Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Brewing technology by krones
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Brewing technology by krones

2,811
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,811
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
211
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • Kochphasen sind in Abhängigkeit von den Rohstoffqualitäten flexibel einstellbar
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • Transcript

    • 1. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Krones Brewing Technology for 1
    • 2. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Structure of Krones Training day  Brief Introduction  Why is it important to achieve uniform knowledge throughout the company?  How are project discussion normally executed?  How does Krones work on India market?  We want to discuss your projects with you in order to engineer your tailor made plant  How has Krones turned the technological requirements of the single brewing steps into a technical solution 2
    • 3. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Turn Key Project Management: General Overview Project Design & Execution Status: non-aligned pre engineering - iterative process General plant engineering Time table Processpa- Engineering Definition rameter... ... ... Media supply Calculation ... DN15 PVC-sleeve Ø20 Pallet cooler Filler Mixer DN20 Cooling water draining Special-PVC for ozonised water4or V A Cooled ozone generator scheduled value 0.5 g0 /m 33 Check valve PVC Ball valve PVC DN20 Syrup room Chemicals Infeed pressure Discharge pressure Cleaning machine Shut-off valve Crate washer DN50 Pasteur DN50 Legend DV-d31-0333-0 07/01 VT-Dok/MS 3 Treated water Cold water Colling tower water Syrup/Product Cleaning forerun Cleaning return Mineral water CO2 Pressured air Steam Condensat Locking valve O-injector 3 size 5 DN50 DN50 Centrifugal pump Shut-off valve υ 4°m* Q=27 m H=76 mWS /h 3 at d= π m *w Q=20 m H=82 mWS /h 3 at 6,0 bar operating pressure n=2900 1/min, 50Hz DN65 Static mixer DN65 Process Sizing and line of the data plantsystem/ buildings Data acquisition Functional ... PVC Grouped valve DN25 Collecting of Data, information and process Parameter Mode ... Monitoring Technical of Analysis Tender clarifimanuAcceptance of the documents cation facturing proceesubmitted (contract) after and dings quotations contract Installation on site Dividing ... Evaluation … Update ... Follow up, … Acceptance Piping, e. Inst. ...
    • 4. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution How do we operate on the India market Partners Project team Project manager Various departments mechanical and electrical Krones India Krones India Engineering Project manager Site Manager Account Manager Customer Project team Local architects Tax consultants Other local comp. Krones Senior Project Manager Krones Processing in Germany with all departments 4
    • 5. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Turnkey Projects - Organization Chart Customer Project Organisation General Project Manager KRONES Machinery KRONES Process / Plant Engineering Process Technology Purchasing Third Party Machines Engineering Utilities Manufacturing Change over parts Division Engineering Hot Process Equipment Commercial Department Project Financing Blow Moulding and Plastic Division Engineering Cold Process Equipment Shipment Department KRONES Warehouse / IT Technik Mechanical Electrical On Site On Site Chief Supervisor Chief Supervisor Engineering Hardware Purchasing Utilities Engineering Software Hot Process Equipment Hardware Equipment + Cabling Labelling Division Manufacturing Engineering Warehouse Management Cold Process Equipment Low Voltage CIP Equipment Distribution Pack- and Palletizing Division Conveyer System Division Commercial Department Project Financing Engineering AQM / Network MainPiping Washing Division Filling and Closing Division Inspection Division Plant Engineering „F illing“ Production Line On Site supervisor Software Hot Process Equipment Blow Moulding and Plastic Technology Filling and Closing Technology Refrigeration Plant Technology Hot Process Equipment Washing Technology Labelling Technology CO2Recovery Plant Malt Handling System Software Cold Process Equipment Beverage Processing Technology Inspection Technology Waste Water Treatment Plant Water Treatment Plant Technology Cold Process Equipment Conveyer System Technology Pack- and Palletizing Technology On Site Tank Fabrication „Warehouse / IT“ Boiler House Isolation and Piping Controlling Production and Purchasing 5 Civil Construction Chief Supervisor Commissioning Engineer Utilities On Site Supervisors Purchasing Third Party Machines Sander Hansen „PROCESS“ KRONES Systems and Engineering Division Documentation Emergency Generator Plant Concentrate Storage Equipment Software Installation „PROCE SS“ Compressed Air Supply-Plant Commissioning Purchasing Depart. Third of utilities Party Machines „Warehouse / IT “ Controlling and on site management „Fi lling“
    • 6. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Why are P&ID´s so important? 6
    • 7. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Legend 7
    • 8. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Explanation of symboles used in P&ID´s 8
    • 9. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Raw Material Hops 9 9
    • 10. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Hops – The „Spice“ of the beer  Other than water and malt, hops are the main substance of beer • • Natural preservative agent • Increase biological stability • Promote coagulation of proteins • Increase colloidal stability • 10 10 Bitterness and specific hops-related flavour Increase foam stability
    • 11. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution The Hop Plant  Hops (lat.: Humulus lupulus) closely related to the hemp plant  Multi-year plant (Annual)  Airborne/wind pollination  Male and female blossoms on different plants  Only female plants develop hop cones; crosspollination must be avoided because of potential lost yield  The hop cone consists of: • Cover leafs and pre-sheets • Axis • Lupulin glands (carrier of aroma, hop resins & the bitter substances) Reference: Simon H. Steiner, Hopfen, GmbH Mainburg 11 11
    • 12. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Division of Hop Types; some hops are „dual purpose“ Aroma hops Bittering hops  Contain larger percentage of bittering elements  Contain large amount of aroma elements (oils)  7 – 18 % α-acid content  3 – 5 % α-acid (more noble soft resins)  Relatively low priced  Relatively expensive in comparison  High α-acid contents may influence undesirable course bitter flavours  Fine bitterness with „hops flavour“ (fine aromatic hops smell)  Typical bitter hops:  Typical aroma hops: • • Hallertauer • Hallertauer Magnum • Hersbrucker Spält • Northern Brewer • Saazer • 15 15 Brewers Gold Nugget • Styrian Golding
    • 13. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Raw Material Water 24 24
    • 14. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Raw material water  Water, by percentage, makes up the largest raw material in beer  The quality of water has a significant influence upon the quality of the beer  Per hl sold, beer is requires a ratio of: 3,5-10 hl of water which is needed (Ø 6 hl)  The largest part of water needed, is used as water in “process water”, i.e. water not actually contained in the beer • • Cooling • 25 25 Cleaning and rinsing Steam production
    • 15. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Effect of higher pH  Obstruction of enzyme reactions  Lower extract yield  Increased wort viscosity  Dark wort and beer colour  Higher solution of harsh hops bitterness (hard, coarse taste)  Slower fermentation  Lack of coagulation of protein and tannins  Lowered stability of beer 31 31 5153BI.tif 
    • 16. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Hardness of water  Hardness of water is expressed by the amount of dissolved ions of calcium and magnesium. Displayed in degree hardness (°)  Definition in Germany: 1°d = 10 mg CaO/l or also 7,19 mg MgO/l (= 0,357 mval/l)  Hardness of water has a big influence in the quality of beer Hardness mmol/l Country Unit 1 ° dH 10 mg CaO/l French hardness 1 ° fH 10 mg CaCO3/l English hardness 1 ° eH 14,3 mg CaCO3/l American hardness 1 ° aH 1 mg CaCO3/l Description Definition German hardness °d 0 - 0,7 0-4 Very soft 2 0,7 1,4 4-8 Soft 3 1,4 2,1 8-12 Medium hard 4 2,1 5,3 12-30 Hard 5 32 32 1 > 5,3 > 30 Very hard
    • 17. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Definition of water hardness Total hardness (Total of all mineral alkaline) Carbonate hardness Non carbonate hardness (Carbonate ions of mineral alkaline) (Non carbonate mineral alkaline ions) all calcium and magnesium ions which are tied to carbon dioxide all calcium and magnesium ions which are tied on mineral acid CaCO3 MgCO3 CaSO4 MgSO4 Ca(HCO3)2 Mg(HCO3)2 CaCl2 MgCl2 Ca(NO3)2 Mg(NO3)2 33 33
    • 18. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution The water plant – supply of brew water Cold water supply Wort cooler Glycol Warm water Cold water Ice water Steam Brewhouse / Celler CIP 42 42 Wort cooler
    • 19. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Deaerated (D/A) water plant  D/A water plant consists of a deaeration station and two D/A water tanks  D/A water is used in the cold areas of the brewery to avoid any kind of oxidation of the product (filtration push outs, blending of High Gravity Beer)  Water will be heated up and then deaerated in a special column, cooled and pumped to the D/A tanks  From the D/A tanks it will be pumped to the required unit 43 43
    • 20. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution D/A water Tanks Glycol Water 44 44 CO2 me S at e as nedno C t D/A water plant
    • 21. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Raw Material Barley 45 45
    • 22. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Raw material barley  Most important raw material for beer production is barley  Arguments: • High content of starch • Enzyme activity • Husks (serve as a natural filter in lauter tun)  Barley – belongs to the family of grasses  Division: • Summer and winter barley • 2- or more rows of kernels  Brew barley: 2-row summer barley  Barley for brewing must be malted 46 46
    • 23. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Differentiation Two-row summer barley Six-row winter barley Uniform grains Twisted grains Characteristics of husks Thin husk Plump husk Amount of starch A lot of starch Less starch Amount of proteins Less protein More protein Characteristics of grains  Two-row summer barley is very good suitable for beer production, but more expensive  Six-row barley has a higher yield per ha.  New varieties under development are very promising 48 48
    • 24. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Adjuncts – Maize and Rice  Maize • • Maize grits (12-14 % water) • Maize flakes • 54 54 Oily germ must be degreased •  Extract a slightly higher than malt Maimilo Rice • Rich in extract (90 %) • 8-9 % protein • Gelatinization at higher temperatures • Effects pale and dry beers
