0
Rare-
Rare-Earth Industry Overview and
Defense Applications
By James B. Hedrick
U.S. Geological Survey - Retired
Hedrick C...
Rare Earths Defined
   The rare earths are not rare, nor are they earths
   Rare earths are a group of 17 elements
    c...
Periodic Table




                 Source: Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
REE Mineral Reserves
88 million metric tons of contained rare-earth oxide (REO)

                                         ...
REE World Mineral Production in 2008
124,000 metric tons of contained rare-earth oxide (REO)




                 China
  ...
Rare Earth Ores
   Bastnäsite-
    Bastnäsite-(Ce)   (Ce, La, Nd, Pr)(CO3)F

   Monazite-
    Monazite-(Ce)     (Ce, La,...
Principal Rare-Earth Deposits
          Rare-
   Bastnäsite
       Mountain Pass, CA, USA
       Bayan Obo, Inner Mongo...
Bastnäsite
                                                    Mountain Pass, CA
                                         ...
Monazite
                                                                  Australia
      Weight Percent of Total Recover...
Loparite
                                                                             Russia
     Weight Percent of Total ...
Xenotime
                                                                  Malaysia
                                      ...
IAT Ore – yttrium rich
                             Longnan,
                             Longnan Jiangxi Province, China
...
IAT Ore – Nd and La rich
                                Xunwu,
                                Xunwu, Jiangxi Province, C...
Rare Earth World Production and U.S.
Imports
                     140,000

                     120,000
Metric tons of REO...
Mineral Processing




                 Credit: Molycorp, Inc.
Beneficiation of Bastnäsite




                  Source: Molycorp, Inc., compiled by J.B. Hedrick and G.B. Haxel
Solvent Extraction (SX) Processing




 Immiscible solutions of an organic solvent and aqueous raffinate are mixed
mechan...
Beneficiation of Placer Monazite
Wet and Dry Mill (Generalized)




                          Source: Molycorp, Inc., comp...
Defense Applications
Samarium-
Samarium-cobalt magnets in motors for
flight
fli h control surfaces
            l    f
 AIM-9X
  AIM-     Sidew...
AIM-
AIM-120 AMRAAM Missile
   Sm-
    Sm-Co magnets used by mid-fuselage fins
                           mid-
   Improv...
BGM-
BGM-109D Tomahawk Cruise Missile
Tail control fins use direct drive RE magnet actuators




                         ...
Smart Bombs—Joint Direct Attack
      Bombs—
Munitions (JDAM)
 Nd-Fe-
  Nd-Fe-B magnets control fins of gravity guided bo...
Nd:YAG Laser
Designator-
Designator-Rangefinder     Laser Targeting System
                            on Abrams M1A1 Tank...
F-15 With Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia
          Yttria-




Coating in hot section of engine to protect metal alloy

      ...
F-117 Avionics with REE Phosphors
Sonar Transducers for Submarines
   Terfenol-
    Terfenol-D® Tb-Fe-Ni alloy with Dy - magnetostrictive alloy
           ...
Radar Surveillance
 Rare-
  Rare-earth magnet
  waveguides in travelling
  wave tubes ( (TWT) and
                     )
...
Electronic Warfare
   Electronic Intelligence (ELINT)
       Electronic Countermeasures (ECM)
            Support Jammi...
Ferrite-
Ferrite-Enabled Defense Systems
 Yttrium iron ga et (YIG) – Yttrium gado u garnet (YGG)
  tt u     o garnet ( G) ...
PATRIOT Phased-Array TRacking to
Intercept Of Target solid state phased array radar




                      YIG and YGG ...
BMEWS Ballistic Missile Early
Warning System solid state phased array radar




                          Credit: Raytheon...
REE Production Trends




 Monazite-
 Monazite-placer   │    Mountain Pass              │      Chinese era      →?
      e...
Rare Earth Imports
Principal sources by weight in 2008
Tensile Strength (ksi = 1,000 pounds/square inch)
Al, Sc-Al,
Al Sc-Al and Ti Alloys
 200                                  ...
Density (g/cm )                        3

Al, Sc-Al,
Al Sc-Al and Ti Alloys




                                          ...
Density
       y
 Al, Ti, Steel, and Sc-Al Alloys
                    Sc-
8.00
8 00
       Aluminum 5083
7.00   Titanium-6...
Price Comparison at yearend 2009
Stainless Steel Aluminum Titanium alloy and Sc-Al alloys
          Steel, Aluminum,      ...
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) –
Predator d th R
P d t and the Reaper
MQ-
MQ-1B Predator




