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Cold Chain A Comparative Analysis
 

Cold Chain A Comparative Analysis

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Cold chain is a logistic system that provides a series of facilities for maintaining ideal storage conditions for perishables from the point of origin to the point of consumption in the food supply ...

Cold chain is a logistic system that provides a series of facilities for maintaining ideal storage conditions for perishables from the point of origin to the point of consumption in the food supply chain. The chain needs to start at the farm level (e.g. harvest methods, Pre-cooling) and cover up to the consumer level or at least to the retail level.

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    Cold Chain A Comparative Analysis Cold Chain A Comparative Analysis Document Transcript

    • Introduction to cold chainCold chain is a logistic system that provides a series of facilities for maintaining ideal storageconditions for perishables from the point of origin to the point of consumption in the food supplychain. The chain needs to start at the farm level (e.g. harvest methods, Pre-cooling) and cover upto the consumer level or at least to the retail level. A well organized cold chain reduces spoilage,retains the quality of the harvested products and guarantees a cost efficient delivery to theconsumer given adequate attention for customer service. The main feature of the chain is that ifany of the links is missing or is weak, the whole system fails.Objective Of Cold Chain Industries :- The temperature controlled supply chains or cold chainsare a significant proportion of the retail food market. The market shares of fast foods, readymeals and frozen products have increased in recent years. There are several food temperaturelevels to suit different types of products. Frozen, cold chilled, medium chilled, and exotic chilledare some of the frequently used nomenclatures with specified temperature ranges, depending onthe products, whether it is meat or ice cream or potatoes or bananas.With the growing demands to keep and distribute temperature sensitive products in potentcondition, organizations are seeking better solutions to maintain and monitor cold chain. Thesuccess of implementing cold chain management involves continual monitoring of producttemperature throughout distribution and having appropriate corrective action plans in place. Astreamlined, well maintained cold chain helps to:Reduce costs Improve product integrity Increase customer satisfactionReduce wastage and returns of expired stockNEED AND APPROACH FOR COLD STORAGEThe storage plan of the Ministry aims at providing the capacity required for buffer and operational stockto maintain the public distribution system and general warehousing. The Ministry has also been makingefforts to improve the traditional storage practices at the farm level.http://fcamin.nic.in/dfpd_html/storage_warehouseing.htmlFOODGRAIN STORAGE AND GENERAL WAREHOUSING:-There are three agencies inthe public sector which are engaged in building large scale storage/warehousing. Food Corporation of India(FCI) Central warehousing Corporation (CWC) State Warehousing Corporations (SWCs).
    • Over a period of time, sizeable scientific storage/warehousing capacity has been developed bythese public sector agencies and they are implementing plans to increase it further.The total covered capacity available with FCI for storage of Food grains including the capacityhired from Central Warehousing Corporation and State Warehousing Corporation was 261.21lakh tonnes as on 1.3.2005. The hired capacity with the Food Corporation of India was 109.80lakh tonnes as on 1.3.2005.STATE WISE STORAGE CAPACITY AVAILABLE:- GRAND STATE FCI* CWC** SWC** OTHERS*** TOTAL ANDHRA PRADESH 33.68 14.40 22.82 12.85 83.75 BIHAR 4.91 0.97 2.03 5.49 13.40 GUJRAT 5.70 6.23 2.27 2.25 16.45 HARYANA 22.95 4.40 16.07 15.90 59.32 KARNATAKA 6.30 4.54 8.98 4.31 24.13 KERALA 5.36 1.30 1.92 0.79 9.37 MADHYA PRADESH 5.46 6.75 11.38 5.25 28.84 MAHARASHTRA 15.71 15.64 12.20 13.69 57.24 ORISSA 6.25 1.88 4.05 4.52 16.70 PUNJAB 77.81 7.74 60.12 60.67 206.34 RAJASTHAN 9.09 