    • 25. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Adjuncts – wheat and barley  Wheat • Normally malted • For production of top fermented beers (hefeweizen) • High extract yield • Winter wheat has less protein  Barley • Break down with malt enzymes • Lower yield than barely which has undergone the malting process 55 55
    • 26. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution The Malting 57 57
    • 27. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution What is malting?  Transformation of barley and wheat to malt  Germination of cereals under manmade environmental forces and control  Finally, the germination is terminated by kilning at a high temperature. The malt is then ready and is stored in silos.  Controlling parameters during malting are: • Humidity • Germination time • Temperature • Oxygen  Malting facilities are generally independent factories which deliver the malt to the breweries.  To produce 1 hl of beer having an original extract of 11 %, approximately 17 kg of malt are required. 58 58
    • 28. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Arguments and conditions for malting  Why will barley be malted? • Formation and activation of enzymes • Break down of cell and structure substances, formation of colour and aroma substances • German purity law: only water, hops, yeast and malt can be used  The brewer prefers two-rowed summer barley because of the higher extract  Barley cannot be treated directly after the harvest because of a natural protection that will avoid the germination in the field  „dormancy“ The dormancy phase takes about 6 weeks The end of dormancy can be determinated with the germ energy (min. 96 out of 100 kernels must start to germinate) During this phase, the barley should have a water content of 11 - 16 %    59 59
    • 29. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Malting – Process steps Raw barley Cleaning and grading plant Cleaning Separation of impurities, broken kernels and metal parts Grading Skinned barley – Brew barley Barley silo Storage Dormancy Steeping vessel Steeping Creation of germination conditions, water absorption, cleaning Germination box Germination Enzyme formation, growth processes, metabolic changes (Break down of starch, protein, cell structure) Kilning Wither (pre-drying) and subsequently kilning (formation of colour and aroma substances) Kiln Cleaning plant Cleaning Polishing Brewmalt 60 60 Separation of rootlets after cooling Water content < 5 % = storable
    • 30. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Process steps 2) 2) Germination Steeping 1) 1) Reference: Malt factory Weyermann, Bamberg 2) Reference: TUM Lehrstuhl für Technologie der Brauerei 1 61 61 Kilning 1) 1)
    • 31. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Different malt types  Malt types: • Pilsner malt (pale malt) • Dark malt (Munich type) • Vienna malt • Caramel malt • Acid malt • Short grown and chit malts • Wheat malt • Smoked malt • Rye malt • • 62 62 Melanoidin malt Roasted malt Reference: Malt factory Weyermann, Bamberg
    • 32. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Malt handling  Malt reception and storage •  In silos Malt transport • Elevator • Conveyors • Screws • Pneumatic (suction or compressed air)  Cleaning  Weigher (Balance)  Cleaning 63 63 • Grading screener Destoner • Weighing of malt Dust removal • • • Magnetic separator
    • 33. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Mechanical transport systems  Mechanic transporter • Horizontal - Conveyor - Belt - Redler • Vertical - Elevator  Start up of the transport system • Acoustic start up warning • Delayed against production direction  Stop of transport system • Delayed in production direction Reference: www.uni-hohenheim.de 64 64
    • 34. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Pneumatic transporter Suction plant 65 65 Compressed air plant
    • 35. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Cleaning  Dust removal plant • • Separates dust •  Danger of dust explosion Dust will be filled into collection bags Grading screener •  Destoner • 66 66 Separates impurities Stones can permanently damage the crushing rollers!
    • 36. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Weighing of malt Tipping weighing machine 67 67 Electronic balance on load cells
    • 37. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Malt and adjunct handling delivered 68
    • 38. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Rice handling 69
    • 39. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Milling of malt  During mashing the enzymes must be able to access all of the malt contents in order to degrade them from starches to fermentable sugars  For this the malt must be broken into smaller pieces by milling  The required amount of malt for one brew is called the grist  Milling is a mechanical breaking process of the malt/adjuncts  Before milling the malt must be cleaned  The needed amount of grist will be weight by a mechanical weighing device (dump hopper) or electronic weighing cells 71 71
    • 40. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Milling of malt Dry milling Hammer mill Grist mill (only for mash filter) Two Roller mill Wet milling Four Roller mill With or without conditioning Five Roller mill Six Roller mill Two Roller mill Four Roller mill  Conditioning = humidify the husk with water or steam  Wet milling = the complete kernel content will be saturated while passing the crushing rollers (squeezing the malt kernels), husks are kept flexible and are intact in larger pieces – makes for a better lauter filter bed 72 72
    • 41. Process Technology Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Steinecker Variomill 76 76
    • 42. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Objectives of Milling Process  High yield • Get access to the valuable substances of the corn extract  High husk volume • Gentle treatment of the husk for optimal lautering conditions • Trouble-free lautering process • Clear wort • High brewing cycle  Demands contrary process • Intensive milling versus gentle crushing 77
    • 43. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution How can Both Objectives be Achieved with Variomill? husk  Conditioned elastic husk • Optimal lautering  Dry and friable endosperm • Optimal milling results • High yield endosperm 2. water absorption contact time controlled 1. addition of water 78
    • 44. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Technical Solutions Considering the technological demands malt hopper continuous steep upper part of mill lower part of mill 79
    • 45. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Product Quality  Continuous mash quality even when quality of raw material changes  Top feed roller controls steeping time  malt Upper feed roller controls mill performance steeping liquor continuous level measuring level I level II steeping time I longer than tI tII steeping time II steeped malt 81
    • 46. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Product Quality Taking care about sensitiveness to oxygen pick up  mashing liquor mashing liquor mash to mash vessel 82 Mashing in water supplied to the homogenisation chamber via spraying system  Grist gets in contact with mashing liquor directly underneath the rollers
    • 47. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Product Quality Gentle conveying of homogeneous mash   Solution: Low sheer force centrifugal pump with inducer  83 Subject: Transfer of even high gravity mash without clumps Advantages: Best condition for enzymes work, fast saccharafication leads to high yield
    • 48. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Operational Safety Grist capacity control, optimised product quality at nominal capacity  Level indicator  motor speed control  performance control motor 84 motor motor capacity Subject: Raw material varies in flow properties  impact on mass flow Solution : Grist capacity control Advantages: • Constant milling process • Homogeneous mash quality • Optimal utilisation of roller life
    • 49. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Flexibility Automatic Milling gap adjustment   Installed at operation floor  Crushing rollers bearing Easy to install in case of upgrades Adjunct milling possible Excenter milling gap adjustment Drive for roller adjustment 85
    • 50. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Variomill  Controlled and Economical Operation  Product quality Controlled steeping Moistened, elastic husk but dry corn  high yield, clear lauter wort and high brewing cycle  Operational safety Performance control Optimal load to crushing rollers  homogeneous mash and long life of rollers  Flexibility One plant for entire process step Investment for various applications, no additional constructions works, easy to install in case of upgrades  Running costs Economical operation Low electrical consumption, less spare parts, long life of rollers 88
    • 51. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution 89
    • 52. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Mashing 90 90
    • 53. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution What happens during mashing?  Dissolved malt ingredients are getting hydrated  Undissolved parts will be liquefied by: • Enzymes • Temperatures • Boiling  Enzymes are responsible for: • Degradation of starch • Degradation of proteins • Degradation of beta-glucans  All dissolved substances are called extract, expressed in % original extract (g / 100 g ) e.g.: 11,3 % means, in 100 g solution contains 11,3 g extract 91 91
    • 54. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Some technical terms  Grist: total amount of the weight of malt and adjuncts needed for one brew  Mash water: required amount of water for mashing in (to get the first wort)  Sparging: amount of water needed to wash out the residual extract in the spent grains  Mash: grist and mash water  Mashing in: mixing of the grist with mash water  Second mashing: transfer of boiled part of mash to the main mash  Final mash pumping: end of mashing and transfer to the lauter tun 92 92
    • 55. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Enzymes - Biocatalyst  Property of enzymes is their action in breaking chemical bonds of a substrate Enzyme + Substrate → Enzyme-Substrate complex → Enzyme + Product  Enzymes are effect- and substrate specified Amylases can only degrade starch and never protein • Activity depends on - Temperature - pH - Substrate composition • 93 93 They will be inactivated by - Heat - Mechanical forces - And missing activators (inorganic material, amino acids)
    • 56. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Key-Lock-Principle Enzyme Substrate Enzyme-Substrate-Complex Products unsolved materials of grist enzymatic activity Temperature, water, pH, time, concentration solved materials (extract)  Starch  Sugar  High molecular weight proteins  Special proteins  Cellulose  Inorganic substances  Glucans 94 94
