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  • Prevalence of overweight children aged around 10 years % assigned from bar chart to nearest %-jB Jan 2007 Source: IOTF collated data (Overweight in children corresponding to BMI>25 at age 18 using IOTF assessment method – see Cole et al British Medical Journal 2000) http://www.iotf.org/media/eurobesity.pdf Levels of Cycling (Dft) National Cycling Strategy http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_susttravel/documents/pdf/dft_susttravel_pdf_503877.pdf
  • First - the big picture. Research across the world demonstrates a number of important constants in travel behaviour: Daily mobility - constant in time and place; not as complicated as it might seem; though of course distances and speeds are increasing Activities - more than a half of trips are for shopping and leisure, so if we want to change travel behaviour we need to focus on more than just the work journey; Spatial orientation - most travel choices made at home: best place for interventions to influence behaviour Despite increasing distances travelled, most travel is still local (more than two-thirds of trips are under five miles). In most towns and cities internationally car trips adhere to 10:30:50 rule

Sha sustrans presentation final Sha sustrans presentation final Presentation Transcript

  • Healthy and sustainable: whywalking and cycling are centralto public health policyPhilip InsallDirector, Active Travel, Sustrans
  • Transport policy has damaged publichealth • climate change emissions • local air pollution • obesity epidemic • road danger • difficulties of access • quality of life
  • Global climate change Climate change is also a public health issue 006, e in 2 n* eopl atio 000 p rganis 150, h O killed Healt h ange World ate c to theClim ing da ccor *www.who.int/globalchange/climate
  • Polluted urban air EU urban population exposed to air pollution above EC limits, %, 1999 ozone nitrogen oxides PM10 particulates Source: European Environment Agency
  • Road casualties Europe, 2005: 41,000 dead 1.9 million injured The roads ARE dangerous
  • Inactive lifestyles • obesity • cardio-vascular disease • type II diabetes • many cancers • mental ill-health…. • cost over €15 billion in UK alone
  • Physical inactivity is a bigproblem“Besides the human costs of inactivity in terms ofmortality, morbidity and quality of life, the reporthighlighted an estimate for the cost of inactivity inEngland to be £8.2 billion annually. This excludes thecontribution of physical inactivity to overweight andobesity, whose overall cost might run to £6.6 - £7.4billion per year according to recent estimates.”Choosing Activity: a physical activity action plan (DH, 2005)
  • A worldwide epidemic of obesity We eat too We are not much, and active choose enough, unhealthy including in foods our travel choices
  • Who leads the world in obesity? Who do you think?….. the following slides are courtesy of theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention,USA…..
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1985 No Data <10% 10%–14%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1986 No Data <10% 10%–14%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1987 No Data <10% 10%–14%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1988 No Data <10% 10%–14%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1989 No Data <10% 10%–14%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1991 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1992 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1993 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1994 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1995 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1996 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1997 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%-24%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1998 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%-24%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1999 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%-24%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2000 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%-24%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2001 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%-24% 225%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2002 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%-24% 225%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2003 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%-24% 225%Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
  • Predicted UK growth in obesity-related disease by 2030From “Our health, our care, our say” white paper 60% +54% 50% 40% +28% 30% +18% 20% +12% 10% +5% 0% Stroke Angina Heart Attack Hypertension Type 2 diabetes Source: Living in Britain 2004: Results from the 2002 General Household Survey; National Food Survey 2000 Table B1
  • The UK obesity epidemic…..….. is explained by <1.5 kg per annum weight gain Source: Fox / Hillsdon presentation to UK government Foresight policy development programme on obesity
  • The UK obesity epidemic…..….. is explained by <1.5 kg per annum weight gainDistance walked per person per annum…..….. fell 110km over 20 years…..….. equivalent to 1kg of fat gain, per annum 600 500 400 300 200 100 Walk miles 0 C ar miles x 10 1975/6 1989/91 1995/7 Source: Fox / Hillsdon presentation to UK government Foresight policy development programme on obesity
  • We have made ourenvironments “obesogenic”
  • Prevalence of overweight children (IOTF 2002) 15% 16% 18% 15% 22% 10% 11% Switzerland Germany 2% Sweden UK Levels of cycling (DfT 1996)
  • Environments condition behaviourModification of social, economic, and environmentalfactors may yield greater health dividends thanindividual lifestyle approaches. Indeed suchinterventions may be necessary before individuallifestyle approaches can be effective. Lawlor et al, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
  • A cross-sector issueWith cross-sector solutions
  • Transport policy can now contribute tohealthy, low-carbon lifestyles
  • Restrain private motor traffic“we recommend that the government developsand strengthens requirements for LocalTransport Plans, such that by the end of 2008they can include statutory targets for reductionin urban traffic” Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution Report on the Urban Environment, 2007
  • Changes people can really make“For most people, the easiest and mostacceptable forms of physical activity are thosethat can be incorporated into everyday life.Examples include walking or cycling instead oftravelling by car….. At least five a week; the Chief Medical Officer’s report on physical activity, 2004
  • Urban transport and healthy living“Urban planners .…. need to integrate healthand active living considerations fully into theirwork…… transport officials can provide a balancedtransport system that enables residents towalk or cycle to shops, school and work.”Promoting physical activity and active living in urbanenvironments, World Health Organisation, 2006
  • Mobility….. or accessibility?
