Fundamentals of Web building
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Fundamentals of Web building

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    Fundamentals of Web building Fundamentals of Web building Presentation Transcript

    • By: Ramon Christopher Morales Fundamentals of Web Building
    • Today’s discussion includes the following:  The web programming languages usually used HTML CSS JavaScript Server-side Scripting SQL
    •  HTML is the primary language for building/creating web pages.  CSS defines HOW HTML elements are to be displayed.  JavaScript is THE scripting language of the Web.  Server-side scripting is about "programming" the behavior of the server.  SQL is the standard language for accessing and manipulating databases.
    • HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language  HTML is an easy-to-learn markup language.  HTML uses markup tags inside angle brackets, like <p>, to define the elements of a web page:
    • HTML Example  HTML uses start tags and end tags to markup web page elements: In the example above, the <p> tag marks the start of a paragraph, and </p> marks the end of the paragraph.
    • HTML Example  Web browsers (IE, Firefox, Chrome, etc) read HTML documents, interpret the HTML tags, and display the proper output (without displaying the HTML tags):
    • HTML  By using simple HTML tags, web designers can add headers, paragraphs, text, tables, images, lists, programming code, etc, to a web page (HTML document).  According to the HTML standard, HTML should be used to define the content of web pages.
    • CSS - Cascading Style Sheets  CSS describes the visual style (appearance, layout, color, fonts) of HTML elements.
    • CSS EXAMPLE  CSS was designed to separate document layout from document content (which greatly improved HTML flexibility and reduced HTML complexity).
    • CSS EXAMPLE  CSS saves a lot of work!  The CSS definitions are normally stored in external files. This enables a web developer to change the appearance and layout of every page in a web site, just by editing one single file!
    • CSS EXAMPLE  If you have ever tried to change the style of all elements in all your HTML pages, you understand how you can save a lot of work by storing the style definitions in an external file.
    • JavaScript - Client-side Scripting  JavaScript is used in billions of Web pages to add functionality, validate forms, communicate with the server, and much more.  JavaScript is easy to learn.
    • What is JavaScript?  JavaScript is a scripting language  A scripting language is a lightweight programming language  A JavaScript consists of lines of executable computer code  A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages
    • What is JavaScript?  JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages  JavaScript is free. Everyone can use JavaScript without a license
    • Are Java and JavaScript the same?  Java and JavaScript are two completely different languages in both concept and design!  Java (developed by Sun Microsystems) is a powerful and much more complex programming language - in the same category as C and C++  JavaScript was invented by Brendan Eich at Netscape (with Navigator 2.0), and has appeared in all browsers since 1996.
    • Client-side Scripting  JavaScript is about "programming" the behavior of a browser. This is called client- side scripting (or browser scripting).  Server-side scripting is about "programming" the behavior of the server
    • What can a JavaScript Do?  JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool - JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages
    • What can a JavaScript Do?  JavaScript can react to events - A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens, like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element
    • What can a JavaScript Do?  JavaScript can be used to validate data - A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. This saves the server from extra processing
    • What can a JavaScript Do?  JavaScript can be used to create cookies - A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's
    • What can a JavaScript Do?  JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser - A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser, and load another page specifically designed for that
    • What can a JavaScript Do?  JavaScript can read/write/modify HTML elements - A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element
    • HTML, CSS, JavaScript  HTML is the primary language for building/creating web pages.  CSS defines HOW HTML elements are to be displayed.  JavaScript is THE scripting language of the Web.
    • ASP and PHP - Server-side Scripting  Active Server Pages (ASP) and Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP)  An HTML file can contain HTML tags, text and scripts.  Server-side scripting is about "programming" the behavior of the server. This is called server-side scripting or server scripting.  Client-side scripting is about "programming" the behavior of the browser.
    • ASP and PHP - Server-side Scripting  Normally, when a browser requests an HTML file, the server returns the file. However, if the file contains a server-side script, the script is executed on the server before the file is returned to the browser as plain HTML.
    • What can Server Scripts Do?  Dynamically edit, change or add any content to a Web page  Respond to user queries or data submitted from HTML forms  Access any data or databases and return the result to a browser  Customize a Web page to make it more useful for individual users
    • What can Server Scripts Do?  Provide security since your server code cannot be viewed from a browser  Because the scripts are executed on the server, the browser that displays the file does not need to support scripting at all!
    • SQL - Structured Query Language  SQL is the standard language for accessing and manipulating databases.  Common database management systems are: MySQL, SQL Server, Access, Oracle, Sybase, and DB2  Knowledge of SQL is invaluable for anyone who wants to store or retrieve data from a database.
    • What is SQL?  SQL stands for Structured Query Language  SQL allows you to access a database  SQL is an ANSI standard computer language  SQL can execute queries against a database  SQL can retrieve data from a database  SQL can insert new records in a database  SQL can delete records from a database  SQL can update records in a database  SQL is easy to learn
    • SQL Database Tables  A database usually contains one or more tables. Each table is identified by a name (e.g. "Customers" or "Orders"). Tables contain records (rows) with data.
    • SQL Database Tables  The table above (called “Persons”) contains three records (one for each person) and four columns (LastName, FirstName, Address, and City).
    • SQL Queries  With SQL, we can query a database and have a result set returned. A query like this: SELECT LastName FROM Persons Gives a result set like this:
    • Summary  HTML is the primary language for building/creating web pages.  CSS defines HOW HTML elements are to be displayed.  JavaScript is THE scripting language of the Web.  Server-side scripting is about "programming" the behavior of the server.  SQL is the standard language for accessing and manipulating databases.