    • 57. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Structure of starch  Malt starch is a polysaccharide (poly = many), which means that it is formed by many monosaccharides (mono = one)  Because of the fact that yeast can ferment only mono-, di- and trisaccharides, the carbohydrates in starch has to be degraded to sugars • Monosccaharide (Glucose) Start up sugar • Disaccharide (Maltose) Main fermenting sugar • Trisaccharide (Maltotriose) Post fermenting sugar  Starch can be divided in two groups, which are different in it‘s chemical structure and characteristics Starch Structure Connection / Linkage Amylose 20 – 25 % Unbranched α-1,4 Amylopectin 95 95 Percentage 75 – 80 % Branched α-1,4 and α-1,6
    • 58. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Starch degrading enzymes  α-Amylase  β-Amylase • • Exo enzyme • Breaks 1,4-connections • Breaks 1,4-connections • Temperature optimum: 70 – 75 °C • Temperature optimum: 60 – 65 °C • pH optimum: 5,6 – 5,8 • pH optimum: 5,4 – 5,6 •  Endo enzyme Inactivation: > 80 °C • Inactivation: > 70 °C Dextrins  Maltase • Breaks 1,4- and 1,6-connections • Temperature optimum: 35 – 40 °C • Temperature optimum: 55 – 60 °C • pH optimum: 6,0 • pH optimum: 5,1 • Inactivation: > 65 °C  Saccharins Temperature optimum: 50 °C • 96 96 • pH optimum: 5,5
    • 59. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Starch degradation – I. Gelantisation The break down (degradation) of starch takes place in 3 steps. The chronological order is unchangeable, but are connected to one another:  I. Gelantisation • Swelling and bursting of the kernels in hot water (60 °C) • • In this step the mash becomes more viscous • For saccharification, the starch must be gelatinised • 97 97 This is NOT an enzymatic action Now the enzymes can start to take effect breaking down the starches
    • 60. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Starch degradation – II. Liquefaction  II. Liquefaction • The long chains composed of glucose in starch are very rapidly broken open to form smaller chains by α-amylase • • 98 98 This causes a very rapid reduction of the viscosity of the gelantinised mash β-amylase can only slowly degrade the long chains from the non-reducing end
    • 61. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Starch degradation – III. Saccharifiction  III. Saccharification • • It acts optimally at 72 to 75 °C and is rapidly destroyed at 80 °C; the optimum pH is 5,6 to 5,8 • β-amylase splits maltose off from the non-reducing end of the chains, but it also produces glucose and maltotriose • It acts optimally at 60 to 65 °C and is very sensitive to higher temperatures. It is inactivated even at 70 °C. The optimum pH is 5,4 to 5,5 • 99 99 α-amylase breaks down the long starch chains to smaller dextrins Starch breakdown must be monitored because residues of undegraded starch and larger dextrins cause starch hazes in beer
    • 62. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Effect of pH  pH of mash and/or wort is very important for brewing operations  Normal pH 5,6–5,9  Optimal pH: • pH : 5,4–5,6 •  Mash Wort pH : 5,1–5,2 Adjustment of pH: • • Burtonization of brew water (CaCl2/CaSO4) • Acid malt • Biological acidification (lactic acid) • 100 100 Reduction of carbonate hardness Technical lactic acid or mineral acids (does not conform to the German purity law)
    • 63. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Advantages of an optimal pH  Optimization and shortening of mashing times • Better extract solution • More fermentable sugars • Higher final attenuation • Low colouration • Lowering of viscosity • Good protein solution  Better fermentations  Smoother bitterness (beer taste)  Disadvantage • 101 101 Lower yield of bitter substance
    • 64. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Effect of temperature on starch degradation Production of beer with high low Alcohol content  Long maltose rest  Short maltose rest  Forms a lot of fermentable extract  Longer saccharification rest .  a lot of dextrins  Control of starch degradation • • Determination of sugar spectrum by HPLC • 102 102 Iodine test (high molecular starch close in iodine molecules and effects a blue or black colouring) Determination of final attenuation
    • 65. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Reasons for different mashing processes  Depends on: • • Brew house equipment • 106 106 Beer type •  Malt quality Adjuncts Depending on the way in which the temperature is raised, mashing processes are classified into two types: • Infusion process • Decoction process (boiling of part mash) - Single mash process - Two mash process - Three mash process
    • 66. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Practice of mashing Rest Name of rest temperature active Enzyme Effect in mash 35 – 45 °C β-glucan rest β-glucanase Viscosity reduction 45 – 50 °C Protein rest Peptidase Amino acid formation 62 – 65 °C Maltose rest β-amylase Maltose formation 72 – 75 °C Saccharification rest α-amylase Dextrin formation 76 – 78 °C Final mash pumping temperature  Correlation mash water vs. total grist: • Pale beers • 107 107 α-amylase keeps active, post saccharification Dark beers 4-5,0 hl/100 kg grist 3-3,5 hl/100 kg grist fast enzyme reactions slower enzyme reaction, more dextrin, increased caramelized aroma substances
    • 67. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Infusion process  The total mash is heated with rests (steps) being used at temperatures determined by the enzyme properties °C 80 70 60 Mashing in at 50 °C 50  Advantage versus decoction process 40 30 • easier process lower risk of oxidation (no additional pumping) • only one mash vessel necessary 120 150 180 min 70 • 90 80 • 108 108 lower energy 60 softer and pale beers • 30 °C 60 Mashing in at 35 °C 50 40 30 30 60 90 120 150 180 min
    • 68. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Decoction process  A part mash will be boiled then pumped back to the main mash; the main mash temp. increases. Depending on the amount of part mashes (three-, two- and single mash process may occur) °C boiling 100 90 part mash 80 70 60 main mash 50 40  Advantages versus infusion process • more characteristic beers • useful for poorly dissolved malt • • 109 109 forced formation of melanoidins higher brew house yield 30 30 60 90 120 150 Part mash . 100 °C  a lot of starch  less enzymes Main mash 63 °C  73 °C  less starch a lot of enzymes  180 min
    • 69. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Mash process with rice  Rice starch gelantises from 85 °C and has to be boiled (decoction process)  Mostly with addition of a part of the malt mash (α-amylase of malt required to degrade the rice starch) °C boiling 100 90 boiling part mash rice mash 80 70 Cereal cooker 60 Rice mash (with malt) main mash 50 Mash tun 40 30 111 111 Malt mash 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 min
    • 70. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution 112
    • 71. Process technic Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution ShakesBeer – the new mash system 113 113
    • 72. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Tasks of mash process   114 114 Best possible mixing of grist and mash water The desired ingredients of malt shall be dissolved optimally
    • 73. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Targets of mash process Guide target: Qualitative targets:  High yield  Low difference between AV° to EV°  Fast transformations  Pale colour  Low energy  High reduction potential of the beer  Optimally wort composition • Faster lautering • Faster fermentation • Good yeast sedimentation • Good beer filterability • Longer beer stability  High taste stability  Low fermentation by-products  Low concentrations of DMS, fatty acids and carbonyls 115 115
    • 74. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Geometry of vessel bottom  Conical form of bottom • Enhances turbulence • Faster and more homogeneous mixing • Smallest part mashes possible  Heating zone • Reduction of fouling • Longer standing times • Increase in product quality  Agitator • Low shear forces and more effective mixing • Lower oxygenation of mash 116 116
    • 75. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Requirements on heating zones   Faster heating rates  117 117 Homogeneous and even heat distribution  Bottom and cylinder heating zone with agitator (classic system) Good thermal conductivity (higher k-value) Low fouling potential
    • 76. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution New design of heating zones The heating zone contains an inner lying (Dimple Plates) Due to this design:   This results in reduced energy requirements and thus, savings  Micro turbulences improve mixing and because of this, there is quicker mash substance transformation  118 118 Lower steam pressures, steam temperatures and interface temperatures are needed Reduced fouling and longer CIP intervals
    • 77. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Profile of the ShakesBeer-tun Mash Micro turbulences 119 119 Heating zone (Dimple Plates) Low interface temperature
    • 78. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Improved Heat Transfer  A greater heat transition coefficient k means a better heat transfer and, consequently, more heat output  Turbulent mash movement results in a high heat transfer coefficient αmash and, consequently, an increased heat transition coefficient k  Heat transfer is directly associated with the mash movement  Heat transfer Q:  Q = k*A*ΔT Heat transition coefficient k: 1 k= 1 αSteam 120 + Σ s CNS l CNS + 1 α Mash
    • 79. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Improved heat transfer  Significantly higher heat transition coefficient k  Higher heating rate with the same steam pressure and/or steam temperature  Constant heating process throughout the production week Heat transition and heating rates 3 k-value W/m²*K 2000 2 1500 1000 1 500 0 0 k-value classic k-Wert klassisch Heating rateclassic Heizrate klassisch 121 k-Wert k-value Dimple Plates Heizrate Heat. r. Dimple Plates Heating rate °K / min 2500
    • 80. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Advantages of ShakesBeer  Product quality • • • • • Better mixing Less fouling Gentle heating of the mash Higher enzyme potential Better substrate transformation  Reduced energy consumption • • • • Heating up of very concentrated mash is possible = low mash volume Better heat capacity Lower heating medium temperature Lower condensate temperatures  Reduced mashing time • • • Faster heat up Faster and better homogenization Faster substrate transformation  Flexibility • Independent of the type and concentration of mash 124 124
    • 81. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Lautering 125 125