MQ-
MQ-9 Reaper




          ...
UAV – Multi-Spectral Targeting System
      Multi-
AN/AAS-
AN/AAS-52 by Raytheon has rare earths in:
• Infrared and CCDTV ...
Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP)
also known as Chemical Mechanical Planarization

   Cerium oxide is used
    in polis...
Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) HgCdTe or
InSb polished with cerium oxide




       Credit: International Society for Optics and...
CMP – Chemical Mechanical
Polishing E i
P li hi Equipmentt
   Silicon wafer polishing equipment
   Cerium oxide polishin...
Future designs with rare earths
           F-35 Joint Strike Fighter design
                 F-35A (CTOL) / F-35B (STOVL)...
Rare Earths Are Used in Defense
Every Second…24/7




                            Credit: U.S. Air Force
Rare Earth Overview 2010  -  USGS
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  1. 1. Rare- Rare-Earth Industry Overview and Defense Applications By James B. Hedrick U.S. Geological Survey - Retired Hedrick Consultants Inc., Burke, Virginia 2010 SME Annual Meeting and Exhibit 1 March 2010 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey
  2. 2. Rare Earths Defined  The rare earths are not rare, nor are they earths  Rare earths are a group of 17 elements comprising scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides  The lanthanides are a group of 15 elements: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, p y y promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium  The rare-earth elements are abbreviated “REE” rare-
  3. 3. Periodic Table Source: Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
  4. 4. REE Mineral Reserves 88 million metric tons of contained rare-earth oxide (REO) Australia CIS 6 0% 6.0% 21.8% Malaysia China <1% 30.9% Others 25.2% United States India 14.9% 1.3%
  5. 5. REE World Mineral Production in 2008 124,000 metric tons of contained rare-earth oxide (REO) China 97.0% India 2.2% Malaysia 0.3% Brazil 0.5% 0 5%
  6. 6. Rare Earth Ores  Bastnäsite- Bastnäsite-(Ce) (Ce, La, Nd, Pr)(CO3)F  Monazite- Monazite-(Ce) (Ce, La, Nd, Th)PO4  Xenotime- Xenotime-(Y) YPO4  Loparite- Loparite-(Ce) (Ce, Na, Ca)(Ti, Nb)O3  Ion adsorption type (IAT) REE ions adsorbed on clay- clay- formed from lateritic weathering y g  Ion adsorption clay Y-rich Y-  Ion adsorption clay La, Nd-rich Nd-
  7. 7. Principal Rare-Earth Deposits Rare-  Bastnäsite  Mountain Pass, CA, USA  Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China  Mianning, Sichuan Province, China  Weishan Lake, Shandong Province, China  Monazite  Kerala State, Tamil Nadu State, and Orissa State, India  Lateritic ion-adsorption clay ion-  Xunwu, Jiangxi Province, China  Longnan, Longnan Jiangxi Province, China Province  Loparite  Lovozero, Kola Peninsula, Russia
  8. 8. Bastnäsite Mountain Pass, CA Pass Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Bastnäsite (Mountain Pass, CA) Pr Sm Gd Ce Nd Tb Eu Ho Lu Yb Tm Y Er La Dy Source: Johnson, G.W. and Sisneros, T.E., 1981.
  9. 9. Monazite Australia Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Monazite (Australian) Sm Y Dy Gd Pr Nd Tb Eu Ce Ho La Er Tm Lu Yb Source: Westralian Sands, Ltd., 1979.
  10. 10. Loparite Russia Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Loparite (Russia) Pr Sm Y Gd Nd Eu Ce Ho Er Tm Yb La Lu Dy Source: Hedrick, J.B., Sinha, S.P., and Kosynkin, V. D. 1997
  11. 11. Xenotime Malaysia y Weight Percent Of Total Recovered REE: Xenotim e (Malaysian) Dy La Ce Pr Sm Nd Gd Y Tb Eu Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Source: Johnson, G.W. and Sisneros, T.E., 1981.
  12. 12. IAT Ore – yttrium rich Longnan, Longnan Jiangxi Province, China Province Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Longnan Lateritic Ore (China) Dy La Ce Pr Sm Nd Gd Tb Y Eu Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Source: Introduction to Jiangxi rare earths and applied products, 1985 (Jiangxi Province brochure).
