Methodology part of research


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Methodology part of research

  1. 1. Prepared by: Ms. Marj Gomez
  2. 2. What participants and sites will you study? random sampling select representative individuals, and then generalizing from these individuals to a population process results in testing theories that explain the population select people or sites that can best help you understand the central phenomenon
  3. 3. Purposeful Samplingresearchers intentionally select individuals and sites to learn or understand the central phenomenonselecting with a purposeselecting individuals and sites that are “information rich”
  4. 4. Maximal Variation Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher samples cases or individuals that differ on some characteristic or trait Studying different dimensions of one characteristic or trait Ex: different age groups, different school cliques, different subject teachers
  5. 5. Extreme Case Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher studies an outlier case or one that displays extreme characteristics Ex: certain schools targeted for federal assistance, an autistic education program that has received awards, a handicap student who excels in a class or normal students
  6. 6. Typical Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher studies a person or site that is typical to those unfamiliar with the situation Ex: What is a “typical” public school classroom in the Philippines? What is a “typical” honor student in high school?
  7. 7. Theory or Concept Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher samples individuals or sites because they can help the researcher generate or discover a theory or specific concepts within the theory Ex: studying a group of students because they can help the researcher generate a theory on what students feel about team teaching
  8. 8. Homogeneous Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher samples individuals or sites based on membership in a subgroup that has defining characteristic.Ex: Focus – opinions of student members of a university politics-oriented organization on some controversial issues in the government Participants – student members of the said organization
  9. 9. Critical Sampling Purposeful sampling in which the researcher samples an exceptional case Ex: studying students who were involved in a brawl inside the school
  10. 10. Things to Consider in Determining the Sample Size or Number of Research Sites: Study only what you, as a researcher, can manage. Think carefully of how many individuals or sites you will study. The approach or design of your research will suggest the numbers of individuals you need to study.
  11. 11. Categories of Data in Qualitative Research:Observation process of gathering open-ended, firsthand information by observing people and places at a research siteInterviews Occurs when researchers ask one or more participants general, open-ended questions and record their answers The researcher then transcribes and types the data into a computer file for analysis
  12. 12. Categories of Data in Qualitative Research:Documents Consist of public and private records that qualitative researchers obtain about a site or participants in a study Can include newspapers, minutes of the meetings, personal journals, and letters
  13. 13. Categories of Data in Qualitative Research:Audiovisual Materials Consist of images or sounds that researchers collect to help them understand the central phenomenon Include photographs, videotapes, digital images, paintings and unobtrusive images (ex: footprints in the snow)
  14. 14. Recording the DataData Recording Protocols Forms designed and used by qualitative researchers to record information during observation and interviewsInterview Protocol = form designed by the researcher that contains instructions for the process of the interview, the questions to be asked, and space to take notes of responses from the interviews
  15. 15. Recording the Data Observation Protocol = form designed by the researcher before data collection that is used for taking field notes during an observation; like recording a chronology of events, a detailed portrait of an individual
  16. 16. Open-ended questions unconstrained by any perspective of the researchers or past research findings Open-ended response•responses from options created by theparticipants themselves
  17. 17. Types of Interviews and Open-Ended Questions on Questionnaires: One-on-One Interviews Focus Group Interviews Electronic E-Mail Interviews Open-Ended Questions on Questionnaires
  18. 18. Process of Conducting Interviews:1. Identify the interviewees2. Determine the type of interview you will use3. During the interview, audiotape the questions and responses4. Take brief notes during the interview5. Locate a quiet, suitable place for conducting the interview6. Obtain consent from the interviewee to participate in the study7. Have a plan but be flexible8. Use probes to obtain additional information9. Be courteous and professional when the interview is over