    • 82. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution What happens during lautering?  Mash is a mixing of • Solved materials (wort) • Unsolved materials (spent grains) germs → consists extract → consists husk and  Lautering is the separation of wort from the spent grains  Only wort is used for beer production, spent grains will be disposed (animal feed)  There are two different lauter systems: • Lauter tun • Mash filter 126 126
    • 83. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Lautering  Target of lautering: • Production of high quality wort with minimised rest wort extract in the spent grains  The husks of malt form a natural filter layer through which the wort flows  The process of lautering is divided into two sections:  Expiry of the first wort:  Dissolved substances running out • • 127 Elution of the spent grains (sparging) Elution of the spent grains by second worts to an extract of 0,8 - 2 % (last runnings concentration)
    • 84. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Lautering with lauter tun  Storing the mash into the lauter tun is called final mash pumping. In order to reduce the oxygen content the mash is filled carefully from the bottom. to wort kettle from mash tun  The insoluble parts of the mash are settling down first. They create a natural filter layer.  In order to improve the properties of the filter layer the drains are opened and the wort is pumped into a circle until it is clear enough.  When the aimed turbidity content is reached the clear wort is transferred into the cooking unit or into a pre run vessel.  This process usually takes between 45 to 75 minutes. 128 lautering M
    • 85. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Lautering with lauter tun   The lautering process is faster when the wort is diluted and hot (max. 78 °C) Lower viscosity Since there is still extract left in the spend grain it is washed out with hot water. This process is called sparging. The spend waters called second worts. The process usually takes between 45 till 75 minutes.  The process has to be suited to the product. If too much water is used the husks are bleached out and the colour and flavour of the wort is effected negatively. In case of too less water usage too much extract is left in the spent grains (costs…)  Normally 4 to 5 hl are used per 1000kg grains  The last second wort is called „last runnigs“ (The extract content is between 0,8 up to 2,0 %) 129 to wort kettle from mash tun lautering M
    • 86. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Construction of the lauter tun  The lauter tun is shaped roundly. Above the tank bottom a second filter bottom consisting of diverse segments is installed. The space between the bottoms is approximately 1 cm. In addition a cutting and racking device is installed.  The wort is discharged by a variety of drains. 130
    • 87. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Cutting and racking device    131 The cutting device is adjustable in height The shape of the knives are responsible for the extract content in the spent grains In addition a spend grain trap is installed into the filter bottom
    • 88. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Cutting and racking device  Goal: • Used for a homogenous dispersions of the wort • • For a homogenous elution of spent grains • 132 Racking the spend grain mass to assure a constant wort flow (computer controlled) Responsible for spend grain removal
    • 89. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Run-off openings  The collected clear wort between the bottoms is discharged through the drains  In a classical mash tun there is only one drain per square meter  The Pegasus system has nearly twice as much drains (1,6 per m2)  The drains have to be installed in a way so that there won't be a suction effect. Otherwise the spent grain mass is compressed and the flow rate decreases  The arrangement of the drains is also important for a homogenous elution of the spent grains 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.5 133 0.8 0.6 0.6
    • 90. Process Technology Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Lauter Technology System Pegasus 136 136
    • 91. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Tasks and influences of lautering  Tasks: Separation of liquid phase (= wort) from solid contents (= spent grains) of the mash. This process can be split up to two steps: • Draw-off first wort • Elution of spent grains (= second wort)  Influence to: • Yield • Fermentation • Filtration • Taste • Stability of beer 137
    • 92. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Objectives of lautering  Fast and complete lautering  Economic obtaining of extract  Maximum extract yield  Clear wort  High quality wort  Time-saving  Obtaining a high quality wort with maximum extract yield 138
    • 93. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Central conus Shaft guide   Shaft guide above wort level – no contact with product  service-reduced construction  Level probe installed in the conus  140 Central arrangement of instruments Easy access for maintenance works
    • 94. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Lauter system Ring-shaped lauter surface   Flow-optimized lautering process with ring-shaped lauter surface for homogeneous wort discharge  High load of false bottom possible => savings re. vessel-size  142 Even formation of filter bed Ideal for production of highgravity-brews
    • 95. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Lauter system Flow-optimised run-off sources  Up to two run-off-ports per m² lauter surface  Identic tap pipes with a flowoptimized inlet conus • • even „elution“ of filter-cake in the whole filter area •  even flow-speeds no punctual eddy-effect to filter-cake at the area of inlet cones Lauter wort collecting pipe • • 143 Increased lautering speed Increased extract yield
    • 96. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution New design of raking device  Adjustment to higher demands  Combination of straight- and „zigzag“-knifes  Optimal raking effect  Especially designed spent grains knifes at raking arms  effective and fast spent grains discharge out from the vessel 144
    • 97. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Pegasus: Our Solution – Your Advantage!  Product quality  Production safety  Flexibility  145 Maintenance- and operational costs
    • 98. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Advantages of Pegasus realised at Hyderabad Lautertun 146
    • 99. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Product Quality Optimized obtaining of extract 20   Low weak wort concentration possible  extract °P Elutable extract in the spent grains very low (less or equal 0,5 %)  15 High extract yield Higher extract yield with less sparging water because of fast extract decrease 10 5 PEGASUS conventional lauter tun 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 kettle full amount hl/100 kg malt 147 6 7
    • 100. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Product Quality Leipzig as an example for optimized obtaining of extract – Pegasus vs. old lautering system Technical data „Pegasus“ Volume: hl Diameter: 7,000 mm Area: 35.3 m2 False bottom load with grist of 7000 kg: 148 423 199.5 kg/m2
    • 101. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Product Quality Leipzig as an example for optimized obtaining of extract – Pegasus vs. old lautering system Flutable extract [%] Old lautering system Digestible extract [%] 1,6 Spent grains water content [%] 0,5 Total occupation time in min. 79,0 Turbidity in EBC 170 Brews per day — 8,45 149 Pegasus® 0,5 0,5 78,8 117 < 20 for 65 % of lautering time 12,3
    • 102. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Production Safety   High brewing cycles possible (up to 14 brews per days)  Fully automatic process for production and CIP  151 Independent from grist system Reliability because of intelligent construction  service-reduced
    • 103. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution The Advantages at a Glance  Highest product quality because of: optimized obtaining of extract  obtaining of high quality worts with maximum extract yield  Maximum production safety because of: fully-automatized process and reliable, service-reduced construction  High flexibility because of: flexible grist amounts and selection of raw material  Lowest maintenance- and operational costs because of: service-reduced construction, low spare parts inventory and –costs, low cleaning costs 154
    • 104. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Further plants required for discharge, extract recovery and capacity reasons 155
    • 105. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Wort Boiling 156 156
    • 106. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Wort boiling  The lautered wort will be boiled between 50 and 90 min (with Stromboli 60 min); during this time the hops are added. •  157 157 The total amount of lautered/filtered wort before boiling is called „fullkettle-wort“, the wort after boiling is called „cast out wort“ During wort boiling several processes take place: • Sterilization of wort • Evaporation of water (3-4 % total evaporation) • Deactivation of enzyme reactions • Solution and isomerisation of hop substances • Colouring of wort • Coagulation of proteins • Evaporation of negative aroma substances (DMS)
    • 107. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Solution and isomerisation of hop substances  Hops are added to the boiling wort to give a bitter taste (to offset the sweetness of the sugars from malts) and give a desired hop flavour  Hops will aid in the precipitation of protein and aid as a preservative  The bitter substance losses until finished beer are approximately 65 - 70 %  The addition/s will be calculated in amount of α-acid. The times and amounts depend on the beer type being brewed  The longer boiling takes place, the more the hops will be isomerisized  Hop oils are very volatile at higher temperatures  Typical hop additition for a Pils: Hops addition Partition of α-acid dosing I 50 % 10 min after start boiling Bitter hops Extract II 35 % 30 min after start boiling Bitter hops Aroma hops Extract Pellets III 15 % 5 min before cast out Aroma hops Pellets 158 158 Moment Hops products
    • 108. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Sterilization of wort / Deactivation of enzymes  Sterilization of wort • • Bacteria are killed after 15 min of boiling • Wort is a good nutrition medium for bacteria because it contains sugar, amino acids, vitamins and inorganic substances •  Bacteria from malt dust can get into the mash (→ acid beer) The antiseptic effect of hops and the low pH aid in avoiding contamination Deactivation of enzymes • • 159 159 Helps to define the composition of the wort; if enzyme action continues then the wort profile will be changed Enzymes are destroyed by high temperatures (boiling)
