Hull's Theory of Learning


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Drive Reduction Theory

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  • We do things to arouse our curiosity and to increase or decrease arousal (like watching a scary or sexual movie). OBJECTIVE 34-3 | Explain how drive-reduction theory views human motivation.
  • Hull's Theory of Learning

    1. 1. Presented by Rathi K. N. M Ed. I st Sem (2010-11) N. S. S. Training College Ottapalam HULL'S THEORY A Seminar on
    2. 2. Learning Theory <ul><li>Behaviorist Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Hull </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Bruner </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura </li></ul>
    3. 3. Clark Leonard Hull <ul><li>Born 24 May 1884-NewYork </li></ul><ul><li>Died 10 May 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality American </li></ul><ul><li>Fields psychologist </li></ul>
    4. 4. Basic concepts in Hull’s theory <ul><li>Need - Physiological imbalances. </li></ul><ul><li>Drive- state of tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement- Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and secondary. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal- commodity which reduce drive. </li></ul><ul><li>Need Drive Activity Goal Reduced Drive </li></ul>
    5. 5. Drive-Reduction Theory <ul><li>When the instinct theory of motivation failed it was replaced by drive-reduction theory. Physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need </li></ul><ul><li>(Hull, 1951). </li></ul>
    6. 6. Drive Reduction Food Drive Reduction Organism Physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis – maintenance of steady internal state, e.g., maintenance of steady body temperature. Stomach Full Empty Stomach (Food Deprived)
    7. 7. Clark L Hull Drive Reduction Theory
    8. 8. Symbolism in Hull’s theory <ul><li>Unlearned behaviour ( S U R ) </li></ul><ul><li>Habit Strength ( S H R ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive Inhibition (I R ) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Inhibition ( S I R ) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective reaction potential ( S E R ) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Hull’s System (1943)
    10. 10. MAJOR THEORETICAL CONCEPTS <ul><li>Book - “Principles of Behaviour” (1943) </li></ul><ul><li>16 Postulates </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Equation on Human Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Book – “A Behaviour system” (1952) </li></ul>
    11. 11. POSTULATE 1: <ul><li>Sensing the external environment and the stimulus trace. </li></ul><ul><li>S- s-r- R </li></ul><ul><li>S-External situation </li></ul><ul><li>s-Internal stimulus trace </li></ul><ul><li>R-External response </li></ul><ul><li>r-Response tendency </li></ul>
    12. 12. POSTULATE 2: <ul><li>The interaction of sensory impulses. </li></ul>
    13. 13. POSTULATE 3: <ul><li>Unlearned behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>E=( S U R ) *D </li></ul><ul><li>E-Excitatory potential </li></ul><ul><li>S U R -Unlearned behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>D-Drive </li></ul>
    14. 14. POSTULATE 4: <ul><li>Contiguity and drive reduction as necessary conditions for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>With out drive there could be no response. </li></ul><ul><li>Drive is treated as primary reinforcement. </li></ul>
    15. 15. POSTULATE 5: <ul><li>Stimulus generalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized habit - prior experience affects current learning </li></ul>
    16. 16. POSTULATE 6: <ul><li>Stimuli associated with drives. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Need arises drive and each drive is associated with specific stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: D- Thirst and </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli-Dryness of mouth </li></ul>
    17. 17. POSTULATE 7: <ul><li>Reaction potential as a function of drive and habit strength . </li></ul><ul><li>S E R = S H R * D </li></ul><ul><li>S E R = Reaction potential </li></ul><ul><li>S H R - Habit strength </li></ul><ul><li>D- Drive </li></ul>
    18. 18. REACTION POTENTIAL (1952) <ul><li>S E R = S H R * D*V*K </li></ul><ul><li>S E R = Reaction potential </li></ul><ul><li>S H R - Habit strength </li></ul><ul><li>D- Drive </li></ul><ul><li>V- Stimulus intensity </li></ul><ul><li>K- Incentive </li></ul>
    19. 19. POSTULATE 8: <ul><li>Responding causes fatigue, which operates against the elicitation of a conditioned response . </li></ul><ul><li>I R -Reaction inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>This concept explains the spontaneous recovery of a conditioned response after extinction </li></ul>
    20. 20. POSTULATE 9: <ul><li>The learned response of not responding </li></ul><ul><li>S E R = Reaction Potential - (I R + S I R ) </li></ul>S E R -Effective reaction potential I R -Reactive inhibition S I R - Conditioned inhibition
    21. 21. POSTULATE 10: <ul><li>Factors tending to inhibit a learned response change from moment to moment. </li></ul><ul><li>Oscillation effect </li></ul><ul><li>S E R = [ Reaction potential -(I R + S I R )]- S O R </li></ul><ul><li>S O R =Oscillation of inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>S E R –Momentary effective reaction potential </li></ul>