3.75 7.19 0.03 20.06 TAMILNADU 7.67 8.02 6.36 24.33 46.38 UTTAR PRADESH 25.60 11.56 28.88 14.95 80.99 WEST BENGAL 10.62 6.86 2.27 1.31 21.06 JAMMU & KASHMIR 1.03 0.21 0.00 1.49 2.73 HIMACHAL PRADESH 0.26 0.07 0.00 0.40 0.73 GOA 0.15 1.04 0.00 0.14 1.33 ASSAM 2.52 0.64 2.48 1.10 6.74ARUNACHAL PRADESH 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.23 MANIPUR 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.23 0.41 MEGHALAYA 0.19 0.00 0.11 0.01 0.31 NAGALAND 0.27 0.13 0.00 0.11 0.51 SIKKIM 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.18 TRIPURA 0.34 0.24 0.00 0.31 0.89 MIZORAM 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.18 JHARKHAND 1.11 0.36 0.00 0.35 1.82 UTTRANCHAL 2.11 0.75 0.00 0.00 2.86 CHHATISGARH 9.27 2.37 6.07 0.00 17.71
    • UNION TERRITORIES 5.30 2.05 0.00 0.00 7.35 GRAND TOTAL 260.31 101.90 195.20 170.60 728.01In the Tenth Five Year Plan 2002-07, FCI proposes to construct additional storage capacity of6.42 lakh MT and CWC proposes to construct additional storage capacity of 9.37 lakh MTwhich takes the total proposed capacity to 15.79 lakh MT. Details of the Storage capacity constructed by FCI, CWC and SWC‟s during 2002-03 ,2003-04 and 2004-05 expected to be constructed by these agencies during 2005-06 are given inthe table below :- (Figures in Lakhs Tonnes) Agency YEAR 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 (PROPOSED ) FCI 0.94 1.32 0.97 N.A. CWC 3.59 3.14 1.17 2.57 TOTAL 4.53 4.46 2.14 2.57CENTRAL WAREHOUSING CORPORATION:- The main functions of theCentral Warehousing Corporation are to acquire and build warehouses at suitable places andto operate them for storage of agricultural production and certain other items includingindustrial goods.GROWTH IN STORAGE CAPACITY: - As we have seen from the following table,the owned warehousing capacity with the Central Warehousing Corporation has grown over theyears. (In Lakh Tonnes) As on Owned Hired Total 31.03.2000 54.47 20.32 74.79 31.03.2001 56.12 27.79 83.91 31.03.2002 68.45 20.72 89.17 31.03.2003 76.11 15.03 91.14 31.03.2004 80.75 12.84 93.59 31.02.2005 84.35 15.67 100.02
    • CAPACITY UTILISATION:- The average utilization of the Warehousing Capacity ofthe Corporation during the period April, 2004 to February 2005 has been about 62%.DIVERSIFICATION: - Over the years, the Corporation had diversified its activities. Ason 1.11.2004, it had 99 Custom Bonded Warehouses. It is operating Air Cargo complexes atAmritsar, Goa and Singllur to cater to the needs of export trade. The CWC is also operating 34 inland Container Depot (ICD)/Container Freight Stations(CFS).FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE The total turnover increased from Rs.255.64 crores in 1998-99 to Rs.276.34 crores during 1999-2000 and to Rs. 339.86 during 2000-01 and to 379.94 crores during 2001-02. The turnover hasfurther increased to Rs.471.08 crores during 2002-2003.During the year 2003-04 the turnoverwas 462.86 crores.In lakh tone(As Owned Hired Total Ratio(O:H)On)31.03.2000 82.20 41.54 123.74 1.979:131.03.2001 105.80 41.33 147.13 2.559:131.03.2002 104.28 58.50 162.78 1.782:131.03.2003 151.55 47.76 199.31 3.173:131.03.2004 158.05 48.76 206.81 3.241:131.03.2005 128.46 63.34 191.80 2.028:1Ref:-http://fcamin.nic.in/dfpd_html/storage_warehouseing.htmlINTERNAL RESOURCESThe Corporation has been generating Internal resources which have grown significantly over theyears and are sufficient for funding its own storage construction programme as well ascontributing to the State Warehousing Corporations equity.The Central Warehousing Corporation has 17 associates in the State Warehousing Corporations.The total investment of the Central Warehousing Corporation, which is 50% shareholder in theequity capital of State Warehousing Corporations was Rs.56.38 crores as on 30.9.2004. The StateWarehousing Corporations paid a total dividend of Rs.4.38 crores to the Central WarehousingCorporation during 2002-03.The covered storage capacity available with the State Warehousing Corporation and thegrowth of capacity over the last five years is reflected in the following table:
    • http://fcamin.nic.in/dfpd_html/storage_warehouseing.htmlLeading foreign cold chain companies offer assistance to IndiaPress Trust of India / New Delhi November 12, 2010, 17:58 ISTLeading European companies today offered their expertise to set up cold storage chains in India,where an estimated Rs 70,000 crore worth of crops go waste every year for want of properwarehousing facilities.Over a dozen cold chain warehouse companies from the Netherlands,France and Belgium joined over two dozen Indian companies at a two-day cold chain expoorganised by the Global Cold Chain Alliance (GCCA). No. Of cold storage units in Storage capacity(Lakh tones)Year operation1947 4 0.0311952 100 0.5921955 359 0.7711960 NA 3.0551965 615 6.8201970 1218 16.3801975 1615 20.5301980 2283 39.6501985 2522 50.9911990 2795 68.1501995 3167 85.8001996 3253 87.3002001 4199 153.852011 7486 335.35India has 7486 cold storages. The Major four states of cold storage in India are below, itaccounts for 4477 no. of storage places and the gross capacity of storage is 209lakh tones. Allother sates account for 3009 no. of cold storages and the gross capacity 126lakh tones. State No. of storages Capacity(in lakh) 1.Uttar Pradesh 2709 165.46 2.Gujrat 636 17.99 3.Maharashtra 579 8.50 4.Punjab 553 17.75
    • According to Directorate of Marketing and inspection (DMI), the apex Body regulating thecold storage in India the total cold Storage space in India is majorly utilized as the storage ofPotatoes. 78% of the space is utilized as the storage of potato.Refrigerated Warehouse Capacity, by Country, 2008 or 2010 as Available Country 2008(Million m3) 2010(Million m3) % Growth Rate USA 70.74 107.48 51.93 INDIA 18.58 105.14 465.877 CHINA 15.00 61.39 309.266 JAPAN 28.38 34.06 20.014 GERMANY 13.40 21.80 62.68 RUSSIA 16.00 16.12 0.75 BRAZIL 4.50 5.71 26.88http://www.gcca.org/global-cold-storage-capacity.html (Global Cold Chain Association)Indian Food and Vegetables Supply ChainMost of the Farmers don‟t use the TCL(Temperature Control Logistics) in the food andvegetables supply chain due to poor economies as well as lack of knowledge about the coldchain. While the second member i.e. Aggregator who collects the foods and vegetables alsodon‟t use TCL because of less volume. Wholesalers usually preferred the cold chain but only forcertain products not for all products.So the wastage of foods and vegetables are very high in every period of time.The Market trend of cold chain demand in India  According to DMI(Directorate of Marketing & Inspection) the TCL market in the agriculture industry is estimated to touch Rs 51.4 billion by 2012-13 at a CAGR(Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 10% in F&V.  In the chocolate segment the TCL market is estimated to touch Rs 1,861 million by 2012- 13 at a CAGR of 19% in total beverages market, only inbound logistics are estimated to be Rs 18.08 crore by 2012-13 at a CAGR of 22%.  The TCL market in ice-cream is estimated to touch Rs 349.9 crore by 2012-13 at a CAGR of 25.3%.
    •  The TCL market in meat Industry is estimated to touch Rs 645.04 crore by 2012-13 at a CAGR of 7.7%.  The growth of Reefer transportation will 11% from 259.39 to 441.9 crore.Challenges before Cold Chain Industry  The agriculture products post harvest loss is very high are estimated at 30% of the harvesting  There is a lack of access to market and technology  In the chocolate segment there is a lack of storage facility in the retail outlet  There is a lack of human capital with domain expertiseTechnology for cold chain is India with the western WorldInfrastructural Development  Most of the cold storage have single commodity storage facility with refrigeration through normal air conditioner or ammonia as refrigerant.  Developed countries are using liquid nitrogen, eutectic plate technology, carbon dioxide environment friendly technology.Snowman’s initiative for cold chain in IndiaSnowman a cold chain provider in India took several initiative to expand it‟s cold chain solution.Some of the initiatives are given below.  Pallets capacity inside a warehouse increased 52.4% on YoY. In 2008-09 the capacity is 9360 pallets. But in 2010-11 it increased to 16,250.  