    • 109. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Evaporation of unwanted flavours  Evaporation of volatile substances from malt and hops (products of melanoidin reaction, hops oil, sulphur compounds, aldehyde, and fats) • Guide parameter is dimethylsulfide (DMS) - An easily volatile sulphur compound of malt - After splitting of DMS-Precursors, DMS is set free - Effects an unwanted taste in beer (vegetable like aromas) - Taste threshold: 50-60 µg DMS/l (to 100 µg, according to the beer type) - The longer and more intensive the boiling is the more DMS-P will be split in DMS and evaporated - Use of DMS-P poor malt 160 160
    • 110. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Evaporation of water  To adjust the wort concentration water must evaporate • The amount of concentration is adjusted according to the beer type (high concentration → too much alcohol)  Much energy → high evaporation • Dimension of evaporation: - Evaporation rate shows how much % full-kettle amount per hl has evaporated  Precise heating energy = Decreased energy costs • Better product quality • Energy recovering should be done 161 161
    • 111. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Coagulation of protein  Compounds of • Proteins and tannins • Insoluble bonds = clumps  The clumps which are formed during boiling are called hot break  These protein clumps should be taken out completely  Good break formation can be achieved by: • Longer boiling time • Intensive movement of boiling wort • Lower pH (optimum 5,0 - 5,2) Target: approx. 2-3 mg coaguable, nitrogen containing substances /100 ml wort  162 162  Context: • Low koag-N in cast-out wort: - Low risk of cold haze - Bad beer foam
    • 112. Prozesstechnik Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Boiling System Stromboli 171 171 171
    • 113. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Requirements to modern wort boiling systems   Improved evaporation of DMS  Less negative influence on foam positive proteins  172 172 Reduced evaporation Lower thermal loads (low TBZincrease)
    • 114. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Problems of classical internal boiler  Forced fusion of DMS and coag. N.  Destruction of foam positive substances by pulsating during heat up   Steam Strong thermal load on wort High costs and environmental load by high evaporation and frequent cleanings Condensate 173 173 Wort
    • 115. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Points of temperature measurement in internal boiler kettle 174 174
    • 116. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution What Stromboli can…  Separation and adjustment of coag. N and DMS-content means „out stinking“ of flavours and spared treatment of foam positive proteins at the same time is possible  Homogenisation of wort without heating is possible due to enhanced circulation effect 175 175
    • 117. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Flows and mixing in Stromboli Aroma control Jet pump Direction shield Protein control Defined circulation 176 176 Frequency controlled pump
    • 118. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution The jet pump – „heart“ of Stromboli Wort baffle plate 177 177 Jet pump
    • 119. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Reconstruction of a classical internal boiler Classical internal boiler 178 178 Stromboli Stromboli 3D
    • 120. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Principle of boiling  Boiling phase 1: Intensive driving off of unwanted compounds and aromas, break down of coag. N  Boiling pause: Splitting of DMS-P, only low energy, intensive „moving“ and „hot holding“ of wort  Boiling phase 2: Again intensive removal free DMS 179 179
    • 121. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Circulation with Stromboli 180 180
    • 122. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Fouling in heating tubes Normal boiler after 8 brews without forced circulation 181 181 Stromboli after 40 brews
    • 123. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Environment protection Stromboli reduces the total evaporation at the internal boiler to 3 - 3,5 %  Significant reduced primary energy requirement  Less exhaust gases (CO2 , CO, NOx, SOx etc.)  Reduction of fresh water consumption and waste water  Reduction of cleaning medium (CIP) demand 182 182
    • 124. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Comparison in evaporation rates Stromboli - conventional boiling 8 7 % 6 5 4 3 2 183 183 Stromboli Conventional internal boiler
    • 125. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Reduction of DMS and DMS-P Stromboli - conventional boiling Stromboli DMS DMSP Internal boiler 77 95 94,5 94 93,5 93 76 Reduction in % Reduction in % 95,5 75 74 73 92,5 72 92 71 Full kettle60 min boiling time Stromboli 231 12 Internal boiler 223 13 184 184 Full kettle60 min boiling time Stromboli 266 62 Internal boiler 288 78
    • 126. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Comparation TBZ Stromboli - conventional boiling 60 Stromboli 50 Internal boiler 40 30 20 10 0 Full kettle 60 min boiling time ∆ TBZ Full kettle60 min boiling time ∆ TBZ Stromboli 34,0 48,0 14,0 Internal boiler 23,8 43,5 19,7 186 186
    • 127. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Comparation foam points by LG Foamtester Stromboli - conventional boiling Stromboli Internal boiler 140 140 135 135 130 130 125 125 120 120 115 115 110 110 105 105 100 100 Type: Pale 187 187 Type: Pils
    • 128. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Production security   Fully automatic process for CIP and production  Consistent energy requirements and consumption  190 190 Low cleaning costs (no interruption of production process because of intermediate cleanings) Consistent evaporation rates
    • 129. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution 195
    • 130. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Conclusion  Increase of TBN during boiling < 15  Increased flavour stability of beer  Coagulable nitrogen adjustable  Improvement of beer foam stability  Efficient evaporation of undesirable flavours  DMS end of boiling < 20  Homogeneous wort treatment  Enormous savings in water, cleaning agents and - time, up to 80 %  Increased productivity of Wort kettle, up to 5 %  Easy retrofit table  No pressure kettle needed 196
    • 131. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Wort treatment after boiling  The word handling after boiling is also called the „wort way“  The wort way is divided in different steps: • Cast out of wort • Separation of hot trub • Wort cooling • Wort aeration • Cold trub separation (if desired) • Yeast dosing 197 197
    • 132. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Cast out of wort  Wort transfer to next vessel, e.g. hot wort tank, is called „cast out“  What is hot trub? • Removal of coarse break • Consists of: - 50-60 % Proteins - 15-20 % Bitter substances - 20 % Tannins - 5 % Ash • 198 198 Influence of hot trub - Coats the yeast - Reduces stability of the beer
    • 133. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Removal of hot trub  For removal following vessels can be used: • Cool ship (old) • Settling tank / Hot wort tank • Whirlpool / Whirlpool kettle • Centrifuge • Filtration Tangential inlet  199 199 Whirlpool • Classical sedimentation process • Tangential inlet of wort (with max. 4 m/s) • Centrifugal forces form a trub cone • Lateral wort outlets at different heights Outlets
    • 134. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Hot wort tank – Sedimentation tank Stromboli Wort cooler Trub tank 200 200 Turbidity measurement
    • 135. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Wort cooling  Wort will be cooled down to „pitching temperature“ by a plate cooler • The plate exchanger consists of a large number of thin metal plates • Arranged behind one another, between which wort and cold water flow alternately • Heat exchange: cold to hot water, hot to cold wort  Below 60 °C the previously clear wort starts to become turbid. This turbidity is called „cold trub“. 201 201
    • 136. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Plate heat exchanger Single-stage Ice water at 1 to 2 °C is heated in the plate heat exchanger to 80 to 88 °C whilst hort wort at 95 to 98 °C is cooled to pitching temperature   Two-stage In the larger precooling section the wort transfers heat to cold process water. Whilst the wort is cooled to about 16 to 18 °C, the cold water is heated to about 80 to 88 °C. In the smaller low temperature section the wort is cooled by ice water at 1 to 2 °C to the desired pitching temperature. Precooling Deep cooling +1-2 °C 85-88 °C 95-98 °C Wort Ice water 1-2 °C 85-88 °C 6-8 °C Wort 6-8 °C 95-98 °C 10-15 °C Brew water Ice water tank 202 202
    • 137. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Water house – Brew water supply Cold water supply Wort cooler Glycol Steam Brew house / Cellar CIP 203 203 Warm water Cold water Ice water Wort cooler
    • 138. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Wort aeration  The aeration of cold wort is the only time during the entire beer production process that oxygen is deliberately added  Yeast needs oxygen to multiply  The oxygen is taken up by the yeast within a few hours and does not damage the wort quality  To dissolve the air in cold wort the air must be injected as very small bubbles and turbulently mixed with the cold wort. An oxygen content of 8 to 9 mg/l is aimed for 204 204
    • 139. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Removal of cold trub  Below 60 °C clear wort becomes turbid; this turbidity consists of: • 60-70 % Proteins • 20 % Tannins  Removal by: • Sedimentation • Centrifuge • Filtration • Flotation (mostly used with air bubbles) 205 205
    • 140. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Raw Material Yeast 206 206
    • 141. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast  Unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms  The yeast cell is oval to round with a length of 3,5-8,0 x 5,0-7,5 µm  Reproduction by budding  The brewing industry differs in •  Culture yeast (only these are used for beer processing) • Saccharomyces carlsbergensis Foreign yeast (bakers yeast, wine yeast) Division of culture yeast in: • Bottom fermenting yeast • Top fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 207 207
    • 142. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast multiplication  Yeasts normally reproduces by budding.  During budding a small bubble like protuberance from the mother cell is formed into part of the cytoplasm as well as a daughter nucleus, formed by division, passes.  In some yeast strains, the mother and the daughter cells separate from one another completely as a result of which bud scars remain on the mother cell.  In other strains, the cells remain connected to one another and form chains.  The growth is divided into phases: • Log or exponential phase: growth rate is constant and maximal • 212 212 takes some hours, activation of metabolism •  Latent or lag phase: Declining phase: rate of cell death exceeds the rate of new cell formation Yeast works to 30 °C, above 40 °C will de deactivated, low temperatures clam the yeast but will not kill it.
