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Creatures, cultures, climate change and choices
 

Creatures, cultures, climate change and choices

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    Creatures, cultures, climate change and choices Creatures, cultures, climate change and choices Presentation Transcript

    • “My projects have taken me to some very interesting places this year. From Western ghats to the Eastern ghats, from North-East to Tamil Nadu, where I worked with a threatened tribe, an indigenous group that I had come to love. It was this project of conservation economics that helped connect the dots within my own mind, and what emerges is a well laid out map that takes me straight to a place called The Valley of Silent Crisis, where the creatures and cultures I love, now currently reside.”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • Sunday 5 February 2012
    • CREATURES, CULTURES, CHOICES and Climate Change “Connecting the dots”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • THE GHARIAL IRULA TRIBE THE PELICANS THE OLIVE RIDLEY THE FORESTS THE AMPHIBIANS CREATURES, CULTURES, CHOICES and Climate Change “Connecting the dots”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • I’ve always heard of rumors from several corridors..Sunday 5 February 2012
    • I’ve always heard of rumors from several corridors.. That..Any long-term change in the patterns of average weather of a specific region or the Earth as a whole is Climate Change. Climate change reflects abnormal variations to the Earths climate and subsequent effects on parts of the earth. That..1990s was the warmest decade yet ! And ..Average surface air temperatures are now between 0.4 and 0.8°C higher than they were in the middle of the 19th Century. Climate models estimate that average global surface temperatures will increase by 3°C (within the range 1–5°C) by 2100. Which is incredibly worrisome! Also, in the same time period, global mean sea level is estimated to rise by 0.5 m (within the range 0.1–0.9 m).Sunday 5 February 2012
    • I’ve always heard of rumors from several corridors.. That..Any long-term change in the patterns of average weather of a specific region or the Earth as a whole is Climate Change. Climate change reflects abnormal variations to the Earths climate and subsequent effects on parts of the earth. That..1990s was the warmest decade yet ! And ..Average surface air temperatures are now between 0.4 and 0.8°C higher than they were in the middle of the 19th Century. Climate models estimate that average global surface temperatures will increase by 3°C (within the range 1–5°C) by 2100. Which is incredibly worrisome! Also, in the same time period, global mean sea level is estimated to rise by 0.5 m (within the range 0.1–0.9 m).Sunday 5 February 2012
    • I’ve always heard of rumors from several corridors.. That..Any long-term change in the patterns of average weather of a specific region or the Earth as a whole is Climate Change. Climate change reflects abnormal variations to the Earths climate and subsequent effects on parts of the earth. That..1990s was the warmest decade yet ! And ..Average surface air temperatures are now between 0.4 and 0.8°C higher than they were in the middle of the 19th Century. Climate models estimate that average global surface temperatures will increase by 3°C (within the range 1–5°C) by 2100. Which is incredibly worrisome! Also, in the same time period, global mean sea level is estimated to rise by 0.5 m (within the range 0.1–0.9 m). Are these FACTS? Is this really happening?Sunday 5 February 2012
    • ARE CREATURES REALLY GETTING AFFECTED? “While living near Chennai, we would often pass by the Spot billed Pelicans that dotted the brackish waters of ECR, Chennai. Many months later, we got close enough to photograph these fascinating waders. However, no matter what I did the buildings in the background were never out of the frame. A quick scan around the stretch of the backwater will most certainly produce some flagrant thoughts in the mind. Several residential complexes are under construction that will cater to burgeoning population, infrastructures like bridges cut across these waters (rudely enough) breaking the topographical link to the sea lowering the level of the backwaters. Each year as temperatures rise, the width of these backwaters keep shrinking with the result that the Pelicans, their fellow waders, fisherman of age old and tribes that have turned to fishing as yet another means to sustenance are all now competing for the same resources. Real estate values seem to be strangely linked to the health of this ecosystem, sadly enough.”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • Point of View Macro PictureSunday 5 February 2012