  13. 13. IAT Ore – Nd and La rich Xunwu, Xunwu, Jiangxi Province, China Province Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Xunw u Lateritic Ore (China) Nd Gd Tb Sm Eu Ho Pr Er Tm Y Yb Ce Lu Dy D La Source: Introduction to Jiangxi rare earths and applied products, 1985 (Jiangxi Province brochure).
  14. 14. Rare Earth World Production and U.S. Imports 140,000 120,000 Metric tons of REO 100,000 R 80,000 60,000 M 40,000 20,000 0 1953 1958 1963 1968 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 World production U.S. imports
  15. 15. Mineral Processing Credit: Molycorp, Inc.
  16. 16. Beneficiation of Bastnäsite Source: Molycorp, Inc., compiled by J.B. Hedrick and G.B. Haxel
  17. 17. Solvent Extraction (SX) Processing  Immiscible solutions of an organic solvent and aqueous raffinate are mixed mechanically and then allowed to separate enriching the solvent in a particular rare separate, earth.  The longer the solutions are mixed and allowed to separate, the higher the purity. Source: Molycorp, Inc., compiled by: J.B. Hedrick and G.B. Haxel
  18. 18. Beneficiation of Placer Monazite Wet and Dry Mill (Generalized) Source: Molycorp, Inc., compiled by: J.B. Hedrick and G.B. Haxel
  19. 19. Defense Applications
  20. 20. Samarium- Samarium-cobalt magnets in motors for flight fli h control surfaces l f  AIM-9X AIM- Sidewinder  AIM-120 AIM- AMRAAM  AIM-54 AIM- Phoenix Credit: U.S. Department of Defense
  21. 21. AIM- AIM-120 AMRAAM Missile  Sm- Sm-Co magnets used by mid-fuselage fins mid-  Improved Electronic Counter Counter Measures (ECCM) with jamming detection an upgraded seeker and a longer range – rare detection, seeker, earths in ECCM
  22. 22. BGM- BGM-109D Tomahawk Cruise Missile Tail control fins use direct drive RE magnet actuators Credit: Raytheon Corporation
  23. 23. Smart Bombs—Joint Direct Attack Bombs— Munitions (JDAM)  Nd-Fe- Nd-Fe-B magnets control fins of gravity guided bombs linked to a GPS system  Magnets for JDAM made in China
  24. 24. Nd:YAG Laser Designator- Designator-Rangefinder Laser Targeting System on Abrams M1A1 Tank Credit: Engineered Support Systems, Inc. and U.S. Army
  25. 25. F-15 With Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Yttria- Coating in hot section of engine to protect metal alloy Credit: Wolfgang Bredow
  26. 26. F-117 Avionics with REE Phosphors
  27. 27. Sonar Transducers for Submarines  Terfenol- Terfenol-D® Tb-Fe-Ni alloy with Dy - magnetostrictive alloy Tb-Fe-  Magnetic domains in the crystal rotate when a magnetic field is applied which creates a sonar ping ping. Credit: General Dynamics Corporation — Electric Boat
  28. 28. Radar Surveillance  Rare- Rare-earth magnet waveguides in travelling wave tubes ( (TWT) and ) klystrons  Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) g ( ) and yttrium gadolinium garnet (YGG) in phase shifters, tuners, and filters , ,  Rare earths are used in pulsed and continuous wave radar, satellite radar communication Credit: Raytheon Corporation
  29. 29. Electronic Warfare  Electronic Intelligence (ELINT)  Electronic Countermeasures (ECM)  Support Jamming  Self- Self-Protect Jamming  Electronic Surveillance Measures (ESM) El t i S ill M  Both ESM and ECM use Yttrium Iron Garnets (YIG) and Yttrium Gadolinium Garnets (YGG)
  30. 30. Ferrite- Ferrite-Enabled Defense Systems Yttrium iron ga et (YIG) – Yttrium gado u garnet (YGG) tt u o garnet ( G) tt u gadolinium ga et ( GG) • Phased-Array Radars—Patriot, Aegis, B-1B, Joint STARS, SPQ 9B STARS SPQ-9B • Communication Satellites—DSCS III, MILSTAR, Advanced EHF, Classified • Communication Systems • F-22 Intra-Flight Data Link, Dark Star and newer UAV g Data Links • Potential JSF, UCAV, etc. • ECM S t Systems • ALQ-172 (B-52, AC-130), ALQ-178 (F-16) • ALQ-211 (AH-64D MH-47, MH-60, CV-22) (AH-64D, MH-47 MH-60
  31. 31. PATRIOT Phased-Array TRacking to Intercept Of Target solid state phased array radar YIG and YGG used in toroids and RF (radio frequency) circulators Credit: Raytheon Corporation