    • 143. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Propagation and Storage of Yeast 213 213
    • 144. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast strain / Pure culture yeast  Yeast has a large influence on the character of beer • • For beer production only pure culture yeast is used •  That is the reason why each brewery has its own yeast strain The best qualified and strongest yeast will be isolated and multiplicated as long as the amount for pitching is enough Pure culture yeast • • Bought from other breweries or yeast supply laboratories •  Will be stored in the laboratory Stored and sold in yeast library Breweries buy yeast in form of: • • Dry yeast • 214 214 Agar slant culture Liquid yeast
    • 145. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast propagation  The pure yeast cultivation is also called yeast propagation •  Multiplication of yeast from one cell to pitching amount Steps of propagation: • • Cultivation in laboratory •  Harvest of qualified yeast cell Propagation in yeast cellar to pitching amount Yeast has two metabolisms • With oxygen • Without oxygen aerobic metabolism anaerobic metabolism → multiplication of yeast cells → fermentation  Under continuous addition of nutrients (wort) and oxygen (aeration) the yeast multiplies and grows in numbers  Sterile conditions are essential  Controlling parameters: cell concentration and amount 215 215
    • 146. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Agar slant culture Yeast cultivation vaccination ring 10 ml liquid yeast 1l liquid yeast 100 ml sterile wort start fermenting at room temperature stag phase stationary phase declining phase log phase exponential log phase phase PROPAGATION PHASE 1 l sterile wort fermenting at 18 °C lag phase adaption phase lag phase 5 l sterile wort fermenting at 14 – 15 °C Carlsberg-flask 25 l sterile wort fermenting at 12 – 14 °C 216 216
    • 147. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Pure yeast cultivation  The multiplication of pure cultivated yeast takes place in the propagator • • Continuous circulation of the yeastwort-mixture with air injection •  Flexible temperature control by tank cooling Defined wort additions in desired multiplication phase A wort sterilizer increases the flexibility of propagation • • 217 217 Independent of brew house Has heating and cooling zones
    • 148. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Propagation plant Sterile air Glycol Steam Propagator Sterilizer Sterile air Condensate CIP Wort 218 218 To wort line
    • 149. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Propagation plant 219 219
    • 150. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast storage  At the end of fermentation the yeast goes to: • The bottom of the tank (bottom fermenting yeast) • The beer surface (top fermenting yeast)  Collection of yeast called „Yeast harvest“  Treatment after the harvest: • • Before next pitching, yeast is often washed through a sieve (separation of tannins and bitter substances) to rinse substances that coat the yeast and may interfere with yeast metabolism •  Harvested yeast can be aerated (separation of CO2) and immediately dosed into the next brew Stored in cooled vessels Amount of cycles yeast can be used: • Biology, activity, degeneration - Bottom yeast up to 8 cycles - Top fermenting yeast more 220 220
    • 151. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast storage  Intermediate storage of harvested yeast until the next use under optimal conditions • • Vitalisation of yeast by controlled aeration and circulation • 221 221 Cooled storage tanks Possible to add wort for activation of yeast
    • 152. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast storage 222 222
    • 153. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Risks of yeast washing and storage  Yeast washing means always: • •  Biological risk Attenuation of the yeast Yeast storage • Always inconvenient; should be as short as possible • As cold as possible (to reduce the yeast activity) • Longer storage only under wort (preferred) or beer • Storage under water is not recommended • Yeast can be vitalized before pitching (addition of wort and aeration) 223 223
    • 154. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast management  Planned out concept to ensure steady beer production • • Vitalisation of harvested yeast • Economical exploitation of waste yeast with possibility of beer recovering or yeast drying • Biological faultless cleaning; no protruding instrumentation in tank • 224 224 Preparation of the needed amount of biologically faultless and vital cultured yeast Additional hygienic security by special cleaning philosophies and regimens
    • 155. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Air Injector  Circulation with Air Injector • Smooth yeast aeration • Problem-free upgrade • Can be automated • Wort-Yeast-Mix CIP able/sterilisation with steam Sterile air 225 225
    • 156. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Advantages of circulation  Maximal flexibility by variable circulation cycles and aeration intervals  Guarantee of thorough mixing of contents  Smooth product treatment  Biologically faultless cleaning  Can be automated 226 226
    • 157. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast management CIP Yeast cooler „Yeast harvest“ Fermentation Yeast cultivation Yeast storage Yeast handling „Yeast tank“ „Waste yeast tank“ „Pitching“ Wort sterilisation Yeast propagator Aeration for „Vitalisation“ Of stored yeast Yeast drying Beer recovering -Separator -Crossflow-Microfiltration Aeration for „multiplication“ Circulation with „Air Injector“ 227 227 -High performance decanter Residual beer Yeast disposal Storage cellar
    • 158. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Fermentation and Maturation 228 228
    • 159. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Yeast pitching in wort  The pitching of yeast to cold wort (cleared, cooled and aerated wort) the fermentation process begins.  Pitching ratio of yeast is about 0,5 – 1,0 l of yeast per hl of wort which generally corresponds to 15 – 30 millions yeast cells per ml wort  During fermentation, the yeast growth is up to three or four times.  Filling of a fermenting tank can be done by: • One filling cycle, tank is full after one batch • More filling cycles, i.e. several brews are pumped into the tank. Filling of a tank with more than one brew should not last more than 16 hours.  Fermenting can be speed up with: • Higher yeast dosing ratio • Temperature • Aeration 229 229
    • 160. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Fermentation  Start of fermentation by pitching vital yeast  Exact control of fermentation by temperature of fermenting vessel • • According to fermentation procedure •  According to quality aspects According to the intensity of fermentation Control parameter of main fermentation • • Degree of attenuation after fermentation • 230 230 Yeast cell count Fermentation by-products
    • 161. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Degree of attenuation  Degree of attenuation is to evaluate the fermentation  This value shows the amount of fermented extract in relation to the amount of extract of unfermented cold wort.  For calculation of attenuation you need two values • Extract of wort before fermentation • Extract of green beer at sampling time  Degree of attenuation % = (extract before fermentation – extract of sample) x 100 extract before fermentation This value is called apparent attenuation. 231 231
    • 162. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Definitions of attenuation degrees  Final attenuation (Vfinal) • •  Fermenting degree (Vferment) • •  Is the highest apparent degree of attenuation which can be reached by fermentation of all fermentable materials in the extract It is predetermined by the action of starch degrading enzymes in the brewery and measured in the laboratory Shows the degree of attenuation of the green beer at the moment of transfer (pumping from fermenting to storage cellar) Normally 10 – 15 % below final attenuation Limit attenuation (Vlimit) • • • 232 232 Is determined before the beer is filled into containers for sale The difference between Vfinal and Vlimit should be very small (max. 3 %) To guaranty a good stability and biological security
    • 163. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Difference apparent and real attenuation degree  Apparent attenuation degree • Extract of green beer at the moment of sampling by spindling (without alcohol separation) ~ 12,5 •  ~ 3,9 ~ 2,7 ~ 2,7 The actual value is not exact because the alcohol changes the density and influences the result - Easy handling - Neglect able, because of a systematic error Real attenuation degree • Removal of alcohol by heating • Elaborate method; only done in the laboratory pitching hosing output final attenuated fermented extracts fermentable extracts unfermentable extracts 233 233
    • 164. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Methods of fermentation  Classical cold fermentation (cold fermentation – cold maturation) •  Low by-products Cold fermentation – warm maturation • •  Low by-products Fast break down during maturation Warm fermentation – warm maturation • •  High by-products Fast break down Pressure fermentation • High temperatures, pressure inhibits yeast multiplication  low by-products 234 234
    • 165. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution (Main-) Fermentation  From the moment that yeast is added to the wort, it is called green beer  Green beer is passes through following steps during fermentation: • • 236 236 I. Creaming - Beer surface is covered with a white sheet of fine bubble foam; Fermentation has started II. Young heads - This fine foam is getting higher and brown on the top
    • 166. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Fermentation • III. High heads - The heads are getting higher with bigger bubbles; most intensive step – high extract break down ( 1,5-2,3 °P per day ) • IV. Brown heads - Intensity of fermentation is going back, heads are breaking down and become more brown • V. Ready for transfer - Heads keep on breaking down, surface brown 237 237
