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  • 1. Research MethodsResearch MethodsAP PsychologyAP PsychologyMr. BasichMr. Basich
  • 2. Research Methods: Objectives:Research Methods: Objectives: By the end of this chapter, I will be able to:By the end of this chapter, I will be able to: Differentiate types of research (e.g., experiments, correlational studies, surveyDifferentiate types of research (e.g., experiments, correlational studies, surveyresearch, naturalistic observations, and case studies) with regard to purpose,research, naturalistic observations, and case studies) with regard to purpose,strengths, and weaknesses.strengths, and weaknesses. •• Describe how research design drives the reasonable conclusions that can beDescribe how research design drives the reasonable conclusions that can bedrawn (e.g., experiments are useful for determining cause and effect; the use ofdrawn (e.g., experiments are useful for determining cause and effect; the use ofexperimental controls reduces alternative explanations).experimental controls reduces alternative explanations). •• Identify independent, dependent, confounding, and control variables inIdentify independent, dependent, confounding, and control variables inexperimental designs.experimental designs. •• Distinguish between random assignment of participants to conditions inDistinguish between random assignment of participants to conditions inexperiments and random selection of participants, primarily in correlational studiesexperiments and random selection of participants, primarily in correlational studiesand surveys.and surveys. •• Predict the validity of behavioral explanations based on the quality of researchPredict the validity of behavioral explanations based on the quality of researchdesign (e.g., confounding variables limit confidence in research conclusions).design (e.g., confounding variables limit confidence in research conclusions). •• Distinguish the purposes of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.Distinguish the purposes of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. •• Apply basic descriptive statistical concepts, including interpreting andApply basic descriptive statistical concepts, including interpreting andconstructing graphs and calculating simple descriptive statistics (e.g., measures ofconstructing graphs and calculating simple descriptive statistics (e.g., measures ofcentral tendency, standard deviation).central tendency, standard deviation). •• Discuss the value of reliance on operational definitions and measurement inDiscuss the value of reliance on operational definitions and measurement inbehavioral research.behavioral research. •• Identify how ethical issues inform and constrain research practices.Identify how ethical issues inform and constrain research practices. •• Describe how ethical and legal guidelines (e.g., those provided by the AmericanDescribe how ethical and legal guidelines (e.g., those provided by the AmericanPsychological Association, federal regulations, local institutional review boards)Psychological Association, federal regulations, local institutional review boards)protect research participants and promote sound ethical practice.protect research participants and promote sound ethical practice.
  • 3. Chapter Objectives:Chapter Objectives: Lesson OneLesson One: Describe the: Describe thenature and advantages ofnature and advantages ofexperimentation.experimentation. Lesson TwoLesson Two: Discuss the: Discuss themain methods of psychologicalmain methods of psychologicalexperimentation.experimentation. Lesson ThreeLesson Three: Identify how to: Identify how tomake a psychological studymake a psychological studyvalid and reliable.valid and reliable. Lesson FourLesson Four: Describe the: Describe theethical guidelines that must beethical guidelines that must befollowed when conductingfollowed when conductingpsychological research.psychological research. Lesson FiveLesson Five: Identify the: Identify theappropriate statistics to useappropriate statistics to usewhen analyzing psychologicalwhen analyzing psychologicaldata.data.
  • 4. Chapter Schedule:Chapter Schedule: Day 1: The Controlled Experiment / Hand out Review PacketDay 1: The Controlled Experiment / Hand out Review Packet Day 2: Genie Case Study – Part 1/ QuizDay 2: Genie Case Study – Part 1/ Quiz Day 3: Finish Genie Case Study / Genie DiscussionDay 3: Finish Genie Case Study / Genie Discussion Day 4: Types of ResearchDay 4: Types of Research Day 5: Eliminating Confounding VariablesDay 5: Eliminating Confounding Variables Day 6: Ethical Guidelines – Milgram and Harlow / Introduce andDay 6: Ethical Guidelines – Milgram and Harlow / Introduce andwork on Mock Experimentwork on Mock Experiment Day 7: Finish Mock Experiment / Quiz / Work on Review PacketDay 7: Finish Mock Experiment / Quiz / Work on Review Packet Day 8: Elementary StatisticsDay 8: Elementary Statistics Day 9: ReviewDay 9: Review Day 10: TestDay 10: Test
  • 5. If I took part in the Stanford Prison Experiment IIf I took part in the Stanford Prison Experiment Iwould be most comfortable playing the role of:would be most comfortable playing the role of:PrisonerGuardZimbardoNoneoftheab...0% 0%0%0%1.1. PrisonerPrisoner2.2. GuardGuard3.3. ZimbardoZimbardo4.4. None of theNone of theaboveabove2511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 6. Lesson One: ObjectivesLesson One: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe how research design drives the1. Describe how research design drives thereasonable conclusions that can be drawn (e.g.,reasonable conclusions that can be drawn (e.g.,experiments are useful for determining causeexperiments are useful for determining causeand effect; the use of experimental controlsand effect; the use of experimental controlsreduces alternative explanations).reduces alternative explanations). 2. Identify independent, dependent,2. Identify independent, dependent,confounding, and control variables inconfounding, and control variables inexperimental designs.experimental designs. 3. Distinguish between random assignment of3. Distinguish between random assignment ofparticipants to conditions in experiments andparticipants to conditions in experiments andrandom selection of participants, primarily inrandom selection of participants, primarily incorrelational studies and surveys.correlational studies and surveys.
  • 7. Lesson One: The ControlledLesson One: The ControlledExperimentExperiment The goal of psychologicalThe goal of psychologicalresearch is to describe,,research is to describe,,predict, and explain, andpredict, and explain, andcontrol psychologicalcontrol psychologicalphenomenon.phenomenon. Psychologists conductPsychologists conductresearch to answer behavioralresearch to answer behavioralquestions.questions. They acquire data throughThey acquire data throughcareful observation andcareful observation andmeasurement.measurement. Experiments, naturalisticExperiments, naturalisticobservations, interviews,observations, interviews,questionnaires, and casequestionnaires, and casestudies are all used to gatherstudies are all used to gatherdata.data.
  • 8. What Do Psychologists Study?What Do Psychologists Study? Psychologists studyPsychologists studythings such as:things such as:personality, values,personality, values,intelligence, talents,intelligence, talents,heredity, and socialheredity, and socialenvironment.environment. Good research is able toGood research is able tobebe replicatedreplicated – repeated– repeatedin different situations within different situations withsimilar results.similar results. We are first going to lookWe are first going to lookat the framework of goodat the framework of goodexperimentation.experimentation.
  • 9. How Do Psychologists UseHow Do Psychologists UseResearch?Research? Psychologists spend much of their time trying to find out whyPsychologists spend much of their time trying to find out whysomething is happening. (correlations, causations, etc.)something is happening. (correlations, causations, etc.) With that being said, psychologists use a four tiered approach whenWith that being said, psychologists use a four tiered approach whentrying to explain and ultimately control behavior.trying to explain and ultimately control behavior. 1.1. DescribeDescribe – This is easy – John gets into fights– This is easy – John gets into fightsregularly at schoolregularly at school 2.2. PredictPredict – Every time John gets made fun of at school– Every time John gets made fun of at schoolhe starts fighting.he starts fighting. 3.3. ExplainExplain – John is physically abused at home by his– John is physically abused at home by hisDad.Dad. 4.4. ControlControl – Remove John from his abusive– Remove John from his abusiveenvironment and provide him with an outlet for his builtenvironment and provide him with an outlet for his builtup anger. (MMA)up anger. (MMA)
  • 10. The Controlled Experiment:The Controlled Experiment: Researching scientist useResearching scientist usehypotheses to drive theirhypotheses to drive theirexperimentation.experimentation. HypothesisHypothesis – Predictions– Predictionsof how two or moreof how two or morefactors are likely to befactors are likely to berelated. (testable)related. (testable) ExperimentExperiment – A– Aresearcher systematicallyresearcher systematicallymanipulates a variablemanipulates a variableunder controlledunder controlledconditions and observesconditions and observesthe response.the response.
  • 11. The Controlled Experiment:The Controlled Experiment: Independent VariableIndependent Variable – The– Thefactor that the researcherfactor that the researchermanipulates (gives aspirin tomanipulates (gives aspirin toparticipant)participant) Dependent VariableDependent Variable – The– Thefactor that may change as afactor that may change as aresult of the manipulation of theresult of the manipulation of theindependent variable (how theindependent variable (how theparticipant feels after taking theparticipant feels after taking theaspirin)aspirin) Think about it like this:Think about it like this: IV – CauseIV – Cause DV – EffectDV – Effect ImportantImportant: A controlled: A controlledresearch experiment is the onlyresearch experiment is the onlyresearch methods that canresearch methods that canestablish a cause and effectestablish a cause and effectrelationship.relationship.I wonder what willhappen if I…..
  • 12. Hypotheses are:Hypotheses are:0%0%0%0%0%Integrated sets o... Testable predicti...Hunches about men... Measures of relat...Both 3 and 4251.1. Integrated sets of principlesIntegrated sets of principlesthat help to organizethat help to organizeobservationsobservations2.2. Testable predictions, oftenTestable predictions, oftenderived from theoriesderived from theories3.3. Hunches about mentalHunches about mentalprocessesprocesses4.4. Measures of relationshipsMeasures of relationshipsbetween two factorsbetween two factors5.5. Both 3 and 4Both 3 and 411 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 13. Creating Effective Research:Creating Effective Research: So, you have a hypothesis.So, you have a hypothesis.Now what?Now what? PopulationPopulation – Includes all of– Includes all ofthe individuals in the group tothe individuals in the group towhich the study applies. (thewhich the study applies. (theeffects of high school studentseffects of high school studentseating fast food on a dailyeating fast food on a dailybasis)basis) SampleSample – Subgroup of the– Subgroup of thepopulation (RHS studentspopulation (RHS studentseating fast food on a dailyeating fast food on a dailybasis)basis) TheThe largerlarger the sample size, thethe sample size, thebetter.better. The moreThe more diversediverse the samplethe samplepopulation the better (unless ofpopulation the better (unless ofcourse you’re studyingcourse you’re studyingsomething particular)something particular)
  • 14. Creating Effective Research:Creating Effective Research: What is the best way toWhat is the best way toget a good sampleget a good samplepopulation?population? Random SelectionRandom Selection ––Randomly assigningRandomly assigningparticipants to yourparticipants to yourresearch study. (hat,research study. (hat,numbers, etc.)numbers, etc.) With random selectionWith random selectionyou will get a moreyou will get a morewell-rounded researchwell-rounded researchstudy.study.
  • 15. Psychologists use experimental research inPsychologists use experimental research inorder to reveal or to understand:order to reveal or to understand:Correlational...Operationalde...HypothesesTheoriesCauseandeffe...0% 0% 0%0%0%251.1. CorrelationalCorrelationalRelationshipsRelationships2.2. OperationalOperationaldefinitionsdefinitions3.3. HypothesesHypotheses4.4. TheoriesTheories5.5. Cause and effectCause and effectrelationshipsrelationships11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 16. Experimental Groups:Experimental Groups: In a research experiment youIn a research experiment youneed to have two groups:need to have two groups: Experimental groupExperimental group ––Receives the treatment (IV).Receives the treatment (IV). Control GroupControl Group – Does not– Does notreceive the treatment (DV)receive the treatment (DV) These should also beThese should also berandomly assigned.randomly assigned. This type of research is calledThis type of research is calledaa Between-Subjects DesignBetween-Subjects Designbecause the participants in thebecause the participants in theexperimental and controlexperimental and controlgroups are different.groups are different. Why do you need a controlWhy do you need a controlgroup?group? To test the effects of the IV onTo test the effects of the IV onthe experimental group.the experimental group.
  • 17. The procedure designed to ensure that the experimentalThe procedure designed to ensure that the experimentaland control groups do not differ in any way that might affectand control groups do not differ in any way that might affectthe experiment’s results is called:the experiment’s results is called:Variablecontr...Randomassignm...Representative...StratificationBetween-subjec...0% 0% 0%0%0%251.1. Variable controllingVariable controlling2.2. Random assignmentRandom assignment3.3. RepresentativeRepresentativesamplingsampling4.4. StratificationStratification5.5. Between-subjectsBetween-subjectsdesigndesign11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 18. In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory,In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory,one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug.one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug.A second group is given a sugar pill that does not containA second group is given a sugar pill that does not containthe drug. This second group constitutes the:the drug. This second group constitutes the:RandomsampleExperimentalg...ControlGroupTestGroupDependentgrou...0% 0% 0%0%0%251.1. Random sampleRandom sample2.2. ExperimentalExperimentalgroupgroup3.3. Control GroupControl Group4.4. Test GroupTest Group5.5. Dependent groupDependent group11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 19. Other Research Terms:Other Research Terms: Confounding VariablesConfounding Variables ––Differences between theDifferences between theexperimental and control groupsexperimental and control groupsother than those resulting fromother than those resulting fromthe independent variable.the independent variable. Our next lesson will focusOur next lesson will focusentirely on how to eliminateentirely on how to eliminateconfounding variable. (bias,confounding variable. (bias,social behaviors, etc.)social behaviors, etc.) True experimental researchTrue experimental researchcontrols for everything:controls for everything:ExampleExample: College student: College studentexercise and weight loss.exercise and weight loss. Operational DefinitionOperational Definition ––Describes the specific procedureDescribes the specific procedureused to determine the presenceused to determine the presenceof a variable:of a variable: ExampleExample ––College student weight loss.College student weight loss.
  • 20. In an experiment to determine the effects ofIn an experiment to determine the effects ofexercise on motivation, exercise is the:exercise on motivation, exercise is the:Confoundingva...Interveningva...Independentva...Dependentvari...Hypotheticalv...0% 0% 0%0%0%:251.1. ConfoundingConfoundingvariablevariable2.2. Intervening variableIntervening variable3.3. IndependentIndependentvariablevariable4.4. Dependent variableDependent variable5.5. Hypothetical variableHypothetical variable11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 21. Lesson Two: Objectives:Lesson Two: Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1.1. Differentiate types of researchDifferentiate types of research(e.g., experiments, correlational(e.g., experiments, correlationalstudies, survey research, naturalisticstudies, survey research, naturalisticobservations, and case studies) withobservations, and case studies) withregard to purpose, strengths, andregard to purpose, strengths, andweaknesses.weaknesses.
  • 22. Lesson Two: Types of Research:Lesson Two: Types of Research: TheThe controlled experimentcontrolled experimentis the only true way to gatheris the only true way to gathercause and effectcause and effectrelationships.relationships. However, it is very timeHowever, it is very timeconsuming and expensive toconsuming and expensive tohave this artificialhave this artificialenvironment running aroundenvironment running aroundthe clock.the clock. Many other positive methodsMany other positive methodsare used in psychology toare used in psychology togather data.gather data. Surveys, Case studies,Surveys, Case studies,naturalistic observations, andnaturalistic observations, andtests are used.tests are used.
  • 23. I have decided where I want to goI have decided where I want to goto college next year:to college next year:YesMaybeNo0% 0%0%1.1. YesYes2.2. MaybeMaybe3.3. NoNo:2511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 24. Naturalistic Observation:Naturalistic Observation: Do you think you’d actDo you think you’d actdifferently if you knewdifferently if you knewsomeone was watchingsomeone was watchingyou?you? NaturalisticNaturalisticObservationObservation – Gather– Gatherdescriptive informationdescriptive informationabout typical behavior ofabout typical behavior ofpeople or other animalspeople or other animalswithout manipulating anywithout manipulating anyvariables. (Lunch B-ball)variables. (Lunch B-ball)Click on me!!!
  • 25. Naturalistic Observation (cont.)Naturalistic Observation (cont.) Positives:Positives: InexpensiveInexpensive AmbiguousAmbiguous Easy to collect dataEasy to collect data Very realistic behaviorVery realistic behaviorand dataand data Negatives:Negatives: People may realizePeople may realizeyou’re studying themyou’re studying them(act different)(act different) Desired behavior(s)Desired behavior(s)may never happenmay never happen No control over theNo control over theenvironmentenvironment(McDonald’s French(McDonald’s FrenchFries)Fries)
  • 26. