 1,569,050 266,461 Mobile (GSM) Connected Lines Mar-08 Feb-08 Jan-08 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 OPERATOR  
  • Destination and Basic Policy
    • Nigeria can say with all sense of humility that much progress has been achieved in the ICT industry since the World Radio communication Conference 2003(WRC-03) held in this very same place.  Nigeria’s achievements have been acknowledged globally within the industry. Briefly:
  • Basic Policy
    • Nigeria has put in place a National Communications Act 2003 that has given legal backing for a strong, Independent Regulator for the Telecommunication Industry;
    • A Frequency Management Council, also legally backed and which includes key stakeholders in frequency spectrum utilization has been put in place. This Council has developed a Frequency Spectrum Management Policy with necessary Regulations for the country;
    • An Investor friendly environment has been established such that the investment to the industry has grown
  • Basic Policy
    • A disaster monitoring satellite as well as a communication satellite have been launched;
    • A National Information, Communication and Education Project (NICEP) has also been embarked upon;
    • Nigeria has embarked on a  comprehensive Rural Telephony Scheme to ensure that the underserved and unreached areas are included in the information society;
  • Basic Policy
    • key regulatory bodies of ICT in Nigeria
    • -Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC)
    • -National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA),
    • -National Broadcasting Commission (NBC).
  • Technology and Emerging Trends In Nigeria
    • There are over 140 million people in Nigeria. 70 to 80% of the Nigerian people reside in the rural areas, where connected telephone lines are limited and expensive to install. The youths of Nigeria have no exposure to computers, video games and the Internet.
  • Network Society
    • In an effort to address the “Digital Divide” and the widespread technology issues, various organizations have been formed to address these issues. Such organizations focus on technology, education, security, policies and many other technology related subjects. Some of the online organizations are:
  • Network Society
    • Nigerian Information Technology Professionals in America
    • National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA)
    • OAN - Computer Association of Nigeria
    • ITAN - IT Association of Nigeria
    • TWB - Teachers Without Borders
    • NACOSS - Nigerian Association of Computer Science Students
  • ICT Initiatives
    • Broadband infrastructure:
    • One of the major constraints to the growth of rural telephony and internet connectivity has been the absence of roadband backbone infrastructure. This is one of the issues that is already being addressed through the setting up of Galaxy Backbone, a company owned by the Nigerian government. A deployment of 2,000 VSATs (satellite terminals) across Nigeria is planned. This will offer access to remote, underserved locations,
  • ICT Initiatives
    • Computers for All Nigerians Initiative (CANI):
    • The aim of this initiative is to improve Nigerians’ access to computer hardware. It includes a funding mechanism whereby civil servants will be able to purchase computers and pay back the loan at a low rate of interest. Launched in July 2006, CANI is a typical example of a public-private partnership. It is being coordinated by NITDA and involves Microsoft, Zinox and Omatek
  • ICT Initiatives
    • Universities Bandwidth Consortium:
    • This is a pilot programme in which six of the nation’s universities are able to bulk purchase bandwidth for academic purposes. The scheme holds promise
    • for the over 600 higher education facilities in Nigeria.
  • ICT Initiatives
    • National Rural Telephony Project (NRTP):
    • - The NRTP was expected to provide 500,000 connected lines to 343 local governments in Nigeria within one year
    • - In 2003, the federal government accessed credit from the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA), and a part of the funds obtained was to be set aside to improve national teledensity, as well as to step
    • up telecommunication penetration in rural areas.
    • - The government also signed a memorandum of understanding with the Peoples’ Republic of China, supported by a concessionary loan
  • School's Access to ICT
    • In the early 1960s, IBM introduced IT Education to Nigeria by providing assistance in setting up computer centers in the five Universities in Nigeria. This introduction of IT Education led to the growth in ample research and development, grants and IT educated students.
    • The IT Education initiative and growth spanned 20 years, until Nigeria became under the military governance. As a result, funding resources declined and as did the presence of IT Education within the educational system.
  • School's Access to ICT
    • By the mid 1980s, Nigeria appeared to be stuck in perpetual state of IT literacy.
    • In 2003, the ‘State of IT Education' in Nigeria was almost non-existent. Approximately 30 or less Nigerian Universities and Community College like schools have IT related curriculums.
    • Other educational levels, such as high school and elementary IT Education do not exist. Nigerian students have no exposure to the IT related subjects. It is reported that the IT literacy is below 20%.