    • 167. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution 238 238
    • 168. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Maturation  Start of post fermentation by lowering the temperature and yeast harvest  Exact control of post fermentation and maturation by process temperature and residual extract • • Maturation time •  Bunging pressure Fermentation intensity Control parameter for post fermentation and maturation • • By-products • Clarification • 239 239 Attenuation limit CO2-content
    • 169. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Post fermentation and maturation  Post fermentation and maturation take place in following steps:  Fermentation of remaining extract and break down of by-products  Enrichment of CO2  Natural clarification by sedimentation of yeast and other haze causing particles  Maturation of taste 240 240
    • 170. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Clarification and maturation  During maturation haze particles are settling out of the beer; the sludge formed from settling is called sediment  Maturation is performed cold (approx. –1,5 to + 2,0 °C) and lasts about 1 to 5 weeks  At this temperatures bitter substances settle out  The maturation process has a big influence on: • Taste • Foam stability • Chemical-physical stability 243 243
    • 171. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Changes from wort to beer      244 244 Break down of sugar Protein compounds • Break down of total nitrogen substances to about 20-25 %, • Amino acids are taken from yeast • High molecular N falls out aided by the fall in pH pH-fall • Acid formation by yeast, from pH 5,2 to pH 4,4 Colour lightening • Direct correlation with pH fall • Fall out of tannins and melanoidins • Extraction of colour into the foam surface • Yeast cells absorb some of the colour Reduction of bitter substances and tannins • Bitter substances are extracted by the pH movement, tannins react with proteins to for protein-tannin complexes
    • 172. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Changes from wort to beer  Building and enrichment of CO2 in beer • CO2 washes weak volatiles out • Inhibits certain germs • Responsible for the sparkle and foam stability • Is controlled through pressure and temperature • •  245 245 Clarification Sedimentation of yeast, undissolved protein and tannins Building of by-products (will be partly broken down) • By-products are intermediate or end products of yeast metabolism • May have a positive or negative influence on the smell and taste of beer • Negative taste components must be broken down during maturation
    • 173. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution By-products  Higher alcohols (fusel oils) • Increased by - Higher fermentation temperatures - Stronger aeration of pitching wort   - Low yeast dosing Esters • Important aroma substances in beer • Products of reactions with acid and alcohol • Yeast strain has a big influence • High yeast multiplication produces less esters Sulphuric compounds; • Yeast metabolism produces volatile sulphuric compounds like H2S •  246 246 These can be washed out by CO2 Vicinal diketone (VDK)
    • 174. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution 247
    • 175. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Full automatic cellar  High degree of automation  High investment costs  Maintenance demand  Risk of infections due to poor maintenance 256 256
    • 176. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Full automatic cellar 257 257
    • 177. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Full automatic cellar  All process steps are controlled automatically  Cellar has fixed piping system  Connects by double seat valves • Automatic way preparation • With feedback signals • Leakage security Absolute biological security; no manual handling 258 258
    • 178. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Semi automatic cellar with panel  A compromise between hose and full automatic cellar  Lower Investments  Operator must be trained (hygiene / microbiology)  CIP-able  Variable degree of automation (initiators, pneumatic valves) 259 259
    • 179. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Semi automatic cellar with panel 260 260
    • 180. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Semi automatic cellar with panel  Control of tank cooling in automatic  Fixed piping system and panels  Connections by swing bends and pneumatic valves • •  manual way preparation optional with feedback signals Automatic program started by operator But: No 100 % biological security, because of manual handling 261 261
    • 181. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution How the ideal cellar looks?  Automation degree •  Tank methods •  Periphery (cooling medium, tankand cellar equipment Construction method • 267 267 Classical or forced methods Execution •  From manual to full automatic Construction kind and place
    • 182. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Beer Filtration 275
    • 183. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Filter cellar Maturation Filling hall Rest beer Rest beer PP-Tank Mixing device Additive dosing Separator Bright beer tank Post run Rest beer Beer cooler CIP Buffertank unfiltrate KG-filter Filter systems PVPP-filter TFS S (Candle filter) FS 100-130 S (Horizontal filter) Membrane filter (Option) TFS K (Candle filter) FS 100-130 K(Horizontal filter) Sheet filter Particle filter (Option) Trap filter GAF filter KG-Handling Bag ripper Big Bag Station Mixing station Disposal Drying 276 Sirona CO2 Blending Unit Carbonising Sterilisation Buffertank filtrate Degassing (DA Water)
    • 184. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Beer filtration  277 Filtration is a man-made clarification of beer which has to fulfil the following objects: • Removing of turbid substances - Yeast - Hop resins - Proteins and polyphenolic substances • Removing or reducing of substances which could cause turbidity (best-before date) - Proteins - Polyphenols • Removing of microorganisms - Yeast - Bacteria • Brightness (→ customers request) • Sensory improvement (taste)
    • 185. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Different types of beer filtration  Precoat-filtration  Filter aids for procoating: • Kieselguhr • Candle filter • Perlite • Horizontal filter • Cellulose • Kieselguhr frame filter • PVPP  Crossflow-Filtration  Separator  Sheet filter  Module filter  Candle filter 278
    • 186. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Mechanisms of filtration Surface filtration • •  279 Particles are not able to penetrate the pores in the filter medium (micro sieve, membrane). They are restrained and this coating is becoming more and more thick. Filtration is becoming more and more capillary but the flow is decreasing more and more. E.g.: Crossflow-membranefiltration flow rate  pressure (Δ p )
    • 187. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Mechanisms of filtration •  High porous filter aids with big surface and mazelike arrangement (e.g.: kieselguhr) force the liquid to go a long way through the filter cake. flow rate Deep bed filtration There are two effects, mostly they appear in combination: • Due to mazelike arrangement the sieve effect is caused, substances are restrained • Adsorption • Due to different charging substances are adsorbed - Mechanical sieve effect • pressure (Δ p) flow rate  pressure (Δ p) 280
    • 188. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Separation methods Normal filtration Hydrozyclones Ultra filtration Centrifuges Nano filtration Reverse osmosis Colloides Particle size Saccharids Hair Sand partiles Viren Oils / Fats Metal-ions Colours Salts Yeast cells Proteins [µm] 0,0001 0,001 0,01 = 1 nm 0,1 Bacteria 1,0 10 = 1 µm Beer filtration: Pore size 0,2 - 0,8 µm 281 Size contrast Methods Micro filtration 100 1000 = 1 mm
    • 189. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Deep bed filtration 4-8 µm Yeast cells Filter fabrics 55 µm 1-4 µm Bacteria Kieselguhr (filter aid) 2-10 µm 282 fine mid 10-20 µm coarse 20-40 µm
    • 190. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Principle of precoat filtration  Kieselguhr is coated onto a support layer • As layer is used: - Candle - Metal braid cloth - Cellulose layer - Gaps are at 50-80 µm 285
    • 191. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Composition of Kieselguhr coatings (filter cake)  The first kieselguhr coating is directly put on the support layer, that there is a basic filtration coating and no kieselguhr can pass the support layer any more. •  The second kieselguhr coating is put on the first one. This is for safety and to be able to filtrate the first incoming beer already •  2. Precoating → with a mixture from more fine kieselguhr products With kieselguhr dosing during filtration we keep the filter cake permeable • 286 1. Precoating → with coarse kieselguhr The brilliance of filtration is determined by the proportion from coarse to mid to fine kieselguhr
    • 192. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution TFS filtration system (Twin Flow System) 287
    • 193. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Candle filter (TFS)  Filter candles are screwed on the register  Unfiltrate is running through the filter cake as filtrate into the candle to the collecting pipes  Low investment and maintenance costs in comparison to a horizontal filter  Controlled disposition of kieselguhr due to bypass flow of unfiltrate 288
    • 194. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Targets for an efficient precoat filter  A perfect distribution of filter aids controlled via bypass flow  Independency from filter aid (kieselguhr, alternative filter aids, PVPP)  Significant reduction of water consumption  Increase of filtrate quality (biology, low O2-uptake)  Increase of filter cycles  Decrease of operation costs  Development of Twin Flow System (TFS) 289
