Transcript of "Behavior and its modification techniques"
BEHAVIOR AND ITS
Presented by: Rangarajan MSW 1st year
• Aims to understand self and others
• To determine how and why people behave the
way they do and to plan for solution in case of
• Is a complicated phenomenon influenced by
• A collection of activities influenced by culture,
attitude, emotions, values, ethics, authority,
rapport, hypnosis, persuasion and coercion (coer-sion)
17 Year old Tagenarine Chanderpaul, son
of Shivnarine Chanderpaul taking guard
like his father, its a Caribbean old school
attitudes as a learned
tendency to evaluate
and behaviour things in
a certain way
have found that
attitudes and actual
behaviour are not
aligned. After all, plenty
of people support a
particular candidate or
political party and yet
fail to go out and vote.
or display of
The induction of a state of consciousness in
which a person apparently loses the power of
voluntary action and is highly responsive to...
Example: mesmerism - trance - hypnotism
Persuasion is underneath the umbrella term
of Influence. In other words, persuasion is
influence, but it requires communication,
whereas influence doesn't necessarily
I don't care if I fall as long as someone else picks up my gun and keeps on shooting
In a gentle way, you can shake the world.
the act of compelling by force of authority.
Innate behaviour (God
Instinct or innate behaviour is the inherent
inclination of a living organism toward a
particular complex behaviour
Human needs and behaviour
Physical needs: The human being has needs,
related to the structure and processes of the
physical organism, for food, drink, sex, sleep,
warmth and shelter, activity, sensory
Personal needs: The need to love and be
loved, The need to understand and be
understood, The need to be self-directing and
to be freely engaged with the directions of a
Classifications of Human
Conscious - State of awareness of thoughts, feelings,
perception and what is going on in the environment.
Unconscious –is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges,
and memories that outside of our conscious
awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious
are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of
pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the
unconscious continues to influence our behaviour and
experience, even though we are unaware of these
Overt - Open to public observation.
Covert - Unseen objects such as thoughts, feelings or
responses which are not easily seen.
Rational - Pertaining to reason, influenced or guided by
reason rather than emotion.
Irrational - Illogical
Voluntary - Intentional
Involuntary – Doing something against your will,
action made without intent or carried out despite
an attempt to prevent them
Simple – ex. What you see is what you get.
Complex - compound complicated behavior. ex.
Drinking alcohol and using drugs
This theory explained that human behavior is motivated by an inner
force called the human mind. This theory was introduced by
SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician who
worked as an neurologist. Early in his career, he used hypnosis to
treat people with physical and emotional problem. From his work
with these patients, he began to conceptualize a theory of human
Freud theorized that people have two (2) basic instincts –
SEXUAL and AGGRESSION. These two (2) basic instincts are not
always socially acceptable. When people exhibit behavior that is
nor acceptable, they often experience punishment, guilt and anxiety
Freud’s theory describes a conflict between a person’s instinctual
needs for gratification and the demands of society for socialization.
For Freud, a person’s core tendency is to maximize instinctual
gratification while minimizing punishment and guilt
Addresses the relationship among inner experience, behavior, social
roles & functioning. This theory proposes that conflicts among
unconscious motivating factors affect behavior
Description of Human Behavior
Human behavior is motivated
Motivation – driving force behind all action of an
Human behavior has multiple causes
- Influenced by culture
Human behavior can be adaptive and maladaptive
Human are social beings
Any person depend upon each other for
People need interaction
People play an integral part in creating their
Human lives are continuous process of change
Every person is different yet the same
Individual is a unique person
Theoretical approaches about the factors that
cause, maintain, alter behavior, and mental
Is based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the
development of late personality traits and psychological problems. It also
stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires and motivations on
thoughts and behavior.
Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his/her
future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of
intrinsic worth & enormous potential for self-fulfillment.
Studies how organism learn new behavior or modify existing ones,
depending on whether events in their environment reward or punish these
Examines how we process, store, and use information, and how this
information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember believe
Focuses on how genes, hormones & nervous system interact with the
environment to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions
at coping techniques.
list of some of the universal behaviors
(behaviors shared among all cultures) that you
can think of…
Communicate both verbally and
Enforce rules of etiquette
Fear snakes / heights
Modesty in sexual behavior and bodily
Labor divided by age and sex
Men- more aggressive than women
Women provide more child care
Tools for work
Belief systems- death, disease
Plan for the future
Taboos- crimes and legal punishments
Laugh / smile / mimic / joke / flirt /
sympathize / tease / dance /
Music /Myths / folklore / poetry
Every person is different yet the
What ultimately shapes our behavior?
Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology
what traits does environment influence?
• Faith / religion
• Social views
Rosenzweig and Krech
Isolated, impoverished vs. social, enriched environment
Obvious differences in behavioral activity and curiosity
Heavier, thicker brain cortex (brain weight increased 7-10
percent and # of synapses increased 20%!)
Social modification techniques
Behaviour modification has been successfully used to
treat anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and
enuresis (bed-wetting). Some methods of behaviour
modification require preparation and attention, where
others are just common sense. Find out what you can
do to shake your nasty habit today.
Some of us want to know, “What do I get out of this?”
Positive reinforcement answers this question. This
practice involves the addition of a gratifying experience
in reaction to something someone has done. Many
adults respond to praise and recognition. Treat yourself
to a night out every time you avoid the behaviour you
are trying to modify.
With negative reinforcement, the method of training
involves a negative reinforce. This could be a behaviour
or event with which the reinforcing properties are
associated with its removal. Opposing behaviour is
shunned by performing an action, and as a result of this,
the action is repeated prior to the adverse reaction.
One of the toughest things we can do as
adults is to punish ourselves. Punishment is a
form of behaviour modification that
discourages the unwanted act by application
of an unpleasant stimulus in reaction to the
Emotional Freedom Technique
Also known as Meridian Tapping, EFT is based
on the premise that negative emotions or
behaviours stem from short circuits in the
body’s energy system. These techniques are
done by drumming on certain areas on the
body to balance and release the short circuit.
The NLP technique is a study of
communication; how we communicate with
others and ourselves, and how that affects the
way we react and behave. This communication
can be altered through sub modalities,
metaprograms, etc. to change a behaviour.
Meditation has been used for centuries to help
the brain make physiological changes for the
better. Not only does it improve brain function
and memory, it enables “whole brain
synchronization”, a process that allows the left
brain portion to interact and be in focus with
the right brain hemisphere. Meditation is one
of the best behaviour modification systems in
existence. It alleviates anxiety and depression,
causing a remarkable improvement in a
person’s sense of well-being.
Don’t Give it Attention !
You can modify a behaviour through ignoring
the act. By ignoring the behaviour you will
often reduce its tendency for appearing again.
Don’t give someone attention who is engaging
in a behaviour that needs stopped.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
CBT is a psychotherapeutic approach that
addresses maladaptive behaviours through a
number of goal-oriented systematic
procedures. The common hallmarks of CBT
are the focus on the “here and now”, a
structuring of the sessions and path, a
guidance role by the therapist, and on
alleviating both the patient’s vulnerability and
“Change is the only thing that is
Human Behavior is complex and it
Good Luck !