  • Mobility….. or accessibility?• Transport policy has prioritised mobility : the ability to travel – sometimes long distances
  • Mobility….. or accessibility?• Accessibility : access to the goods and services people need• the ideal is maximum accessibility with minimum mobility
  • Potential for changeAnalysis of travel behaviour shows verysignificant potential for change to moreactive modes
  • Constants in travel behaviour On average, people make three trips per day, Daily mobility spending one hour travelling Activities Only one in five trips is work-relatedSpatial orientation Five out of six trips begin or end at home 10% are not further than 1km, 30% are not further Car trips than 3km and 50% are not further than 5km
  • Potential for changeWhat scale of travel behaviour changeis possible?
  • Potential for sustainable travel modes% trips per person: Sustainable Travel Demonstration Towns Circumstances enforce car use Actual usage (walking, bicycle, 9 public transport) 35
  • Potential for sustainable travel modes% trips per person: Sustainable Travel Demonstration Towns Circumstances enforce car use Actual usage (walking, bicycle, No adequate 9 public transport) alternative 35 27
  • Potential for sustainable travel modes% trips per person: Sustainable Travel Demonstration Towns Circumstances enforce car use Actual usage (walking, bicycle, No adequate 9 public transport) alternative 35 27 29 Only subjective reasons against STM
  • Potential for sustainable travel modeswithout significant environmental modification Environmental factors “enforce” private motorised modes 36 64 Immediate potential for walking, cycling & public transport
  • Potential for sustainable travel modeswith environmental intervention Motorised private modes 25 l… ..” rad ica alis tic, u nre 75 tic, Walking, cycling & alis public transport “Id e
  • Idealistic, unrealistic, radical?
  • Mode choice in Basel, Switzerland% trips per person Motorised private modes 25 75 Walking, cycling & public transport
  • Examples of interventionWhat should we do to make urbantransport systems better?
  • Re-allocate road space Take space from motor traffic and return it to walking and cycling Bristol, UK
  • Keep motortraffic outWien, Austria
  • Design for healthy, Nordrhein-Westfalen, sustainable travel Germany• Target: cycling up from 12 to 25% of urban trips• Investment: €1.4 billion, 1978 - 2006• Some cities now achieve 35% of trips by bike
  • Significant,incremental,long-termLondonCongestionCharge
  • Show leadership
  • Case study: Odense
  • Odense – Denmark’s “cycling city”• 185,000 citizens (typical Scandinavian city)• multi-year programme – main intervention 1999 – 2002• central government funding at €11 per capita per annum• main focus on cycling• very wide range of measures• physical measures – bus and cycle priority• promotion and marketing – many initiatives• monitoring
  • Odense – results (1999 – 2002) • cycling up 20%, still growing • car traffic down 15% • shift to shorter local journeys • increase in walking • public transport travel fell too • improved road safety • raised physical activity levels • significant reduction in cost of ill-health • Odense continues to innovate…..
  • Case study: National Cycle Network
  • Composition of the Network Traffic-calmed urban roads
  • Composition of the Network Quiet rural roads and lanes
  • Composition of the Network Traffic-free greenways (30% of total)
  • Designed for multiple trip purposesleisure and recreation…
  • …shopping and personal business...
  • …commuting to work...
  • …school travel
  • … attractive traffic-freeroutes...
  • …without gaps orobstacles...
  • …with iconic,memorable structures...
  • Art and the travelling landscape
  • Development of the Network
  • National Cycle Network1995: plans for 2,500 miles (4,000km)
  • National Cycle Network5,000 miles (8,000km) open in 2000
  • National Cycle Network10,000 miles (16,000km) in 2005
  • ….. and construction continues…..
  • The National Cycle Network: changingpeople’s travel behaviour • 338 million active trips in 2006 • 50:50 walking and cycling • 91 million replaced a car trip • 78% “more active thanks to the Network” • focused on deprived neighbourhoods • used for all trip purposes
  • Walking and cycling investment isexcellent value for money cost : benefit analysis of three UK construction projects • average benefit : cost ratio 20:1 • motor transport projects, ratio 3:1 • many road transport projects have negative value