DISASTER PREPAREDNESS IN VETERINARY PRACTICE Dr.D.Ramamurthy B.V.Sc., M.B.A., VETERINARY ASST. SURGEON, VETERINARY DISPENSARY, KARAMANIKUPPAM, CUDDALORE DISTRICT .
DISASTER NATURAL MAN MADE EPIDEMIC INDIVIDUAL TECHNICAL ACCIDENTAL CYCLONE FIRE EARTH QUAKE FLOOD DROUGHT FAMINE LAND SLIDES SNOW AVALANCH TSUNAMI NEGLIGENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACCIDENTS AVIAN INFLUENZA TERRORIST STRICKE BIO – TERRORISM CHEMICAL TERRORISM NUCLEAR TERRORISM CYBER TERRORISM CHEMICAL PLANT (ACCIDENTS LIKE BHOPAL TRAGETY) NUCLEAR PLANT ACCIDENT (LIKE CHERNOBYL IN RUSSIA)
IN INDIA OUT OF 32 STATES 22 STATES AND SOME UNION TERRITORIES ARE VULNERABLE TO SOME DISASTER OR OTHERS DISASTER STATUS IN INDIA
MAJOR DISASTERS IN INDIA IN THE RECENT PAST
The Cyclone of Andra Pradesh in1977 caused an estimated loss of 2,30.146 cattle and 23,55,056 live stock in Orissa in 1982, 11,468 cattle lost. Earthquake has comparatively less impact in animals. But still in Uttarkasi 3100 cattle lost and between 1953-1980 we lost 1,02,908 cattle because of earthquakes.
Wild animals do predict natural Disasters like Earthquake, Volcanoes, Tsunami etc., Do man predict the Disasters by instinct? Maybe in the early part of evolution. In Andaman Nicobar islands some isolated tribes escaped Tsunami This maybe to do their ability in prediction of Natural Disasters Do animals predict the Disasters ? Yes.
A Disaster management plan for animals shall essentially include
Herd health Promotion
Therapy and Rehabilitation
Retrospective epidemiological study of the Disaster including.
The Disasters Management Plan should have
A clean valid and viable outline of specific emergency action necessary in specific situation (related to specific hazard) along with the designation of coordinator of lead agency.
Documentation of material and human required and accessible during emergency situation Even though we have faced many type of Disaster so far and lost thousands of animals, the experience in these disasters, post disaster rescue operation, and rehabilitation were not documented which might help in preparing disaster preparedness plan for veterinary practice. Different disaster might have varied impact on animal population.
A Disaster preparedness plan should have different approach for different type of Disaster.
COASTAL AREA DISASTERS
The situation in coastal region is often aggrevated by natural calamities such as
IMPACT OF TSUNMI ON ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
In Tamilndu alone nearly 18,448 Animals are reported to have died in this Disasters
The Production loss of milk meat and draught power due to death toll is estimated at 3.71 corers.
TSUNAMIS are ocean waves most often generated by induced movement of ocean floor, Landslides, Volcanic eruption and even meteorites can also generate a Tsunami.
All Tsunamis are potentially dangerous even though they may not damage every coast line they strike
Our coast lines are vulnerable but Tsunamis are infrequent.
We should understand the hazard and learn how to protect us.
Disasters preparedness plan for Tsunami
Identifying the vulnerable coast line for Tsunami with past record
Developing warning system for public as well as for veterinary professionals.
Evacuation plan with route map
Possibilities of providing temporary shelters
Provision for clean & Potable water, feed and fodder.
Emergency communication Plan
Familiarizing with Tsunami warning system, evacuation route and emergency communication plan.
SIGNS OF TSUNAMI
An Earthquake lasting 20 seconds or more coast near may generate Tsunami
A noticeable rapid rise or fall in coastal water is also a sign that Tsunami is approaching
Tsunami most frequently come on shore as rapid raising turbulent surge of water charged with debris.
