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Become what you eat health campaign

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This presentation is the result of René Mikkelsen and my work in the course, Health Campaigns. The goal with the campaign is to promote healthy eating in the United States (San Diego), and we chose a …

This presentation is the result of René Mikkelsen and my work in the course, Health Campaigns. The goal with the campaign is to promote healthy eating in the United States (San Diego), and we chose a positive perspective to ensure a high level of message reception


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  • We have decided to use the health belief model as a tool to explain why overweight and obesisty is a serious disease. It helps define the problem and reveal what can be the focus areas for at potential solution. Since there are so many people overweight and obese people in the U.S it can be argued that there is a high level of perceived barriers towards healthy eating.Moreover, it can be argued, that overweight and obesity have high susceptibility and severity. Our solution will therefore mainly be concerned with the benefits of healthy eating and cues to action, due to the statement provided by Sparks, 2008.
  • Why is the disease such a big problem in the U.S?(Professor Andersen, this slide will require that you ”play” the presentation to see the animations of the statistics)
  • This slide explains the side effects and diseases that may be a result of overweight and obesity
  • Explanation of model: The media plays a large role in the development of a gap between the individual’s real self and his/her ideal self. That gap may be reinforced by the social norms, which also are influenced the media’s depiction of e.g beauty. A large gap between ideal and real self will then lead to self-esteem issues, which most likely results in low self-efficacy.Thus creating a vicious circle for the individual.
  • We will use more than one research method to better understand the audience and the problem, and thereby develop a stronger message/solution. Pretest the focus areas of the campaign to identify the audience’s attitude and behavior towards healthy eating.
  • Pitfalls related to the quantitative and qualitative research.Acquiscience bias identified by the Implicit associations test.
  • Possible outcomes of the pretest
  • We want to reinforce the target audience’s behavior
  • By informing about healthy eating with a focus on benefits, cues to action, and barriers we may reach an attitude change. The attitude change is a change of cognition, which creates dissonance between attitude and behavior. This will then lead to an increased likelihood of changing behavior to match the new cognition.
  • This further explains slide 15.We will focus on the beliefs and and evaluation of the behavior in order to change the receiver’s behavior by affecting their attitude.
  • The components of the message, ”Become What U Eat!”. This slide explains why the chosen message components are intended to persuade the receiver and create desired associations to engage in healthy eating. Based on the theory from multimodal discourse analysis,
  • Offline activities to engage people online is an idea based on message design strategies, where we will try and increase exposure and repitition through mulitple channels
  • We want to create an event where two people dressed as a carrot and a burger compete on a race track. The carrot will win the race, which illustrates the idea behind ”Become what u eat” (healthy food is a winner, and fast-food is a loser)This will appeal to the opinions of referent other (theory of reasoned action) and the American cultural value of competition
  • Posters and brochures present the slogan, ”Become What U Eat!”.Posters and brochures are used to provide the audience with healthy eating benefits like, physical and mental performance in sport and school work, and give them cues to action, like small everyday changes and easy recipes
  • The campaign will also consist of online activities in the form of a facebook page. In order to give an idea of how we plan to create the page we have chosen to focus on the facebook page of ”Weight Watchers” – as this page have many similarities to want we intend our page should contain e.g. Recipies for healthy eating, the possibility for our users to upload their own material in the form of recipies and success stories of switching to a healthier lifestyle. However, our page should distinguish itself from the weight watchers page by attracting a younger segment
  • This slide explains the intention with our Facebook page content wise and the basic idea behind the site.
  • Facebook has a function that allows you to make a rather excat calculation of how big your potential reach can be with an advertisment on Facebook. By putting in the different demographics about our target audience, Facebook caltulates our potentioal reach to be 33,760 persons.
  • Facebook provides a tool to create relatively cheap and easy-made advertisements to reach the part of our target audience who are on Facebook, but perhaps have not participated in the offline activities. Thus, enabling us to reach a larger part of our target audience. The ad function on Facebook, allows you to set a budget of e.g. $100 and you will get promotion for that amount of money with e.g. pay pr. Click management. Pay pr. click management – different advertising options lets you advertise relatively cheap
  • Awareness = liking the facebook page
  • Facebook insights is another Facebook function, which allows you to control your campaign, and thereby be very specific in terms of reaching the goals of the campaign. Insights give you knowledge as a campaign planner about how your audience respond to content on your Facebook page and if you need to make any changes to the campaign.
  • We will focus on the positive aspects of healthy eating in order to avoid scaring people away – limit message and source reactance. This is why we have chosen to emphasize the benefits and cues to action, and inform about the low barriers regarding healthy eating.
