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Methodology part of research
 

Methodology part of research

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    Methodology part of research Methodology part of research Presentation Transcript

    • Prepared by: Ms. Marj Gomez
    • What participants and sites will you study? random sampling select representative individuals, and then generalizing from these individuals to a population process results in testing theories that explain the population select people or sites that can best help you understand the central phenomenon
    • Purposeful Samplingresearchers intentionally select individuals and sites to learn or understand the central phenomenonselecting with a purposeselecting individuals and sites that are “information rich”
    • Maximal Variation Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher samples cases or individuals that differ on some characteristic or trait Studying different dimensions of one characteristic or trait Ex: different age groups, different school cliques, different subject teachers
    • Extreme Case Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher studies an outlier case or one that displays extreme characteristics Ex: certain schools targeted for federal assistance, an autistic education program that has received awards, a handicap student who excels in a class or normal students
    • Typical Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher studies a person or site that is typical to those unfamiliar with the situation Ex: What is a “typical” public school classroom in the Philippines? What is a “typical” honor student in high school?
    • Theory or Concept Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher samples individuals or sites because they can help the researcher generate or discover a theory or specific concepts within the theory Ex: studying a group of students because they can help the researcher generate a theory on what students feel about team teaching
    • Homogeneous Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher samples individuals or sites based on membership in a subgroup that has defining characteristic.Ex: Focus – opinions of student members of a university politics-oriented organization on some controversial issues in the government Participants – student members of the said organization
    • Critical Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher samples an exceptional case Ex: studying students who were involved in a brawl inside the school
    • Things to Consider in Determining the Sample Size or Number of Research Sites: Study only what you, as a researcher, can manage. Think carefully of how many individuals or sites you will study. The approach or design of your research will suggest the numbers of individuals you need to study.
    • Categories of Data in Qualitative Research:Observation process of gathering open-ended, firsthand information by observing people and places at a research siteInterviews Occurs when researchers ask one or more participants general, open-ended questions and record their answers The researcher then transcribes and types the data into a computer file for analysis
    • Categories of Data in Qualitative Research:Documents Consist of public and private records that qualitative researchers obtain about a site or participants in a study Can include newspapers, minutes of the meetings, personal journals, and letters
    • Categories of Data in Qualitative Research:Audiovisual Materials Consist of images or sounds that researchers collect to help them understand the central phenomenon Include photographs, videotapes, digital images, paintings and unobtrusive images (ex: footprints in the snow)
    • Recording the DataData Recording Protocols Forms designed and used by qualitative researchers to record information during observation and interviewsInterview Protocol = form designed by the researcher that contains instructions for the process of the interview, the questions to be asked, and space to take notes of responses from the interviews
    • Recording the Data Observation Protocol = form designed by the researcher before data collection that is used for taking field notes during an observation; like recording a chronology of events, a detailed portrait of an individual
    • Open-ended questions unconstrained by any perspective of the researchers or past research findings Open-ended response•responses from options created by theparticipants themselves
    • Types of Interviews and Open-Ended Questions on Questionnaires: One-on-One Interviews Focus Group Interviews Electronic E-Mail Interviews Open-Ended Questions on Questionnaires
    • Process of Conducting Interviews:1. Identify the interviewees2. Determine the type of interview you will use3. During the interview, audiotape the questions and responses4. Take brief notes during the interview5. Locate a quiet, suitable place for conducting the interview6. Obtain consent from the interviewee to participate in the study7. Have a plan but be flexible8. Use probes to obtain additional information9. Be courteous and professional when the interview is over