• Like
Rare Earth Overview 2010  -  USGS
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Rare Earth Overview 2010 - USGS

  • 5,606 views
Published

 

Published in Investor Relations
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
5,606
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
287
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Rare- Rare-Earth Industry Overview and Defense Applications By James B. Hedrick U.S. Geological Survey - Retired Hedrick Consultants Inc., Burke, Virginia 2010 SME Annual Meeting and Exhibit 1 March 2010 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey
  • 2. Rare Earths Defined  The rare earths are not rare, nor are they earths  Rare earths are a group of 17 elements comprising scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides  The lanthanides are a group of 15 elements: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, p y y promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium  The rare-earth elements are abbreviated “REE” rare-
  • 3. Periodic Table Source: Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
  • 4. REE Mineral Reserves 88 million metric tons of contained rare-earth oxide (REO) Australia CIS 6 0% 6.0% 21.8% Malaysia China <1% 30.9% Others 25.2% United States India 14.9% 1.3%
  • 5. REE World Mineral Production in 2008 124,000 metric tons of contained rare-earth oxide (REO) China 97.0% India 2.2% Malaysia 0.3% Brazil 0.5% 0 5%
  • 6. Rare Earth Ores  Bastnäsite- Bastnäsite-(Ce) (Ce, La, Nd, Pr)(CO3)F  Monazite- Monazite-(Ce) (Ce, La, Nd, Th)PO4  Xenotime- Xenotime-(Y) YPO4  Loparite- Loparite-(Ce) (Ce, Na, Ca)(Ti, Nb)O3  Ion adsorption type (IAT) REE ions adsorbed on clay- clay- formed from lateritic weathering y g  Ion adsorption clay Y-rich Y-  Ion adsorption clay La, Nd-rich Nd-
  • 7. Principal Rare-Earth Deposits Rare-  Bastnäsite  Mountain Pass, CA, USA  Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China  Mianning, Sichuan Province, China  Weishan Lake, Shandong Province, China  Monazite  Kerala State, Tamil Nadu State, and Orissa State, India  Lateritic ion-adsorption clay ion-  Xunwu, Jiangxi Province, China  Longnan, Longnan Jiangxi Province, China Province  Loparite  Lovozero, Kola Peninsula, Russia
  • 8. Bastnäsite Mountain Pass, CA Pass Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Bastnäsite (Mountain Pass, CA) Pr Sm Gd Ce Nd Tb Eu Ho Lu Yb Tm Y Er La Dy Source: Johnson, G.W. and Sisneros, T.E., 1981.
  • 9. Monazite Australia Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Monazite (Australian) Sm Y Dy Gd Pr Nd Tb Eu Ce Ho La Er Tm Lu Yb Source: Westralian Sands, Ltd., 1979.
  • 10. Loparite Russia Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Loparite (Russia) Pr Sm Y Gd Nd Eu Ce Ho Er Tm Yb La Lu Dy Source: Hedrick, J.B., Sinha, S.P., and Kosynkin, V. D. 1997
  • 11. Xenotime Malaysia y Weight Percent Of Total Recovered REE: Xenotim e (Malaysian) Dy La Ce Pr Sm Nd Gd Y Tb Eu Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Source: Johnson, G.W. and Sisneros, T.E., 1981.
  • 12. IAT Ore – yttrium rich Longnan, Longnan Jiangxi Province, China Province Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Longnan Lateritic Ore (China) Dy La Ce Pr Sm Nd Gd Tb Y Eu Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Source: Introduction to Jiangxi rare earths and applied products, 1985 (Jiangxi Province brochure).
  • 13. IAT Ore – Nd and La rich Xunwu, Xunwu, Jiangxi Province, China Province Weight Percent of Total Recovered REE: Xunw u Lateritic Ore (China) Nd Gd Tb Sm Eu Ho Pr Er Tm Y Yb Ce Lu Dy D La Source: Introduction to Jiangxi rare earths and applied products, 1985 (Jiangxi Province brochure).
  • 14. Rare Earth World Production and U.S. Imports 140,000 120,000 Metric tons of REO 100,000 R 80,000 60,000 M 40,000 20,000 0 1953 1958 1963 1968 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 World production U.S. imports
  • 15. Mineral Processing Credit: Molycorp, Inc.
