1. Panyatree Kongkwanyuen 10R Biology/Chemistry Plastics EssayBeijing BISS International School School Code: 1123 Date Submitted: 12/3/12
2. Panyatree KongkwanyuenCriterion D: Reflecting on the impact of scienceLevel Descriptors Indicators0 The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors below.1 • The student is able to outline the ways in You outline how plastics are used and which science is applied and used to made, and list the advantages and address a specific problem or issue disadvantages to using plastics over other • The student is able to outline the materials. You confused the advantages implications of the use of science and its with disadvantages with implications. application in solving a specific problem or You list an implication but do not describe issue interacting with a factor in enough detail. • The student attempts to apply scientific Your use of language is not appropriate. language to communicate his or her Your essay is very difficult to read, you use understanding but does so with limited first person pronouns consistently (I, we, effectiveness they), your use of vocabulary and diagrams • The student makes little attempt to is confusing. document sources. You have listed sources, but no intext references and/or the formatting is incorrect.2 • The student is able to identify the ways in You state and describe some aspects of which science is applied and used to how plastics are used and made, and list the address a specific problem or issue advantages and disadvantages to using • The student is able to describe the plastics over other materials. You implications of the use of science and its confused the advantages with application in solving a specific problem or disadvantages with implications. issue interacting with a You mention one implication, but your Factor. essay does not provide evidence to support • The student is able to apply scientific both sides of the equation. language to communicate his or her Your use of language is sometimes understanding but does not do so clearly or appropriate. Your grammar does interfere precisely with your message quite often, you use first • The student attempts to document sources person pronouns (I, we, they), your use of correctly. vocabulary and diagrams is confusing. You have documented your sources in your works cited page, but have not included in text references and/or your formatting is incorrect.3 • The student is able to describe the ways You describe how plastics are used, made in which science is applied and used to and what the advantages and disadvantages address a specific problem or issue to using plastics over other materials. You do not confuse the advantages with • The student is able to discuss the disadvantages with implications. implications of the use of science and its You discuss one implication, but your application in solving a specific problem or essay does not provide evidence to support issue interacting with a factor both sides of the equation/or your evidence • The student is able to apply scientific is weak. language to communicate his or her Your use of language is mostly appropriate. understanding clearly and precisely but Your grammar does interfere with your does not do so consistently. message, you used some first person • The student is able to document sources pronouns (I, we, they), your use of but does not always do so correctly. vocabulary and diagrams does not always add your communication
3. Panyatree Kongkwanyuen You have documented your sources in your works cited page, but have not included in text references in all circumstances. There might be some formatting errors4 • The student is able to explain the ways in You explain how plastics are used, made which science is applied and used to and what the advantages and disadvantages address a specific problem or issue to using plastics over other materials. You • The student is able to discuss and do not confuse the advantages with evaluate the implications of the use of disadvantages with implications. science and its application in solving a You picked only one implication to talk specific problem or issue about. Your present both sides of the issue interacting with a factor and back up each side with evidence. It is • The student is able to consistently apply very clear that you have looked at both scientific language to communicate sides of the issue. his or her understanding clearly and Your use of language is appropriate. Your precisely grammar does not interfere too much with • The student is able to document sources your message, you limited your use of first completely. person pronouns (I, we, they), your vocabulary and use of diagrams add in delivering your message You have a complete work cited page and all in text references are present, including all diagrams used.
4. Panyatree Kongkwanyuen Are Plastics the Future? Did you know that plastics were first used to make billiard balls in 1896? Plastic,being versatile, light weight, and strong has benefited society many ways. (Advantages ofPlastic Materials, 2010) Certainly a ubiquitous object, plastic can be found in everythingfrom the toys that children play with to the satellites they launch into space. Plastics areused in everyday objects for their cheap production and versatility, but plastics are stillnot the perfect material because it has created many environmental problems. This essaywill discuss the characteristics of plastic, how it is made, and the environmental issue thatinvolves plastics. Plastic are usually made from oil (raw materials). It is mixed with chemicals andheated to create a clear liquid. Once the liquid is dried, it turns into a solid and cannot beturned back into a liquid again. The raw materials are mixed in gas and chemicals. Theseturn into a mixture called resin. This resin is made into granules (small pieces of amaterial). The resin granules are heated and become liquid. The liquid resin can be madeinto any shape. For colour, plastic makers add special chemicals to the liquid resin.Molding or casting (pouring the liquid into a mold) can shape plastic. The resin coolsdown and goes hard in the shape of the mold. Chemicals can help harden the plastic.(Barber, 1997) All plastics do not have the same properties, each plastic have different typesbecause of the different purposes. Some seal in moisture or seal out air more effectivelythan others. Some are stronger, some lighter, and some easier to work with and some aremore economical than other plastics to process. (Baid, 2009) However, there are twomain types of plastics: thermoplastic and thermosetting. Thermoplastics are easilyrenewable. Heating can melt thermoplastics. They can be melted down and create newplastics. Examples of thermoplastics are: polyethylene (used for plastic bags, foodcontainers, and other packaging,) and acrylic (most commonly used for acrylic paint) Onthe other hand, thermosetting plastics stay in shape and stays hard when heated. If theyare heated to higher temperature, they will burn. These plastics take longer to recycle.