    • •BRACKISH WATER IS A HABITAT •QUICKLY LOSING THE HABITAT TO INFRASTRUCTURE EXPANSIONS, MOSTLY RESIDENTIAL COMPLEXES •WIDTH OF BACKWATERS DECREASE EACH YEAR WITH RISING TEMPERATURES. THE MACRO PICTURE So why do we need to care ? Human well-being ultimately depends on the health of the ecosystems which envelope and sustain us. We exploit ecosystems for the food, water, and timber we need for everyday living. We depend on ecosystem processes to regulate natural cycles and keep diseases at bay. We rely on them for recreation, instruction and mental and spiritual enrichment.Sunday 5 February 2012
    • “But we do have mitigation in our mind, we design policies that are aimed at achieving conservation goals. Yet most of these steps seem to either never see the light of the day or remain in conversation until midnight oil runs out and Some of these mitigation steps seem to be barely thought through and have a latent risk. Like in the case of Olive Ridley Sea turtle. Apart from the threat this majestic animal faces from machinations of the fishing world, temperature fluctuations that change migration patterns, rising sea levels, beach erosions, the meat industry...new threats emerge in the form of trees! The exotic Casurina species that were plant all along the Indian coast line, as an initiative to tackle high tides and Tsunami, have now eaten into the nesting area of The Ridleys, a friend told me. Once out of the tide, the Ridley trudge up the beach looking for the right spot to nest and invariably cut themselves on the dregs of Casurina trees. The causative mortality% maybe very less as compared to other causes, however this seems rather pointless.”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • Deaths of Olive Ridley Sea Turtle...... PRIMARY CAUSES ARE FISHING NETS. in this case? CASUARINA! Climate Change Mitigation Methods Gone Wrong. Beach erosion,fluctuating temperatures, rise of sea level..an uphill battle for this turtle.Sunday 5 February 2012
    • “On a family trip to NorthEast last year I could not help notice the “Changes”. Mining to cater to the infrastructure industry is turning the conventional green of the hills to a desolate brown. Stretches of hills lay bare and it was the dichotomy of my view that had me wincing, the left side of the bridge was a heavenly green and the right side- an unnatural dastardly brown. While this is the most obvious proof I have of deforestation, the effects are more than subtle in the amphibian and crocodilian populace. So dependent are they on Temperature for perpetuation (Temperature sex determination) that minor fluctuations have resulted in not only disproportionate populations sizes but also decline in populations.”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • VIEW ON MY LEFT VIEW ON MY RIGHT A BRIDGE IN MEGHALAYA GHARIALS’ FATE? AMPHIBIANS’ SAGA? ASSASSINS’ TALES? Several accounts of declining amphibian populations have been noted from relatively pristine areas. Amphibian life histories are exceedingly sensitive to temperature and precipitation. Reduced soil moisture can threaten prey species and eliminate habitat for the hunter and the hunted. Therefore perpetuation of these animals in the ecosystem owing to climate change has become a serious question.Sunday 5 February 2012
    • HOW ABOUT CULTURES? DO THEY GET AFFECTED? “It would only be apt to evaluate this question from the perspective of an Economist, to address the ‘What ifs and what nots” of life. What if the fisherman in the picture who once was a hunter, gatherer, snake and rodent catcher never had to change his lifestyle. What if he there were well thought out economics models that made his lifestyle sustainable enough so he never left the forests and never had to build a life outside it. But he has now, and what if he had’nt been a part of some glorious intervention by a serious conservationist (Rom Whitaker) then an Irula Cooperative would never have been set-up which is now probably the single most largest supplier to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry of snake venom. So from a snake catcher to snake catcher for venom..this isnt the most drastic change in lifestyle but only a readjustment. What about those groups that have the knowledge of herbal medicines and of the forests. If changes in climate were imminent then there exists a strong possibility that not only lifestyles but in the absence of handholding, the fate of these tribal groups hangs by a thread.”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • DRASTIC CHANGES REDEFINING INDIGENOUS LIFESTYLE INDIGENOUS LIFESTYLE READJUSTING TO INDIGENOUS LIFESTYLE THREAT TO INDIGENOUS WAYS FROM CLIMATE CHANGE So far, most attempts to reverse the decline in ecosystem services have targeted particular sectors – for example, water, agriculture and forests – rather than looking at these collectively. The general failure of this sectoral approach meant that a radical shift in thinking about environmental management was needed. A more holistic view of the links between ecosystem service delivery and human needs – an ecosystem approach – may be our last and best hope for living sustainably on our threatened planet.Sunday 5 February 2012