    22. 22. POSTULATE 11: <ul><li>Reaction threshold . </li></ul><ul><li>Momentary effective reaction potential must exceed a certain value before a learned response can occur. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>S E R > ( S L R ). </li></ul><ul><li>S L R - Learned response </li></ul>
    23. 23. POSTULATE 12: <ul><li>Response probability (p) </li></ul><ul><li>p=f (SER:SOR) </li></ul><ul><li>p-Response probability </li></ul><ul><li>S E R - Momentary effective reaction potential </li></ul><ul><li>S O R - Oscillation effect </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction potential will be very close to Reaction threshold. </li></ul>
    24. 24. POSTULATE 13: <ul><li>Response latency </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the value of the momentary effective reaction potential the shorter the latency will be the latency between S and R. </li></ul><ul><li>Latency ( S T R ) – time between the presentation of a stimulus to the organism and its learned response </li></ul>
    25. 25. POSTULATE 14: <ul><li>Resistance to extinction (n) </li></ul><ul><li>The value of the momentary effective reaction potential will determine resistance to extinction. </li></ul>
    26. 26. POSTULATE 15: <ul><li>Response amplitude (A) </li></ul><ul><li>The amplitude of a conditioned response varies directly with the momentary effective reaction potential. </li></ul>
    27. 27. POSTULATE 16: <ul><li>Choice </li></ul><ul><li>When two or more incompatible responses tend to be elicited in the same situation, the one with the greatest momentary effective reaction potential will occur. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Change from Drive Reduction to Drive Stimulus Reduction <ul><li>Hull’s original theory was a drive reduction theory but he modified this to a drive stimulus reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>He concluded that drive reduction was too far removed from the presentation of the reinforcer to explain how learning could take place. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced it with DRIVE STIMULI. </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Drive – an intense internal force that motivates behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is the result of several factors that determine the likelihood of a specific behavior occurring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive, D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive motivation (reward), K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habit strength (prior experience), H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibition (due to absence of reward), I </li></ul></ul>Hull’s Drive Theory - 1952
    31. 31. Hull’s Model
    32. 32. HULL’S FINAL SYSTEM SUMMARIZED <ul><li>There are three kinds of variables in hull’s theory: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Independent variables , which are stimulus events systematically manipulated by the experimenter. </li></ul><ul><li>W-amount of work S- stimulus intensy </li></ul><ul><li>N- no: of reinforcers M-Magnitude of reinforcement </li></ul>
    33. 33. HULL’S FINAL SYSTEM SUMMARIZED <ul><li>2. Intervening variables , which are processes thought to be taking place within the organism but are not directly observable. </li></ul><ul><li>Habit Strength – S H R </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive Inhibition-I R </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Inhibition- S I R </li></ul><ul><li>Effective reaction potential- S E R </li></ul>
    34. 34. HULL’S FINAL SYSTEM SUMMARIZED <ul><li>3. Dependent variables , which are some aspect of behaviour that is measured by the experimenter in order to determine whether the independent variables had any effect. </li></ul><ul><li>A-Amplitude of behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>S T R - Response latency </li></ul><ul><li>n-Number of trials to extinction </li></ul><ul><li>p-Response probability </li></ul>
    36. 36. Hull on Education Anxiety is a drive in human learning. Students who are mildly anxious are in the best position to learn and therefore are easiest to teach. Practice would be carefully distributed so that inhibition would not be built up. Drive : The learner must want something Cue : The learner must attend to something Response : The learner must do something Reinforcement : The learner's response must get him/her something he/she wants
    37. 37. Criticisms <ul><li>It was of little value in explaining behaviour beyond the laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>Insisted too much that all concepts of interest be operationally defined </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent predictions </li></ul>
    38. 38. References <ul><li>Theories of learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Gorden H. Bower and Ernest R. Hilgard </li></ul><ul><li>Advance Educational Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>- Dandapani and S.Santhanam </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking and learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Kincheoloe and Weil </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation theories and principles </li></ul><ul><li>- Robert C. Beck </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced educational Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>- S.K.Mangal </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced educational Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>- S.S. Chauhan </li></ul>
    39. 39. Thank You for coming along today THE END