5. Panyatree KongkwanyuenThermosetting plastics are used to make things like electrical fittings so they will not meltwhen they get hot. Another great use for plastic is laminating. Layers of plastic can besquashed onto other materials to make them stronger. With how much plastic can do,there are definitely more advantages. Using plastics is beneficial; recently they have been used as a cheaper alternativefor metal and wood. The production price of plastic is fairly cheap compared to theproduction of wood and metal where wood is grown, harvested and cut and metal ismined and forged. For plastics, only liquid chemicals are needed to create plastics. Nomatter what type of metal or plastic materials there are, metals will always be moreexpensive. For example the roofing copper costs $2.45/lb while polypropylene, athermoplastic polymer that replaces most of the metal materials, costs $.165/lb. (ScrapMetals and Plastics International, 2012) Another great benefit is the versatility of plastics. They can be molded into anyshape and by using different chemicals; they can be made for different purposes. Plasticproducts are cheaper mainly because the materials are cheap. Overall, these benefits have helped society in many ways. For example, plasticshave helped aeronautics technology take a huge leap forward over the past 50 years,including advancements in satellites, shuttles, aircraft, and missiles. As a result, civilian airtravel has improved, as well as military air power and space exploration. In addition, thebuilding and construction, electronics, packaging, and transportation industries have allbenefited greatly from plastic. (The Benefits of Plastic, 2012) With plenty of good reasons to use plastics, there are only little disadvantages.However, these disadvantages are a greater threat to the environment and are equallyweighed with the benefits of plastics. Most plastics are not biodegradable. Forthermoplastics, they can be heated up and turned into new plastics again. The newplastics will become non – recyclable products, such as T-shirts, or plastic lumber. Thismeans more new raw materials are needed to create more plastics that are recyclable.The average plastic bottle takes 500 years to decompose. Though the rate of plasticdecomposition can be affected by different factors such as: the type of plastic, climate and
6. Panyatree Kongkwanyuenacids in landfill. When these plastics are degraded, they emit harmful Co2 and methane,which is dangerous to both humans and animals. This has caused environmentalproblems in our society. Most plastics are made of crude oil; oil is a non-renewable resource, which meansthat it will eventually be used up. The raw materials that will eventually be used up canbe used for other numerous things. (E.g. Natural gas can be used to heat houses and cookfood) but we are using them on making plastics more. Bio plastics have become analternative that does not depend on oil. One example of bio plastics is corn plastic, madeout of corn. Corn can be cultivated worldwide and so the market value will not dependon oil-rich nations. The United States uses 20.8 million barrels of oil per day, 10 percentof which goes solely to the production of conventional plastic such as polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) (CIA World Fact Book, 2010) Corn plastic, however, do not requireoil plus, they release less toxins and green house gases. (Lamb, No date) With such a greatalternative, why wont we all use such material? Because there are still some propertiesthat corn plastic lack. Firstly, corn plastic cannot be recycled together with conventionalplastics seeing that a relatively small amount of bio plastic can contaminate conventionalplastic recycling, preventing the reuse of conventional plastic. Secondly, corn plastic isdepending on industrial farming. The corn that is cultivated is for the people and animals.Much of the corn that is used to make this plastic is food for animals. (Lamb, No date) An environmental problem is one of the most significant problems associated withplastics is the improper disposal of plastic goods by consumers. The use of plastics hasenabled the development of innumerable disposable products, which has increased theamount of trash that is disposed. Although paper accounts for most of the trash in landfillsby volume, plastics account for 25% of all waste in landfills when buried. A significantamount of plastic, however, is not properly disposed in landfills and makes its way intothe environment. (The Environmental Literacy Council – Plastics, 2008) As mentionedbefore, plastic does not biodegrade quickly, thus staying in environment for a long time.Plastic trash has made its way to coastal ecosystems and the ocean, causing danger tomarine and birdlife. Plastic debris can be found in many coastal areas (as well as inland);