    • CHOICES THAT AFFECT CLIMATE, CREATURES AND CULTURES Conversations that reflect our choices- “The price increase of fossil fuels (an economic process) boosts the demand for biofuels, which causes changes in land-use cover through deforestation, increases greenhouse gas emissions through the drainage of peat marshes, expands use of agrochemicals and raises the likelihood of establishment of invasive species. (A long-term plan could be to reduce the demand for fossil fuel by changing consumer and producer behavior).” More conversations- “An expanding population may increase demand for land (land use change), leading to more consumption of wild foods (resource extraction) and more intensive agriculture (external inputs like fertilizers), require more transport to and within sprawling cities (emissions), and result in experiments with fast growing alien organisms in an attempt to increase productivity for people and for goods (modification and movement of organisms), etc.”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • CHOICES THAT AFFECT CLIMATE, CREATURES AND CULTURES Conversations that reflect our choices- “The price increase of fossil fuels (an economic process) boosts the demand for biofuels, which causes changes in land-use cover through deforestation, increases greenhouse gas emissions through the drainage of peat marshes, expands use of agrochemicals and raises the likelihood of establishment of invasive species. (A long-term plan could be to reduce the demand for fossil fuel by changing consumer and producer behavior).” More conversations- “An expanding population may increase demand for land (land use change), leading to more consumption of wild foods (resource extraction) and more intensive agriculture (external inputs like fertilizers), require more transport to and within sprawling cities (emissions), and result in experiments with fast growing alien organisms in an attempt to increase productivity for people and for goods (modification and movement of organisms), etc.” Forceful habitat shift !! Research shows that global warming forces species to move up tropical mountains as their habitats shift upward. These species currently moving upslope to compensate for habitat loss at lower and warmer altitudes, will eventually have NO PLACE TO MOVE TO. - American Museum of Natural HistorySunday 5 February 2012
    • CHOICES THAT AFFECT CLIMATE, CREATURES AND CULTURES Conversations that reflect our choices- “The price increase of fossil fuels (an economic process) boosts the demand for biofuels, which causes changes in land-use cover through deforestation, increases greenhouse gas emissions through the drainage of peat marshes, expands use of agrochemicals and raises the likelihood of establishment of invasive species. (A long-term plan could be to reduce the demand for fossil fuel by changing consumer and producer behavior).” More conversations- “An expanding population may increase demand for land (land use change), leading to more consumption of wild foods (resource extraction) and more intensive agriculture (external inputs like fertilizers), require more transport to and within sprawling cities (emissions), and result in experiments with fast growing alien organisms in an attempt to increase productivity for people and for goods (modification and movement of organisms), etc.” Habitat Loss !! Forceful habitat shift !! Rainfall patterns changes affects the breeding cycles Research shows that global warming forces species to of tropical reptiles. Nesting habitats of Sea turtles, move up tropical mountains as their habitats shift Crocodilians and other reptiles face severe threats upward. These species currently moving upslope to with the rising sea level and change in rainfall pattern. compensate for habitat loss at lower and warmer Increased ocean temperatures can lead to coral altitudes, will eventually have NO PLACE TO MOVE TO. bleaching and other damage to Sea turtle feeding habitats. - American Museum of Natural History - Observation & Experimental ScientistsSunday 5 February 2012