  • Students beome opinion leadersCounter attitudinal advocacy is an element in cognitive dissonance theory
  • Transcript

    • 1. In cooperation withBy René Mikkelsen and Rasmus Hansen
    • 2. The disease “Obesity is the excessive accumulation of body fat resulting in a body mass index (BMI) that is significantly above the norm and is associated with increased risk of illness, disability, and death” Body mass index Underweight: BMI below 18.5 Normal weight: BMI 18.5-24.9 Overweight: BMI 25.0-29.9 Obese: BMI 30 and aboveCarson-DeWitt et al. 2011)
    • 3. Health Belief ModelProblemBarriers “The stronger the perceptions of severity,Susceptibility susceptibility, and benefits, and the weakerSeverity the perception of barriers, the greater theSolution likelihood that health-protective actions willCues to action be taken”.Benefits (Sparks, 2008)
    • 4. The disease - Susceptibility Growing problem in United States: ◦ 71 million people are obese (33 %) ◦ 300.000 deaths attributed to obesity Economic issue: ◦ Direct costs: preventive, diagnostic, and treatment ◦ Indirect: Lost resource ◦ morbidity (present) and mortality (future) ◦ Costs related to obesity - $147 billion (2008)http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/causes/index.html
    • 5. Barriers to overcoming obesity Post-industrialization ◦ Sedentary lifestyles: less physical work ◦ Technology Social inheritage ◦ Children of obese parents are 13 times more likely to become obese ◦ Fat cells are inherited (endomorphic) Society ◦ Advertisement of unhealthy foods ◦ Healthier foods are expensive and less available than unhealthy foods ◦ High level of inactive entertainment (TV, computer, etc.) ◦ Increased portion sizesCarson-DeWitt et al., 2011, Frith and Mueller, 2010
    • 6. SeverityHeart diseasesType 2 diabetesHigh blood pressureInfertilityCancer◦ Colon, breast, prostate and endometrial cancerPremature agingAlzheimer’s disease
    • 7. Formative researchWho is affected?◦ Adults◦ Children◦ Those with low resources (both financially and mentally)Preventing obesity◦ Healthy eating◦ Exercise◦ Limiting stress◦ Priorities (healthy food vs. snacks)
    • 8. What leads to obesity? Conceptualizing obesity Culture and economy (Globalization) ◦ Post-industrialization Societal effect on the individual ◦ Sedental lifestyles ◦ ”Faster, Bigger, Stronger” ◦ Convenience Media Social Self- ◦ Fast-food, too little time for... generated Low self- norms esteem ideal self efficacy (pressure) issues vs. real selfSolomon, 2010
    • 9. Overall communicative goalMain goal:◦ ”To help people become healthier”Sub-goals:◦ Inform young people about the benefits of healthy eating◦ Give them cues to how they can eat healthier
    • 10. Target groupDemographics:◦ 16-23 years of age◦ San Diego State University students ◦ Closeness and budget◦ San Diego (test area)◦ ”Rookies in a kitchen” ”Children of obese parents are about 13 times ◦ First time living by themselves more likely than other children to be obese” ( Carson-DeWitt et al., 2011)Why them?◦ Influential (developing identity) ◦ Identity search before achievement (Lustig and Koester 2010) ◦ Ideal self is attractive and healthy◦ Pass on the value of a healthy lifestyle ◦ To avoid limit overweight/obesity
    • 11. Research design – pretest focus areasTriangulation – to understand the audienceQuantitative research to identify a trend◦ Questionaire ◦ ”To which exent do you agree with the following statement?” ◦ No room for individual opion – easier to identify trend ◦ Provides statistics: ”How many value healthy meals over fast-food?”Qualitative research to explain the background of the trend ◦ Focus group – representatives of target audience ◦ Explain attitudes and habits regarding healthy food
    • 12. Pitfalls of research Social Desirability Bias ◦ Telling people what you think they want to hear Acquiscience bias ◦ It is easier to agree than disagree Mindfullness ◦ Not knowing your attitude Groupthink ◦ Conform to the values of the group (e.g focus group)Gass and Seiter, 2011
    • 13. Behavior and attitudeThe research might show:◦ Scenario 1: A healthy attitude and healthy behavior towards food ◦ Optimal◦ Scenario 2: A healthy attitude but unhealthy behavior towards food ◦ Elements of cognitive dissonance◦ Scenario 3: A unhealthy attitude and unhealthy behavior towards food ◦ Need for an attitude change in order to change behavior
    • 14. Scenario 1 - Healthy attitude and healthybehaviorConfirm their attitude and that their behavior is the disired oneCan be used as opinion leaders/ early adaptors to reach:◦ Early and late majorityProvide them with cues to (further) action
    • 15. Scenario 2 - Healthy attitude but unhealthybehavior◦ There may be dissonance between attitude and behavior◦ May view the dissonance as less important (”healthy eating is no big deal”)Campaign should emphazise:◦ Low barriers◦ Relative advantage◦ Cues to action◦ Simplicity◦ Compatibility