They are not V shaped or rolling wave and not surfable
Tsunami may be locally generated or from a distant origin.
DURING SIGNS OF EARTHQUAKE IN VULNERBLE AREAS OF TSUNAMI
When you feel shaking due to earthquake Come out to a open space & Drop, Cover and hold on
When the shaking stops gather your family members & pets, escape quickly
Leave everything behind, a Tsunami may be coming within minutes. Advice people leave the place along with their livestock at once.
As the energy of Tsunami is transmitted through open water it is not detectable. Seismic signs may be the only advance warning before Tsunami approaching the coast line.
Check your damages, emergency supplies.
Review evacuation plan.
AFTER TSUNAMI STRIKED
Continue listening warning through TV, Radio
A Tsunami may have damaged roads, bridges or the other places that may be unsafe.
Stay away from the flooded water
Help injured human being as well as animals.
Do not enter flooded buildings. Wear sturdy shoes and use battery powered light
Watch for wild life especially poisonous snakes that may have entered along with flood water (use stick to poke through debris)
Do not allow the animals eat feed that have come in contact with flood water
Rescue with proper care any trapped animals (a docile animal may become frenzy after Tsunami.
Take steps for proper disposal of animal carcasses to avoid public health nuisance.
REHABILITATION OF SURVIVED ANIMALS
Survived animal should be treated accordingly
Provide temporary animal shelter or convert existing shed to accommodate stranded animals as well as animals with ownership.
If animals are to be sheltered for long duration give identity to the animals
Provide clean potable water, feed and fodder
Wild animals usually escape well in advance and domesticated animals when they are not tied will try to escape as animal are good swimmers. But Tsunamis are not usual ocean waves and violently move. Hence animals do get trapped and drowned. Death of animal when drowned in Tsunami flood might be due to aspiration pneumonia, asphyxiation and excess ingestion of turbid and toxic hypertonic sea water.
THE POSSIBILITIES OF EPIDEMIC AFTER TSUNAMI
POULTRY : Avianinfluenza, Rankhet Disease
SMALL RUMINANTS : PPR, Pathogenic Clostridial Infection
CATTLE : PPR, H.S, Anthrax
The following diseases are more prevalent after Tsunami in the affected area Animal should be vaccinated for above diseases and anthalmentics should be given as stress after Tsunami may cause Verminous over activity.
SOME IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF RECENT TSUNAMI
Total Energy released 3.35 exjoules
0.8 Giga tonn of TNT
Equivalent to energy used in USA for 11 days.
Earthquake caused oscillation of Earth surface of about 20 to 30cm
The entire Earth surface is estimated to have moved vertically by upto 1cm
The shift of mass and massive release of energy very slightly altered earth’s rotation
It shortened the length of day by 2.68 microseconds
It also caused earth to minutely wobble on its axis up to 2.5cm in the direction of 145 0 earth‘s longitude
TSUNAMI STRIKED CUDDALORE COAST Its impact on Animal Husbandry Rehabilitation and Relief Presentation :
DR. D. Ramamurthy B.V.Sc., M.B.A
Veterinary Hospital, Cuddalore.
Impact of TSUNAMI…
Tsunami striked cuddalore coast around 8.50 a.m on 26- 02-2004 and lasted for only 20-30 minutes
But its impact was very huge
People lost their lives, Properties, belongings and livelihood.
Sea water inundated in to cuddalore coast to the extent of 1.5 Km.
The Land up to 1.5 – 3 km lost its fertility and salinity increased.
Sub soil water affected by salinity up to 5 km and agricultural operation severely affected.
Impact of TSUNAMI on Animals
Several hundreds of Cattle, Buffaloes, Sheep and Goats Supposed be tied in the shed and grazing in the mangrove forest died due to drowning in TSUNMI water and death was due to mainly suffocation.
Official figure of mortality
Cows 119 buffaloes 3 Calves 12 Bullocks 4 Sheep & Goat 811 Total 949 Stray cattle and stray Dogs escaped TSUNMI havoc A few stray cattle which escaped after swallowing TSUNAMI water died in another few days.
Observations in the affected and dead Animals
Two cows, Two calves which escaped and survived after swallowing Sea water for few days.
Protrusion of tongue
Protrusion of anus with bleeding
Animals did not respond for treatment.
Disposal of Carcasses
In association with Local bodies, Army and Fire services Carcasses of animals in TSUNMI affected area were disposed in war footing to avoid any epidemics of public health.
Rehabilitation of Animals in post TSUNAMI
DR. Leonard Paul M.V.Sc., Team Leader
DR. Mushtaq ali B.V.Sc., Member
DR. K.Vijayakumar M.V.Sc., ,,
DR. D. Ramamurthy B.V.Sc., M.B.A., ,,
DR. Siva Shnmugam B.V.Sc., ,,
DR. Natesan B.V.Sc., ,,
DR. Shankaranarayanan B.V.Sc., ,,
DR. H. Mohan B.V.Sc., ,,
A Team of professionals worked on war footing in rehabilitation of livestock in TSUNAMI affected area
TSUNAMI Affected Villages
Thaikkal Thoni Thuri
Killai Meenavr Colony
Cattle Camp in TSUNAMI affected area
Cattle camps ware organized to rehabilitate stranded animals during and after TSUNAMI in the following places
Veterinary hospital cuddalore.
Veterinary dispensary, Mettupalayam.
Veterinary dispensary, Portnova.
Veterinary dispensary, Pinnathur.
Sheltering, watering, feeding and treatment of animals were carried out for stranded animals for few days.
Distribution of Green and dry fodder in TSUNAMI affected area
Nearly 40 tons of green fodder and 1 ton of dry fodder were procured from district livestock farm Echengkottai, Thanjavur from 29-12-2004 to 20-01-2005 for the starved animals in TSUNAMI affected area.
Immunisation of animals in TSUNAMI affected area
Vaccinations were carried out to avoid any Epidemics in Post TSUNAMI.
FMD Vaccinations - 20,109
HS Vaccinations - 50,000
Compensation for Victims of animal loss in TSUNMI affected area
Rs. 10,000 each to owners of cows and buffaloes
Rs. 5,000 each to owners of Calves and Bullocks
Rs. 1,000 each to owners of Sheep and Goat
To the tune of Rs.21,11,000
Post TSUNMI observations of impact on Animal husbandry
Loss or reduction in Milk yield.
Affection of skin in animals which had contact with TSUNAMI water.
Loss of grazing land near coastal area due to inundation of sea water.
Less attention of live stock owners on animal husbandry due to trauma and mental agony.
Loss of body weight in sheep and goat due to lack of grazing ground.
No epidemics of live stock diseases were noticed in
Post TSUNAMI… People in Panic
Unclaimed Animal carcasses Post TSUNAMI…
Post TSUNAMI… Animal and their Owners in Cattle Camp
Human and Animal Carcasses Post TSUNAMI… enmass burial of
Post TSUNAMI… enmass vaccination of Animals
Post TSUNAMI… distribution of fodder to the starved Animals
Distribution of fodder to the starved Animals in an islet village Post TSUNAMI…
Post TSUNAMI… Door to door vaccination of Animals
Post TSUNAMI… Visit of Honourable Minster for Animal husbandry to the TSUNAMI hit Village
Post TSUNAMI… Visit of Honourable Minster for Animal husbandry to the TSUNAMI hit Village
Visit of Honourable Minster for Animal husbandry to the Cattle Camp in Veterinary Hospital Cuddalore. Post TSUNAMI…
Post TSUNAMI… Visit of Commissioner & Director of Veterinary Services
Review by secretary animal husbandry & Fisheries Post TSUNAMI Relief works, by Animal husbandry Dept. Cuddalore