  • School's Access to ICT
    • Recognizing the deficiency in IT Education in the Nigerian educational system, some of the funding resources returned and private donors began to contribute funds for development of virtual libraries. As a result, a major movement was pushed by the Nigerian government to invest and incorporate IT Education into the educational system
  • School's Access to ICT
    • A study of Internet usage was done at Obafemi Awolowu University. The study involved in taking a poll and survey of 100 students on the availability and access to the Internet. The survey netted 73 responses on Internet Access within and surrounding community of the University. The following table details the number and percentage of accessibility in the various locations.:
    • Enhancing Education with Information Communication Technology
    • Enhancing Education with ICT was introduced in the above section (Schools' Access to ICTs), because of the severe absence of ICT in the educational system in Nigeria. The absences of IT Education also meant little or no computer equipment in the classrooms. Supercomputers, mainframes and PCs were mostly present in corporations and universities.
    • In the later part of 2002, the Nigerian Jigawa Sate government appropriated “N18 million for the establishment of Internet cafes and the improvement of its information institute to boost the study of computer science in the state.”
    100% 73 100% 73 100% 73 100% 73 100% 73 Total 45.2% 33 15.1% 11 8.2% 6 21.9% 16 9.6% 7 1 54.8% 40 84.9% 62 98.1% 67 78.1% 57 90.4% 66 0 % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count   Cyber cafés Computer Building H.O. Library Departmental Office Personal Office Group
  • Digital Bridge Institute Nigeria
    • DBI was Founded early in 2004 to train needed personnel, future leaders and innovators for Nigeria in the field of ICT, the DBI serves a diverse student body.
    •   The DIGITAL BRIDGE INSTITUTE has been founded to drive the national effort in workforce capacity building in Telecommunication and ICT vertical marketplace or industry.  Pursuant to this mandate, the DIGITAL BRIDGE INSTITUTE has designed a broad range of cutting-edge academic ...
  • The Cyberschuul
    • THE CYBERSCHUUL commenced professional training in telecommunications and IT on January 7, 2001 and by December 2007 has certified 1,354 individual professionals in various subjects
    • It secured the endorsement of the Nigerian Society of Engineers for its certificates in 2005
    • CYBERSCHUUL’s Training Programs split into 2 major areas, namely:
    • -Telecommunications Training,
    • -and Information and Communication Technology, ICT, Training
  • A practical Case - National Rural Telephony Programme (NRTP )
    • The Federal Government of Nigeria through the Ministry of Communications (MOC) in year 2001 embarked on a programme to extend telecommunications facilities and services to rural communities in Nigeria .
    • The aim is to accelerate socio-economic development in all the 774 Local Government Areas and consequently, reduce the huge gap existing between the rural and urban areas.
  • Implementation/ Technology Adopted
    • The NRTP is being implemented by three renowned equipment vendors namely:
    • Huawei Technologies Limited;
    • ZTE Corporation;
    • Alcatel Shanghai Bell and China National Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Corporation (ASB/CMEC)
    • The project is being executed in three phases with details as follows:
    • Phase one of the NRTP
    • - Alcatel Shaghai Bell (ASB/CMEC):
    • Technology deployed : Fixed Wireline;
    • 55,296 Subscribers lines plus 25,920 Trunk lines.
    • - ZTE Corporation:
    • Technology deployed : Fixed Wireless;
    • 94,930 Voice plus 47,300 Data and 4,730PTT Subscribers.
    • Phase two of the NRTP
    • All three vendor deployed Fixed Wireless-CDMA2000-1x EVDO
    • - Alcatel Shaghai Bell (ASB/CMEC):
    • Network Capacity: 200,000 Subscribers
    • - ZTE Corporation:
    • Network Capacity: 238,000 Subscribers
    • - Huawei Technologies:
    • Network Capacity: 200,000 Subscribers
    • Phase Three of the NRTP
    • This is yet to commence.
  • Funding of NRTP Project
    • The project is being funded by the Federal Government through a concessionary loan from the People’s Republic of China.
  • Future Outlook
    • Upgrading Network to Support ICT for:
    • E-Posting;
    • E-Medical;
    • E-Government;
    • E-Banking;
    • E-Learning, etc
  • 4.0 Conclusion
    • The above are a few of the many programmes that have been initiated by Nigerian government to demonstrate our commitment to the development of the industry
    • Nigeria is committed to development of ICT, continues to grow from strength to strength and to provide an avenue for all.
    • Ernest C. A. Ndukwe, (2008): “Facilitate African Renaissances through communications Infrastructure Development”, from www.ncc.gov.ng
    • eShekels Limited, (2005): “Trends in Telecommunications Markets in Nigeria 2003 – 2004”; from www.ncc.gov.ng
    • NigeriaDirect, Available at www.nigeria.gov.ng
    • Federal Ministry of Information & Communications,(2006): ‘Presidential Initiative on the National Rural Telephony Programme(NRTP)
    • Mobolaji E. Aluko : ‘ Resolving the Telecommunications Interconnectivity Battle in Nigeria’ ; From http://www.jidaw.com/itsolutions/telecomm1