  • 16. Beneficiation of Bastnäsite Source: Molycorp, Inc., compiled by J.B. Hedrick and G.B. Haxel
  • 17. Solvent Extraction (SX) Processing  Immiscible solutions of an organic solvent and aqueous raffinate are mixed mechanically and then allowed to separate enriching the solvent in a particular rare separate, earth.  The longer the solutions are mixed and allowed to separate, the higher the purity. Source: Molycorp, Inc., compiled by: J.B. Hedrick and G.B. Haxel
  • 18. Beneficiation of Placer Monazite Wet and Dry Mill (Generalized) Source: Molycorp, Inc., compiled by: J.B. Hedrick and G.B. Haxel
  • 19. Defense Applications
  • 20. Samarium- Samarium-cobalt magnets in motors for flight fli h control surfaces l f  AIM-9X AIM- Sidewinder  AIM-120 AIM- AMRAAM  AIM-54 AIM- Phoenix Credit: U.S. Department of Defense
  • 21. AIM- AIM-120 AMRAAM Missile  Sm- Sm-Co magnets used by mid-fuselage fins mid-  Improved Electronic Counter Counter Measures (ECCM) with jamming detection an upgraded seeker and a longer range – rare detection, seeker, earths in ECCM
  • 22. BGM- BGM-109D Tomahawk Cruise Missile Tail control fins use direct drive RE magnet actuators Credit: Raytheon Corporation
  • 23. Smart Bombs—Joint Direct Attack Bombs— Munitions (JDAM)  Nd-Fe- Nd-Fe-B magnets control fins of gravity guided bombs linked to a GPS system  Magnets for JDAM made in China
  • 24. Nd:YAG Laser Designator- Designator-Rangefinder Laser Targeting System on Abrams M1A1 Tank Credit: Engineered Support Systems, Inc. and U.S. Army
  • 25. F-15 With Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Yttria- Coating in hot section of engine to protect metal alloy Credit: Wolfgang Bredow
  • 26. F-117 Avionics with REE Phosphors
  • 27. Sonar Transducers for Submarines  Terfenol- Terfenol-D® Tb-Fe-Ni alloy with Dy - magnetostrictive alloy Tb-Fe-  Magnetic domains in the crystal rotate when a magnetic field is applied which creates a sonar ping ping. Credit: General Dynamics Corporation — Electric Boat
  • 28. Radar Surveillance  Rare- Rare-earth magnet waveguides in travelling wave tubes ( (TWT) and ) klystrons  Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) g ( ) and yttrium gadolinium garnet (YGG) in phase shifters, tuners, and filters , ,  Rare earths are used in pulsed and continuous wave radar, satellite radar communication Credit: Raytheon Corporation
  • 29. Electronic Warfare  Electronic Intelligence (ELINT)  Electronic Countermeasures (ECM)  Support Jamming  Self- Self-Protect Jamming  Electronic Surveillance Measures (ESM) El t i S ill M  Both ESM and ECM use Yttrium Iron Garnets (YIG) and Yttrium Gadolinium Garnets (YGG)
  • 30. Ferrite- Ferrite-Enabled Defense Systems Yttrium iron ga et (YIG) – Yttrium gado u garnet (YGG) tt u o garnet ( G) tt u gadolinium ga et ( GG) • Phased-Array Radars—Patriot, Aegis, B-1B, Joint STARS, SPQ 9B STARS SPQ-9B • Communication Satellites—DSCS III, MILSTAR, Advanced EHF, Classified • Communication Systems • F-22 Intra-Flight Data Link, Dark Star and newer UAV g Data Links • Potential JSF, UCAV, etc. • ECM S t Systems • ALQ-172 (B-52, AC-130), ALQ-178 (F-16) • ALQ-211 (AH-64D MH-47, MH-60, CV-22) (AH-64D, MH-47 MH-60
  • 31. PATRIOT Phased-Array TRacking to Intercept Of Target solid state phased array radar YIG and YGG used in toroids and RF (radio frequency) circulators Credit: Raytheon Corporation
  • 32. BMEWS Ballistic Missile Early Warning System solid state phased array radar Credit: Raytheon Corporation and U.S. Air Force
  • 33. REE Production Trends Monazite- Monazite-placer │ Mountain Pass │ Chinese era →? era era Source: USGS Fact Sheet 087-02 updated with recent USGS Minerals Yearbook