  32. 32. BMEWS Ballistic Missile Early Warning System solid state phased array radar Credit: Raytheon Corporation and U.S. Air Force
  33. 33. REE Production Trends Monazite- Monazite-placer │ Mountain Pass │ Chinese era →? era era Source: USGS Fact Sheet 087-02 updated with recent USGS Minerals Yearbook
  34. 34. Rare Earth Imports Principal sources by weight in 2008
  35. 35. Tensile Strength (ksi = 1,000 pounds/square inch) Al, Sc-Al, Al Sc-Al and Ti Alloys 200 190 180 164 160 146 145 140 120 100 100 90 91 91.5 92 96 83 80 70 64 66 69 60 50 40 20 0 Al 6013-T8 Al 2024 Al 7046 Al 7075 Al 7475 Al 7050 Al 7055 Sc500 Sc777 Al C555 Sc ScXS Gen1X Sc Ti-6Al-4V Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al Source: Company alloy data, ASTM, MatWeb Material Property Data
  36. 36. Density (g/cm ) 3 Al, Sc-Al, Al Sc-Al and Ti Alloys 4.54 5.00 4.65 4.42 4.17 4.50 4.00 3.50 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.80 2.80 2.77 2.71 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0 00 Al 6013-T8 Al 2024 Al 7046 Al 7075 Al 7475 Al 7050 Al 7055 Sc500 Sc777 Al C555 Sc ScXS Gen1X Sc Ti-6Al-4V Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al Source: Company alloy data, ASTM, MatWeb Material Property Data
  37. 37. Density y Al, Ti, Steel, and Sc-Al Alloys Sc- 8.00 8 00 Aluminum 5083 7.00 Titanium-6Al-4V 7.86 6.00 Rolled Homogeneous Steel Al-0.07Sc 00 S 5.00 4.00 3.00 4.50 2.00 2.70 2.702 1.00 1 00 0.00 grams/cubic centimeter Source: Company alloy data, ASTM, MatWeb Material Property Data
  38. 38. Price Comparison at yearend 2009 Stainless Steel Aluminum Titanium alloy and Sc-Al alloys Steel, Aluminum, alloy, Sc- $80.00 $74.00 304 Stainless Steel $70.00 Al (Ingot) $60.00 Ti (6Al-4V) $50.00 $50 00 Sc-Al (Al 98% - Sc $40.00 2%) master alloy $ $30.00 $19.29 $19 29 Sc-Al (Al 99.98% - ( .02% Sc) $20.00 $10.00 $0.64 $2.18 $3.67 $0.00 Dollars per kilogram Source: American Metal Market, London Metal Exchange, and Stanford Materials
  39. 39. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) – Predator d th R P d t and the Reaper MQ- MQ-1B Predator MQ- MQ-9 Reaper Credit: U.S. Air Force
  40. 40. UAV – Multi-Spectral Targeting System Multi- AN/AAS- AN/AAS-52 by Raytheon has rare earths in: • Infrared and CCDTV sensors - focal plane arrays (FPA) polished with cerium oxide • Nd-YAG laser rangefinder, designator, and illuminator Nd- • Optional laser spot tracker sensor with FPA and integrated circuits polished with cerium oxide and yttrium- yttrium-containing ferrite electronics • Lenses are polished with cerium oxide Credit: U.S. Air Force
  41. 41. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) also known as Chemical Mechanical Planarization  Cerium oxide is used in polishing:  Semiconductors – Logic and Memory Storage  Dielectrics  STI or Shallow Trench Isolation - Transistors Credit: Alpsitec
  42. 42. Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) HgCdTe or InSb polished with cerium oxide Credit: International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE) and Raytheon Corporation
  43. 43. CMP – Chemical Mechanical Polishing E i P li hi Equipmentt  Silicon wafer polishing equipment  Cerium oxide polishing slurries Credit: Alpsitec and Speedfam Inc.
  44. 44. Future designs with rare earths F-35 Joint Strike Fighter design  F-35A (CTOL) / F-35B (STOVL) / F-35C (CV) F- F- SM- Stalma™ SM-36 Stalma™ design  Short Take-off Advanced Light Multi-role Attack Jet Take- Multi-  Designed to replace F-16 F-  11% Sc-Al in frame decreases frame weight while Sc- maintaining strength allowing shorter take off.  Sc- Sc-Al in internal wing, canard and empennage internal structure, fuselage geodetic substructure, air intake ducts, and landing gear structure.  Planned for 2020-2025 multi-role fighter market. 2020- multi- Credit: Stavatti Aerospace and Lockheed Martin
  45. 45. Rare Earths Are Used in Defense Every Second…24/7 Credit: U.S. Air Force
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