7. Panyatree Kongkwanyuenhowever, one of the greatest concentrations of plastic trash is a Texas-sized floatingisland of plastic debris in the north Pacific gyre, a collection of trash that has been swepttogether by ocean currents. The ocean currents collect floating garbage along the wayand drops it in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, one of several major ocean vortices inthe world (below) Eventually, all the trash are packed into a convergence zone that linkstwo eastern and western garbage patches creating the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.(McLendon, 2010) The Great Pacific Garbage Patch McLendon, Russell. "What is the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch? | MNN - Mother Nature Network." Environmental News and Information | MNN - Mother Nature Network. N.p., 24 Feb. 2010. Web. 26 Feb. 2012.<http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/translating-uncle-sam/stories/what-is-the-great-pacific-ocean-garbage-patch>. Nevertheless, plastic has become an important resource for industrialdevelopment. We cannot just simply stop using plastics because it has continued to showthat it is a safe and reliable alternative to more traditional materials like wood and metal.(Baid, 2009) Plastics certainly have many benefits but the environmental issues plasticshave caused have balanced out, whether we should continue to use plastics or not. In myopinion, we should continue to research on effective and useful alternatives for plastics. Ifthey became an alternative for metal and wood, why can’t we find another alternative forplastic?
8. Panyatree Kongkwanyuen Works Cited" - Plastic Marine Litter." Plastic Marine Litter - Plastics do not belong in the oceans. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.plasticmarinelitter.eu/problem-2>."Advantages of Plastic Materials ." AGL Group Ltd.. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://agl.groupbg.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=39 &Itemid=57&lang=en>.Amaral, Kimberly. "Plastics in Our Oceans." Home : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.whoi.edu/science/B/people/kamaral/plasticsarticle.html>.Baid, Pankaj. "Plastics Disadvantages & Recycling." Upload & Share PowerPoint presentations and documents. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.slideshare.net/pankajbaid17/plastics-disadvantages-recycling>.Barber, Nicola. "Plastics." Materials. London: Evans, 1997. 20. Print.Brown, Lori. "Plastic Bags a Major Problem for Marine Wildlife - Earth911.com." Earth911.com - Find Recycling Centers and Learn How To Recycle. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://earth911.com/news/2009/04/16/plastic-bags-a-major- problem-for-marine-wildlife/>.Dorigo, Enrico. "Will Banning Plastic Bags Help The Environment?." Science 2.0 - Â® The worlds best scientists, the Internets smartest readers.. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.science20.com/enrico_dorigo/will_banning_plastic_bags_help_en vironment-75598>.Lamb, Robert. "HowStuffWorks "What is corn plastic?"." HowStuffWorks "Science". N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/corn- plastic.htm>.Langley, Andrew. Everyday Materials PLASTIC. London: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2008. Print.McLendon, Russell. "What is the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch? | MNN - Mother Nature Network." Environmental News and Information | MNN - Mother Nature Network. N.p., 24 Feb. 2010. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.mnn.com/earth- matters/translating-uncle-sam/stories/what-is-the-great-pacific-ocean-garbage- patch>.
9. Panyatree Kongkwanyuen"SCRAP METAL NEWS DAILY." SCRAP METALS AND PLASTICS INTERNATIONAL. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://scrapmetalsandplastics.com/default.aspx>."The Benefits of Plastic and Polymers in our society." Plastics Industry: Classifying Plastics - Jobs and Employment - History of Plastic. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.plasticsindustry.com/plastics-benefits.asp>."The Environmental Literacy Council - Plastics." The Environmental Literacy Council. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/1188.php>."The Environmental Literacy Council - Plastics." The Environmental Literacy Council. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/1188.php>."The World Fact Book - Oil Conspumption." Central Intelligence Agency. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/rankorder/2174rank.html>.MLA formatting by BibMe.org.