  • 34. Rare Earth Imports Principal sources by weight in 2008
  • 35. Tensile Strength (ksi = 1,000 pounds/square inch) Al, Sc-Al, Al Sc-Al and Ti Alloys 200 190 180 164 160 146 145 140 120 100 100 90 91 91.5 92 96 83 80 70 64 66 69 60 50 40 20 0 Al 6013-T8 Al 2024 Al 7046 Al 7075 Al 7475 Al 7050 Al 7055 Sc500 Sc777 Al C555 Sc ScXS Gen1X Sc Ti-6Al-4V Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al Source: Company alloy data, ASTM, MatWeb Material Property Data
  • 36. Density (g/cm ) 3 Al, Sc-Al, Al Sc-Al and Ti Alloys 4.54 5.00 4.65 4.42 4.17 4.50 4.00 3.50 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.85 2.80 2.80 2.77 2.71 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0 00 Al 6013-T8 Al 2024 Al 7046 Al 7075 Al 7475 Al 7050 Al 7055 Sc500 Sc777 Al C555 Sc ScXS Gen1X Sc Ti-6Al-4V Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al Source: Company alloy data, ASTM, MatWeb Material Property Data
  • 37. Density y Al, Ti, Steel, and Sc-Al Alloys Sc- 8.00 8 00 Aluminum 5083 7.00 Titanium-6Al-4V 7.86 6.00 Rolled Homogeneous Steel Al-0.07Sc 00 S 5.00 4.00 3.00 4.50 2.00 2.70 2.702 1.00 1 00 0.00 grams/cubic centimeter Source: Company alloy data, ASTM, MatWeb Material Property Data
  • 38. Price Comparison at yearend 2009 Stainless Steel Aluminum Titanium alloy and Sc-Al alloys Steel, Aluminum, alloy, Sc- $80.00 $74.00 304 Stainless Steel $70.00 Al (Ingot) $60.00 Ti (6Al-4V) $50.00 $50 00 Sc-Al (Al 98% - Sc $40.00 2%) master alloy $ $30.00 $19.29 $19 29 Sc-Al (Al 99.98% - ( .02% Sc) $20.00 $10.00 $0.64 $2.18 $3.67 $0.00 Dollars per kilogram Source: American Metal Market, London Metal Exchange, and Stanford Materials
  • 39. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) – Predator d th R P d t and the Reaper MQ- MQ-1B Predator MQ- MQ-9 Reaper Credit: U.S. Air Force
  • 40. UAV – Multi-Spectral Targeting System Multi- AN/AAS- AN/AAS-52 by Raytheon has rare earths in: • Infrared and CCDTV sensors - focal plane arrays (FPA) polished with cerium oxide • Nd-YAG laser rangefinder, designator, and illuminator Nd- • Optional laser spot tracker sensor with FPA and integrated circuits polished with cerium oxide and yttrium- yttrium-containing ferrite electronics • Lenses are polished with cerium oxide Credit: U.S. Air Force
  • 41. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) also known as Chemical Mechanical Planarization  Cerium oxide is used in polishing:  Semiconductors – Logic and Memory Storage  Dielectrics  STI or Shallow Trench Isolation - Transistors Credit: Alpsitec
  • 42. Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) HgCdTe or InSb polished with cerium oxide Credit: International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE) and Raytheon Corporation
  • 43. CMP – Chemical Mechanical Polishing E i P li hi Equipmentt  Silicon wafer polishing equipment  Cerium oxide polishing slurries Credit: Alpsitec and Speedfam Inc.
  • 44. Future designs with rare earths F-35 Joint Strike Fighter design  F-35A (CTOL) / F-35B (STOVL) / F-35C (CV) F- F- SM- Stalma™ SM-36 Stalma™ design  Short Take-off Advanced Light Multi-role Attack Jet Take- Multi-  Designed to replace F-16 F-  11% Sc-Al in frame decreases frame weight while Sc- maintaining strength allowing shorter take off.  Sc- Sc-Al in internal wing, canard and empennage internal structure, fuselage geodetic substructure, air intake ducts, and landing gear structure.  Planned for 2020-2025 multi-role fighter market. 2020- multi- Credit: Stavatti Aerospace and Lockheed Martin
  • 45. Rare Earths Are Used in Defense Every Second…24/7 Credit: U.S. Air Force