    • 16. Scenario 3 - Unhealthy attitude and unhealthybehaviorCreate cognitive dissonance by • Benefits, cues to action, and low Attitudeinforming about healthy eating change barriers of healthy eating • Change cognition Dissonance • ”Healthy eating prolongs your life” • Align cognition with behavior Behavior change • Think healthier  eat healthier
    • 17. Importance of attitude Dissonance
    • 18. Campaign message ”Become What U Eat!” Main verb (Become) induces action Personal transfer: ◦ From real self  ideal self ◦ Assumption: ”Who wants to be a big burger?” Imperative sentence structure ◦ Requiring the receiver to act Addressing the receiver directly ◦ Personal pronoun ”U” (you) Nutritive substance ◦ ”You are what you eat” -metaphorStillar, 1998
    • 19. Campaign materialsOffline activities are used to engage the target audience onlineOffline activities:◦ Create an event to generate buzz◦ Make posters to get awareness◦ Hand out brochures to inform and activate people◦ Inform about online activities
    • 20. Off-line activity - Example 1Event – based on how ideas flowTent with endorsers who provide information◦ E.g an Aztec athlete and a nutrition expert ◦ To prove the relative advantage of healthy eating◦ Chef cooking/serving healthy and tasty food ◦ Simplicity, observability and trialabilitySet up race track◦ Healthy food vs fast food (competants) ◦ Relative advantageSet up small competitions◦ trialability
    • 21. Offline activity – example 2 Switch from sugar coated cereals to e.g. oatmeal Eat a piece of fruit as a snack in between meals Endure challenges of life Gain mental strength
    • 22. Online activities The Facebook page
    • 23. Resemblance to Weight WatchersFacebook pageProvide information and cues toaction – recipes to engage in healthybehaviorReassure healthy behavior ◦ (e.g. after Thanksgiving it is hard to get back on track) KEY DIFFERENCE: Young segmentLet the users support themselves (students)(own success stories – engagement)
    • 24. Online activity - • Facebook ad function allows you to define a very Potential reach! specific target audience
    • 25. Facebook tool - Advertising on a budget
    • 26. Facebook-objectives Potential target audience: 33,760 students Short term 0bjective (6 months) - Aware of the campaign (Facebook page) = 40% =13504 students Medium term 0bjective (9 months) - To have an engaged user base = 10% =1350 students Long term 0bjective (1 year) - Loyal user base functioning as advocates  attracting new users = 5% = 67 studentsLi and Bernoff, 2010
    • 27. Control with Facebook insightsDo we reach our objectives or do weneed to make changes?
    • 28. Delivery – communication strategy Gain Frame – ”Do No Harm” ◦ Limit reactance ◦ Emphazise; benefits, cues to action and low barriers No use of fear appeals ◦ Avoid linking to unhealthy beahviors ◦ Boomerang effect ◦ Better reception when in a good moodLindstrøm, 2010
    • 29. Delivery – place and timeWhere:◦ San Diego State University ◦ Test area ◦ ClosenessWhen:◦ January through March ◦ New event each month ◦ New Year’s Resolution
    • 30. Delivery – Who helps us?Offline:◦ Educate students to increase word of mouth about healthy eating◦ Benefits: ◦ Similarity attraction - Avoid reactance ◦ Credibility - Goodwill and Trustworthiness ◦ Counter-attitudinal advocacy – advocates persuade themselves ◦ Referent powerOnline:◦ Facebook page ◦ Young segment ◦ Ability to share with friends
    • 31. SponsorCenter for disease control and preventionSponsored by Center for Disease Control and PreventionExpert power and credibleSupports the message◦ It makes sense for the campaign◦ Reciprocity: ”I help you, you help me” ◦ Share the overall communicative goal
    • 32. Future aspectsIf/when successfulExpand campaign to other states◦ Check compatibilityUse success of the campaign to incorporate healthier changes to the SDSU - environmentIncorporate exercising as a part of the campaign◦ Supports overall communicative goal
    • 33. References Li, C. and Bernoff, J. (2011). Groundswell: Winning in a world transformed by social technologies. Sparks., L. (2008): Health Communication and cCaregiving Research, Policy and Practice Stillar., G., F. (1998): Analyzing everyday texts. Discourse, rhetoric and social perspectives, pp. 58-89. Sage Publications Solomon., M. R., Barmossy, G., Askegaard., S. & Hogg, M. K. (2010). Consumer Behaviour – A European Perspective. (4thed.) Pearson Education. Lindstrøm., M. (2010): Buy-ology :Truth and lies about why we buy Carson-DeWitt, R. et al. (2011), 6: retrieved from Health and Resource Center -http://galenet.galegroup.com.libproxy.sdsu.edu/servlet/HWRC/hits?r=d&bucket=all&n=10&m=Obesity&l=d&k=TE&seg=0&c=1&locID=gale&secondary=false&s=2&TE=%22Obesity%22#Demographics Frith, K., T., & Mueller, B (2010): Advertising and Societies Gass, R.H. & Seiter, J.S. (2011). Persuasion, Social Influence, and Compliance Gaining, 4th Ed. Pearson