    • 195. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Conventional Candle filter filtrate filtrate area   top plate kieselguhr distribution across filter surface by „vagabond flow“ unfiltrate area blending paths begin at end of the candles and/or at the inlet inlet distributor unfiltrate 290    Head plate divides filtrate from unfiltrate area Distribution of precoat kieselguhr is only going via unknown flow inside the filter vessel, no control possible Irregular setup of kieselguhr coating along the candles Irregular particle distribution from on top and bottom Distributor at the entrance of unfiltrate is only a inadequate compensation #
    • 196. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution TFS filter registerpiping bypass unfiltrate area = whole vessel  Register pipe work instead of head plate  Flow against filter areas is controlled via bypass flow of unfiltrate  Constant distribution of filter aid on bottom as well as on top: optimized filtration  Increase of cleaning efficiency of vessel and filter candles (sprayball!)  The whole vessel is unfiltrate area filtrate controlled distribution of kieselguhr by directed bypassflow adjustable partial flows = controlled filtration unfiltrate 291
    • 197. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Conventional candle filter TFS-filter bypass filtrat e filtrate V = VSink V=0 % V = 100 % + Vsink V = 100 % unfiltrate 292 unfiltrate
    • 198. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Innovations at TFS filter Sprayball Register Bypass Filtrate outlet TFS filter elements Inlet distributor Inlet unfiltrate 293
    • 199. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Register with 2 outlets 294
    • 200. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Register with 2 outlets - detailed 295
    • 201. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution The filter element   296 Metallic seal and O-ring between element and register  filtration Inner pipe for volume reduction and increase of stability of the filter element Ringpipe for optimized flow and increase of backwash effect rinsing
    • 202. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Tests of precoat with filtrated beer and pushout with CO2 Sag after push out of the vessel with CO2 with maximum of trub volume Berliner Kindl brewery: 400 hl/h 2400 mm long filter elements after precoat with filtrate beer 297
    • 203. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Plant layout Bypass 0 % Filtrate 0 % 0% inlet outlet 298
    • 204. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Separation of first runnings via bypass Minimum mixed phase, even with brand changes 299
    • 205. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Filtration   About 12 % bypass flow Depends on filter aid and filterability of unfiltrate beer unfiltrate filtrate 300 bypass 12 % filtrate 100 % 112 %
    • 206. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution TFS: Our solution – Your advantage  Product quality better turbidity results, less particles in filtrate, high biological safety and minimized oxygen uptake  Production safety Easy backwash of TFS filter candles, no manual cleaning required, high operating reliability  301 Flexibility Usage of various filter aids possible (kieselguhr, perlits, PVPP, alternative filter aids on basis of cellulose, starch or polymers)  Specific adjustment of bypass flow = alternative filter aid!
    • 207. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution TFS: Our solution – Your advantage  Efficiency • Up to 1/3 less rinsing water • Up to 1/3 less precoating • Up to 25 % less kieselguhr consumption • Reduction of waste kieselguhr • Reduction of first and last runnings • In average ∆p 10 % better • Longer filtration time  possible saving of 10 – 30 filtration cycles per year! 302
    • 208. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Influencing factors for filtration  Unfiltrate • • Complex proteins • Yeast cells per ml •  Viscosity (β-glucan) Gravity (residual extract) Filtration technology • • Build up of filter cake •  Flow rate Process technology Filter aid • • 303 Porosity Mixture
    • 209. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Cleaning & Disinfection 312 312
    • 210. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Definitions  Cleaning • •  Removal of residues and deposits by way of mechanical or chemical means Generation of clean and sanitary surfaces Disinfection • •  Selective killing of pathogenic and other harmful microorganisms (MO’s) in piping and vessels so that the MO’s will not cause contaminations Avoiding of infection and destruction of unwanted microorganisms Sterilisation • • 313 313 Physical or chemical process which kills ALL microorganisms and spores Complete sterility
    • 211. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Cleaning agents  Acidic cleaning agents • •  H2SO4, HNO3, H3PO4 Used for removing of inorganic substances like scaling (minerals) and other deposits coming from water hardness Neutral cleaning agents • • These are molecules with hydrophobic and hydrophilic in part •  Ionic and non-ionic tensids and mixtures They are used for removing of oils and fats Alkaline cleaning agents • • 314 314 NaOH, KOH They are used for removing organic substances like sugars, proteins and fats
    • 212. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Factors of influence on cleaning  Considerations for object (surface) you want to clean • Dirt • Age of deposits • Texture • Sticking properties  Cleaning agent (e.g. acids for scaling)  Concentration of the cleaning agent  Contact time  Temperature  Cleaning procedure • • Chemical • 315 315 Mechanical Combined
    • 213. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Additives of cleaning agents  To get a better cleaning effect, cleaning agents often have additives: • Complexing agents - Softeners take away Ca and Mg • Antifoam agents • Avoiding of scaling • Protection from corrosion • Wetting agents - Reduces surface tension • 316 316 Stabilizers
    • 214. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Procedures of cleaning  Contact phase •  Wetting phase •  Trapping of substances and evacuation Post cleaning phase • 317 317 Disintegration of dirt particles Emulsification and suspension phase •  Dirt is partly taken away from the surface Dispersion phase •  Total wetting of the deposits by surface active substances Penetration phase •  Ingredients of the cleaning agents solubilise (surface active substances) Defined by soil carrying ability of the cleaning agent (avoiding reprecipitation)
    • 215. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Types of cleaning procedures and precautions  Types of cleaning procedures • • • • Manual (with brushes) or automatic cleaning Chemical or mechanical cleaning Low pressure cleaning (1 – 8 bar) or high pressure (10 – 150 bar) Lost or recovered cleaning (CIP)  Precautions and protection • Protective clothing • „First water then concentrate...“ • Never put cleaning or disinfectant agents into food packaging • If there is contact, rinse with lots of water and contact physician  Material compatibility • You have to watch the reaction between cleaning and disinfectant agents and materials (e.g. never use chlorine containing agents in contact with stainless steel  pitting corrosion, causes seals to degenerate 318 318
    • 216. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution CIP prerun brewhouse Wort line CIP (Cleaning in Place) - Cleaning plant CIP return wort line CIP return brewhouse Caustic concentrate upconcentrate Acid concentrate Steam Recovered water Warm water 319 319 Caustic brewhouse Caustic wort line Acid Cold water
    • 217. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution CIP cleaning procedures  Typical cleaning recipe  Water tank – cold • Rinsing with water  Water tank – hot • Cleaning with caustic  • Rinsing with water Recovered water tank • Cleaning with acid  Caustic tank – cold • Rinsing with water  Caustic tank – hot • Disinfection  Acid tank  There are different CIP-plants for the different departments (brewhouse, unfiltrate area, filtrate area, bottling). If we do so cleaning agents used can be more selective  Concentration is measured by conductivity measurement devices  Caustic can be regenerated by sedimentation, sieving or filtration  Never mix caustic and acidic cleaning agents, it is very dangerous !!!  Carefully monitor temperatures while cleaning tanks (hot → cold → vacuum) !!! 320 320
    • 218. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Disinfectant  Requirements: • High water solubility • General performance • No resistance to microorganisms • Cleaning effect with low temperatures • Low surface tension • No condensation • Good rinsing properties • Low costs, nontoxic, sprayable without foaming  Types of disinfectants: • Mechanical (sterile filtration) • Physical (ultraviolet rays) • Thermal (steam or hot water) • Chemical 321 321
    • 219. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Chemical disinfectants     322 322 Alcohol • Only kills live cells, not spores Aldehyde (Formaldehyde – formalin compounds) • Broadly based cleaning effect • Low effect on yeast and mildews • Slow cleaning effect • Pharmacy taste • Cancer causing Phenols • Foreign odour • Poorly water soluble Halogens (NaOCl, Jod) • Do not use for stainless steel • Chlorination of water • Activated chlorine for cleaning
    • 220. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Chemical disinfectants   323 323 Oxidisers • H2 O2, paracetic acid • No residue (disaggregation to O2 and H2O) • Long residence time Quaternary ammonium compounds • Wetting agent with low surface tension • High surface activity • High anti microbiological effect • 0,1-0,2 % • Problems with rinsing • Reduction of foam stability • Sulphurous agents (Na2S2O5, sulphurous acid) • Amphotensids, antibiotics, chemotherapeutics
    • 221. Technology of Beer Production turned into Technical Solution Thank you! 367