Introduction:Android is a Linux-based mobile phone operating systemdeveloped by Google. Android is unique because Google isactively developing the platform but giving it away for free tohardware manufacturers and phone carriers who want to useAndroid on their devices.Beyond the Phone:A modified version of Android is used in the Google TV, theBarnes & Noble Nook e-Reader, the Samsung Galaxy Tab, andcountless other devices. Parrot makes both a digital photoframe and a car stereo system powered by modified versionsof Android.
What is Android?Android is a Linux-based operating system for mobile devices such as smart phonesand tablet computers, developed by Google in conjunction with the Open HandsetAlliance. Android was initially developed by Android Inc, whom Google financiallybacked and later purchased in 2005. The unveiling of the Android distribution in2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of86 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancingopen standards for mobile devices. Google releases the Android code as open-source,under the Apache License. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with themaintenance and further development of Android.Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") thatextend the functionality of the devices. Developers write primarily in a customizedversion of Java, and apps can be downloaded from online stores such as Google Play(formerly Android Market), the app store run by Google, or third-party sites. In June2012, there were more than 600,000 apps available for Android, and the estimatednumber of applications downloaded from Google Play was 20 billion.Android became the world’s leading Smartphone platform at the end of 2010. For thefirst quarter of 2012, Android had a 59% Smartphone market share worldwide. At thehalf of 2012, there were 400 million devices activated and 1 million activations perday.
Foundation:Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United Statesin October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger),RichMiner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),Nick Sears(once VP at T-Mobile),and Chris White (headed design andinterface development at WebTV) to develop, in Rubins words"...smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its ownerslocation and preferences". Despite the obvious pastaccomplishments of the founders and early employees, AndroidInc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working onsoftware for mobile phones. That same year, Rubin ran out ofmoney. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him$10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in thecompany.
Google acquisition:Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making Android Inc. awholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of AndroidInc., including Andy Rubin, Rich Miner and Chris White, stayed at thecompany after the acquisition. Not much was known about Android Inc. atthe time of the acquisition, but many assumed that Google was planning toenter the mobile phone market with this move.At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platformpowered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handsetmakers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradablesystem. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and softwarepartners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees ofcooperation on their part.
Speculation about Googles intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google- branded handset. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered anEvalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.
Android Open Source Project:The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is led by Google, and istasked with the maintenance and development of Android. Accordingto the project "The goal of the Android Open Source Project is tocreate a successful real-world product that improves the mobileexperience for end users.” AOSP also maintains the AndroidCompatibility Program, defining an "Android compatible" device "asone that can run any application written by third-party developersusing the Android SDK and NDK", to prevent incompatible Androidimplementations. The compatibility program is also optional and freeof charge, with the Compatibility Test Suite also free and open-source
Open Handset Alliance: On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, aconsortium of several companies which include BroadcomCorporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell TechnologyGroup, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, SprintNextel, T-Mobile and Texas Instruments unveiled itself. The goal ofthe Open Handset Alliance is to develop open standards for mobiledevices. On the same day, the Open Handset Alliance also unveiledits first product, Android, a mobile device platform built on theLinux kernel version 2.6. On December 9, 2008, 14 new membersjoined, including ARM Holdings, Atheros Communications, AsustekComputer Inc, Garmin Ltd, HuaweiTechnologies, PacketVideo, Softbank, Sony Ericsson, ToshibaCorp, and Vodafone Group Plc.
Version history : Each version after "Astro" and "Bender" is named inalphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with 1.5 "Cupcake"being the first and every update since following this naming convention.•1.0 Astro•1.1 Bender•1.5 Cupcake•1.6 Donut•2.0/2.1 Eclair•2.2 Froyo•2.3 Gingerbread•3.x Honeycomb•4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich•4.1 Jelly Bean
Android 1.0The first Android device which runs on Android 1.0 is HTC Dream(G1), incorporated the following Android 1.0 features:- Web Browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages, multiplepages show as windows, supporting POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP- Android Market app downloads and updates- Multitasking, instant messaging, GPS, Wi-Fi an bluetooth- No Microsoft Exchange Server, no camcorder, youtube video player- Camera Support : lacked in change of camera’s resolution, quality, whitebalance etc- Folder permits for the grouping of bunch of application icons into a singlefolder icon on the home screen- Notification alert in the status bar optioned with ringtone, vibration alert or byLED- Google synchronization to many applications- Google Maps with Latitude (Street View as well as in satellite imagery), drivingdirections using GPS- Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a nameor number- Other apps include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer (Phone), Home screen(launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings
Android 1.1This update was released for the T-Mobile G1 only. Theupdate resolved bugs, changed the API and added anumber of other features :- Details and reviews available when a user searches forbusinesses on Maps- Longer in-call screen timeout default when using thespeakerphone, plus ability to show/hide dial pad- Ability to save attachments in messages
Android 1.5 (Cupcake)- Universal search box- Revamped Android market : Browsing categories and filters (Topfree, Top paid, Just in)- Toggle between camera and videos modes, Video recording andplayback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats- Faster Camera start-up and image capture, integrated photogallery- Much faster acquisition of GPS location (powered by SUPL AGPS)- Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth added (A2DP andAVRCP profiles)- On-screen soft keyboard- Directly upload videos to youtube and picassa
Android 1.6 (Donut)- Virtual On-screen keyboard- Camcorder mode for recording (and watching) video- Stereo Bluetooth- Expanded Gesture framework and new GestureBuilderdevelopment tool- Home screen widgets and folders- Quick Search Box and Voice Search- Toggle between still and video captures modes, Support forWVGA screen resolutions- Copy/Paste and search within the browser- Direct upload to Youtube and Picasa- user can select multiple photos for deletion- Battery usage indicator- Updated technology support forCDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine- Multilingual tect-o-speech function
Android 2.0 (Eclair)- Multiple accounts for email and contact synchronization- Microsoft Exchange Support for syncing of e-mail- Quick Contact pop-up widget- Search saved SMS and MMS messages- Camera improvement include support for flash and digitalzoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus- Keyboard improvement : Adaptive Dictionary,- Bluetooth 2.1 support- New browser User Interface and support for HTML5- Improved Google Maps 3.1.2- New calender features- Besides live wallpapers, it’s allowing Home screen backgroundimages to be animated to show movement- MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch eventsAndroid 2.0.1- Minor API changes- bug fixes and framework behavioral changes
Android 2.2 (Froyo)- Multiple user account- Speed, memory, and performance optimizations- Android market update : Batch and automatic updates, installing apps to theSD card- New tips widget for home screen- Support for the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service- File uploading in the browser- Improved Microsoft Exchange support- USB tethering and Hotspot support, Voice dialing and contact sharing overBluetooth- Multiple keyboard languages- Adobe Flash 10.1Android 2.2.1- Bug fixes- Security updates- Performance improvementsAndroid 2.2.2- Fixed minor bugs- Fixed SMS routing issues that affected the Nexus OneAndroid 2.2.3- This update consisted of two security patches
Android 2.3 (Gingerbread)- Native support for more sensors- UI refinements for simplicity and speed- New keyboard for faster text input- One-touch word selection and copy/paste- Near Field Communication (NFC), Improved power management- New Download Manager, Internet Calling- New audio effects such as reverb, equalization etc.- Support for WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encodingAndroid 2.3.3- Included several improvements and API fixesAndroid 2.3.4- Support for voice or video chat using Google Talk
Android 3.0 (Honeycomb)- Specifically optimized for tablets and devices with larger screen sizes- Hardware acceleration, Support for multi-core processors, Ability to encrypt alluser data- Refined multitasking, rich notifications, home screencustomization, widgets, Redesigned keyboard- Support for video chat, Multiple browser tabs, form auto fill, new “incognito”mode allowing anonymous browsing- Bluetooth tethering- Built-in support for Media/Picture Transfer Protocol- New two plane contacts and Email UI- Ability to view albums and other collections in full-screen modeAndroid 3.1- UI refinements- Connectivity for USB accessories- Expanded Recent Apps list- Resizable Home screen widgets- Support for external keyboards and pointing devices, joysticks andgamepads, FLAC audio playback- High-performance Wi-Fi lock, HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fiaccess point
Android 3.2This update first appear on Huawei’s MediaPad tablet. Changes included:- Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range oftablets- Increased ability of apps to access files on the SD card- Compatibility display mode for appsAndroid 3.2.1- Bug fixes and minor security- Stability and Wi-Fi improvements- Update to Android Market with automatic updates and Google books- Improved Adobe Flash support and Chinese handwriting predictionAndroid 3.2.2- Included bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom 4G
Android 4.0 (Ice-cream sandwich)- Increase in speed and performance- Virtual buttons in the UI- Separation of widgets in a new tab- Easier-to-create folders with a drag-and-drop style- A customizable launcher, Resizeable widgets- Improved visual voicemail with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemailmessages- Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar- Offline search, a two-line preview, and new action bar at the bottom of the Gmail app- Ability to swipe left or right to switch between Gmail conversations, Automatic syncingof browser with users’ Chrome bookmarks- Integrated screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons)- Improved error correction on the keyboard, Real-time speech to text dictation- Ability to access apps directly from lock screen- Improved copy and paste functionality- Face Unlock : New feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facialidentification software- New tabbed web browser (allowing up to 16 tabs)- Modern Roboto font- Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certainusage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded- New Ability to shut down apps that are using memory in the background- Improved camera app with zero shutter lag, time lapse settings, panorama mode,ability to zoom while recording, 1080p video recording for basic Android devices- New gallery layout, organized by location and person, Built-in photo editor- Android Beam, a Near Field Communication (NFC)
Android 4.0.2- Fixed minor bugs on the Verizon Galaxy NexusAndroid 4.0.3- Bug fixes and optimizations- Improvements to graphics, databases, spell-checking, Bluetooth functionality- Calendar provider enhancements, new camera appsenhancing video stabilization and QVGA resolution- Accessibility refinements such as improved content accessfor screen readers
Respectfully Submitted to: Prof. Erwin Globio MSIT
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