    • CHOICES THAT AFFECT CLIMATE, CREATURES AND CULTURES Conversations that reflect our choices- “The price increase of fossil fuels (an economic process) boosts the demand for biofuels, which causes changes in land-use cover through deforestation, increases greenhouse gas emissions through the drainage of peat marshes, expands use of agrochemicals and raises the likelihood of establishment of invasive species. (A long-term plan could be to reduce the demand for fossil fuel by changing consumer and producer behavior).” More conversations- “An expanding population may increase demand for land (land use change), leading to more consumption of wild foods (resource extraction) and more intensive agriculture (external inputs like fertilizers), require more transport to and within sprawling cities (emissions), and result in experiments with fast growing alien organisms in an attempt to increase productivity for people and for goods (modification and movement of organisms), etc.” Habitat Loss !! Forceful habitat shift !! Rainfall patterns changes affects the breeding cycles Research shows that global warming forces species to of tropical reptiles. Nesting habitats of Sea turtles, move up tropical mountains as their habitats shift Crocodilians and other reptiles face severe threats upward. These species currently moving upslope to with the rising sea level and change in rainfall pattern. compensate for habitat loss at lower and warmer Increased ocean temperatures can lead to coral altitudes, will eventually have NO PLACE TO MOVE TO. bleaching and other damage to Sea turtle feeding habitats. - American Museum of Natural History - Observation & Experimental Scientists So my travel board of Creatures & Cultures that I have come to love....Sunday 5 February 2012
    • THE GHARIAL IRULA TRIBE THE PELICANS THE OLIVE RIDLEY THE FORESTS THE AMPHIBIANS Ecosystem management has a crucial role to play in climate change mitigation through improved land use, reduced deforestation and encouraging indirect measures. For example, coping with sea level rise will require improved management of coral reefs, mangroves and coastal areas to increase resilience. Prevention of and coping with extreme flood events will require securing catchment forests and reforestation along drainage lines. As growing seasons lengthen and milder conditions prevail, healthier, more resilient ecosystems will help keep pests and parasites under control.Sunday 5 February 2012
    • Looks something like this....Sunday 5 February 2012
    • PERPETUATION OF SPECIES ? MALNUTRITION & LOSS OF LIVELIHOODS SURVIVAL, IF AT ALL. BETTER PLANNING OR DEATHS? LOSS OF FORESTS! REALITY OR LOSS. THE COMPLETE PICTURE. THE CONNECTED DOTS. Climate, Creatures and Cultures are at the mercy of our Choices.Sunday 5 February 2012
    • The traditional approaches to environmental management according to sectors (e.g., forestry, agriculture) or biomes (geographically and climatically linked natural communities) have a number of shortcomings. The ecosystem concerns are considered as separate from development concerns, traditional approaches ignore the interdependence of ecosystem services and human needs, and do not acknowledge the diverse effects on various social groups of declining ecosystem and their relevant services. “HENCE TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES ARE EXTREMELY NECESSARY TO TACKLE ISSUES”Sunday 5 February 2012
    • “So long as we treat environmental problems as a part of developmental agendas, Conservation will always remain a whimsical discussion in the political corridors. Once a transdisciplinary approach is adapted, frameworks can be established with the help of biologists, ecologists, economists, etc to attain conservation goals. Wildlife exploitation and conservation involves various costs and benefits, which should all be taken into account to achieve an optimal outcome that is favorable to all and sundry. For this to happen, it is necessary to develop appropriate economic instruments and incentives. Wildlife management itself poses a particular challenge to the community at large because wildlife has an impact not only on people living in areas where wildlife is found, but also on people located considerable distances away including the urban populations living many many miles away. Further, when property rights are insecure, those who harvest wildlife do not take into account the cost of their actions on the future availability of the resource because they do not have a stake in wildlife beyond those accessible to them today, which in turn gives rise to severe conflict between man and animal who are in essence competing for the same resource. As a result, in situ wildlife is undervalued leading to their possible overexploitation and extinction.” Thank You.Sunday 5 February 2012
    • Ramya Ravi E: ramya.r.ravi@gmail.com M: 91-9848608777 W: ramyaravi63.wordpress.com All images are © Ramya Ravi Some of the Content is courtesy of Madras Crocodile Bank TrustSunday 5 February 2012