The warehouse of snowman in Chennai, Mumbai,  Establishment of cold chain, low cost pre-cooling facilities near farms, cold stores and grading, sorting, packing facilities to reduce wastage, improve quality and shelf life of products.  Application of biotechnology, remote sensing technology, energy saving technologies and technologies for environmental protection.  Building up a strong infrastructural base for production of value added products with special emphasis on food safety and quality matching international standards.  Development of Packaging Technologies for individual products, especially cut-fruits & vegetables, so as to increase their shelf life and improve consumer acceptance both in the domestic and international markets.  Development of new technologies in Food Processing & Packaging and also to provide for the mechanism to facilitate quick transfer of technologies to field through a net work of R&D Institutions having a Central Institute at the national level with satellite
    • institutions located strategically in various regions to cover up the whole Country and to make available the required testing facilities. This could be done by establishing a new institution or strengthening an existing one.  Development of area-specific Agro Food Parks dedicated to processing of the predominant produce of the area e.g., apple in J&K, pineapple in North East, Lichi in Bihar, Mango in Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh etc. etc.Reference:- Material management review, Volume-7, issue-12, date of publication- 1/10/11,October 2011.Introduction to cold chainCold chain is a logistic system that provides a series of facilities for maintaining ideal storageconditions for perishables from the point of origin to the point of consumption in the food supplychain. The chain needs to start at the farm level (e.g. harvest methods, Pre-cooling) and cover upto the consumer level or at least to the retail level. A well organized cold chain reduces spoilage,retains the quality of the harvested products and guarantees a cost efficient delivery to theconsumer given adequate attention for customer service. The main feature of the chain is that ifany of the links is missing or is weak, the whole system fails.Objective Of Cold Chain Industries :- The temperature controlled supply chains or cold chainsare a significant proportion of the retail food market. The market shares of fast foods, readymeals and frozen products have increased in recent years. There are several food temperaturelevels to suit different types of products. Frozen, cold chilled, medium chilled, and exotic chilledare some of the frequently used nomenclatures with specified temperature ranges, depending onthe products, whether it is meat or ice cream or potatoes or bananas.With the growing demands to keep and distribute temperature sensitive products in potentcondition, organizations are seeking better solutions to maintain and monitor cold chain. Thesuccess of implementing cold chain management involves continual monitoring of producttemperature throughout distribution and having appropriate corrective action plans in place. Astreamlined, well maintained cold chain helps to:Reduce costs Improve product integrity Increase customer satisfactionReduce wastage and returns of expired stockThe Cold chain logistics infrastructure generally consists of• Pre-cooling facilities• Cold Storages• Refrigerated Carriers
    • • Packaging• Warehouse and Information Management systems• Traceability• Financial and Insurance InstitutionsFailure to maintain appropriate temperature regimes through out the product life cycle mayshorten the product life or adversely affect its fitness for consumption. Cold chain managementinvolves maintaining appropriate temperature regime when the product travels from the farm inHimachal Pradesh to the consumer in London or New York City.That is why the logistics challenge is formidable in food chains, which is cost consciousindustry. There are several governmental regulations in all countries and the responsibility tomaintain hygiene and standards falls on the food retailer or manufacturer. The recentdevelopments in electronic tagging could be useful for monitoring the temperatures and also theshelf life of the product.
    • The cold chains segment can be subdivided into a number of sectors – agriculture, horticulture,fisheries & aquaculture, dairy, processed food for ready-to-eat / cook format together with thepackaging companies, retailers, wholesalers and caterers are in the last stage of the cold chains.Against a requirement of over 31 million tonnes of cold storage, India has over 5,101 coldstorage units with a cumulative capacity of nearly 21.7 million tonnes, leading to a loss of about40% of the agri-produce post-harvest.The Indian cold chains market is largely untapped and lined by several players in theunorganized sector which clues for immense investment and development opportunities.Further, the diversity in terms of India‟s population with several religious groups with differentfood habits and culture can be used to the advantage to become the “Halal food hub,” the“Organic food hub,” the “Vegetarian food hub” the “Sea food hub” and so on.Currently, the Indian cold chain market is worth $2.6 billion. This market is expected to grow to$12.4 billion by 2015. Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have 65% of the total installed capacity ofcold storage in the country. Cold chains are used primarily for fruits and vegetables, meat andmarine products, floriculture, dairy products, ice creams and confectionery.In the Vision 2015 paper, food processing minister Subodh Kant Sahai said the focus needed to
    • be on areas of reducing post-harvest losses, building supply chain, cold chain, and developinglinkages of farming to the processing industry. Particularly, the need of the hour is to adopt astrategy whereby cold storage facilities are provided collectively to production centres as „ColdStorage Centres‟ with potential strengths for storing primary and processed agricultural productsfor most of the year.“This should be supplemented with a good system of refrigerated transportation connecting farmlevel storage facilities, processing units and various distribution outlets as the present system oftransporting by insulated trucks is not effective for long distance movement. At the retail outletend, there is a need to develop display cabinets for marketing of frozen food products. Indiashould also augment cold chain facilities and container handling facilities at major ports as alsoat air cargo complexes for targeting global markets. All this will not only need large-scaleinvestments but also the development of appropriate technology more suitable to ourrequirements,” the minister said.100% depreciation for cold chains investmentEven after announcing 100 per cent depreciation for cold chain investments in the Union Budgetfor 2009, the industry is yet to come forward and make investments in the sector which isconsidered vital for the growth of agriculture and food processing sector in the country.Currently, a large chunk of fresh produce goes to waste due to inadequate storage and processingfacilities.According to industry analysts, with integrated cold chains and supply chain management thecountry can save Rs 75,000 crore annually by cutting 30 per cent wastage of perishablehorticulture produce, besides garnering additional export revenue of Rs 25,000 crore.At the Cold Chain Summit 2009, organized in December by the CII, the ministry of agricultureand the ministry of food processing, T Nanda Kumar, agriculture secretary, said the industrymust come forward with investments as private sector involvement in warehousing and logisticshad to be stepped up. A special purpose vehicle (SPV) has been mooted, which will offer multi-modal logistic solution for the movement of perishable commodities across the country andrevision of subsidy norms.Cold chains development scheme:To accelerate and develop a roadmap for cold chains sector in the country, the Centre had set upa taskforce in association with the CII. “Based on the recommendations of the taskforce, theCentral Warehousing Corporation has been designated as the nodal agency to take action for the
    • setting up of a special purpose vehicle for cold logistics, creation of an integrated multi-productmulti-purpose commodity complex as well as to develop software for commissioning of IT-based market information and management system,” the union agriculture minister Sharad Pawarsaid.Under the National Horticulture Mission (NHM), a new scheme of Terminal Market Complexhas been approved by the government to link farmers to markets by shortening the supply chainof perishables with the provision of state-of-the-art technology for infrastructure which includescold chain logistics. Under the NGHM scheme, financial assistance of Rs 44.87 crore has beenprovided for the establishment of 156 cold storages from 2005 - 06 to 2009 -10, Pawar informed.Till now, NHB has provided assistance for the establishment of 2,172 cold storages with eligiblesubsidy of Rs 604.60 crore from 1999 – 2000 to 2009 – 10. “Agricultural and Processed FoodProducts Export Development Authority (Apeda) also provides assistance for setting up ofintegrated pack houses which include pre-cooling, sorting, grading and cold storage facilities,”Pawar added.Additionally, the Mofpi is implementing a scheme for cold chain, value addition andpreservation of infrastructure whereby financial assistance is provided for strengthening coldchain infrastructure. So far the food processing ministry has accorded approval to 10 cold chainprojects during 2008 – 09 in Maharashtra, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka,Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Haryana.Haunting Issues in the India Cold Chain Supply IndustryTechnology is a major problem. The Indian cold chain industry is not mature compared toemerging destinations. Still, there is a big business opportunity here. Big retail chains may endup dominating the business. But soon, small and medium entrepreneurs could still find niches.Opportunities for improving the cold chains industry:Infrastructure:Investments in real estate and cold chain infrastructure are capital intensive and will yield slowreturns. However, 100% foreign direct investment(FDI) is allowed in this sector. Theinfrastructure consists of coolers, warehouses, refrigerated trucks, carriers, shopping malls and soon. One needs to study the potential risks and the return on investment (ROI) for this activity.Third party logistics:Food supply is temperature sensitive and manual handling reduces the product quality and life.Logistics providers with air-conditioned trucks, automatic handling equipment and trained
    • manpower will provide end-to-end support. One can also adapt state-of-the-art techniques suchas cross-docking that will reduce the transit times and inventory.Retail:One of the largest sectors in the global economy ($7 trillion), Retail is going through a transitionphase in India. One of the prime factors for non-competitiveness of the food processing industryis because of the cost and quality of marketing channels.Globally, more than 72% of food sales occur through supermarket stores. In India there are 12million outlets, including push carts, wet markets and neighborhood kirana stores, selling foodand related items. The kirana stores are generally located in a small space and have no coldstorage facilities. They also have restricted capital resulting in lack of shopping variety.The Indian retail sector is estimated to have a market size of about $180 billion but the organisedsector represents only 2% share of this market. A strong retail front-end can also provide thenecessary fillip to agriculture and food processing and other industries.FP industry:The Central government allows 100% FDI in this sector. There are incentives for setting upprocessing plants either in agri–export zones or outside of them. Sourcing of raw materials,either fruits and vegetables or flowers or meat, is easier with an AEZ since there are alreadyparticipants with knowledge about the industry standards. There are opportunities to create aHalal hub (export to Southeast Asia, Middle East), vegetarian hub (20% of Indian population +overseas), organic food hub (Europe and the US) and sea food hub in the country.CONCLUSIONSIndia is all set to become the food supplier of the world. It has the cultivable land, all the seasonsfor production of all varieties of fruits and vegetables, well developed agribusiness system thatworks in its own way. The business system is tuned to food habits (cooking at home) andconvenience (kirana stores) of rural and urban folks of the previous generation. Factors such asrapid growth in the economy, the technological innovations in home appliances such asrefrigerators microwave ovens, rise of families with dual incomes and the changing food habitsof the population all point to the increasing need for healthy processed food. The supply chainsector is very weak with no process owner and this can spell disaster. The food supply chainneeds the attention of the academics, the industry and the Government.
    • Fig:- Special Cold Storage TruckRising energy prices and political guidelines have attracted the notice to providers of cold chainlogistics to the needs for increased energy-efficiency. Automated truck loading systems cansubstantially reduce the cooling losses during the loading and unloading process. Therefore,those systems can contribute to the sustainable and efficient energy management in temperature-controlled transport.Automated truck loading systems are used predominately for shuttle transport where loadingtimes play an important role. Conventional truck loading or unloading with fork lift trucks takeson average 30 minutes. With automated systems, the loading times can be reduced to just approx.2 minutes. Fig:- Showing Bay, Loading and Unloading Facility
    • REFERENCES  http://www.coldstarlogistics.com/pdf/cold-storage-article.pdf  http://www.isb.edu/faculty/Working_Papers_pdfs/Can_India_be_the_Food_Basket_for_t he_World.pdf  http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/leading-foreign-cold-chain-companies- offer-assistance-to-india/115768/on  http://www.indiareport.com/India-usa-uk-news/latest-news/934534/Business/4/27/4  http://dcmsme.gov.in/publications/pmryprof/food/ch7.pdf  www.expresspharmaonline.com/20080330/loggedon04.shtml  www.crisil.com/pdf/research/Logistics-TOC.pdf  http://news.wooeb.com/764545/ContactUs.aspx  http://www.gcca.org/global-cold-storage-capacity.html
    •  http://delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/doit_am/AM/Home/Acts+and+Rules/The+Delhi+A gricultural+Produce+Marketing+(Regulation)+General+Rules,+2000  http://fcamin.nic.in/dfpd_html/storage_warehouseing.html  Material management review, Volume-7, issue-12, date of publication- 1/10/11, October 2011.  http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/eten/projects/project_of_the_month/20060 7_cold_trace/index_en.html  http://dewdropsagritech.com/transportations.aspx  http://www.supremecorp.com/supreme.php?page=body_select_q&q=what-to-consider-reefer  www.isb.edu/.../Can_India_be_the_Food_Basket_for_the_World - accessed on 05/11/2011  www.mpstateagro.nic.in/Project%20Reports%20pdf/Cold%20Chain- accessed on 07/11/2011 BOOKS REFERED  http://books.google.co.in/books?id=JNSiChnCangC&pg=PA133&dq=cold+storage+facil ity+of+india+by+world+bank&hl=en&ei=UCm5TqqoM8qrAfbndWlBg&sa=X&oi=boo k_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=cold%20storage %20facility%20of%20india%20by%20world%20bank&f=false  http://books.google.co.in/books?id=PVYKnLANbj4C&pg=PA18&dq=COLD+STORAG E+IN+INDIA&hl=en&ei=o6u8Tu78ObjiALMn8X_Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resu lt&resnum=1&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAA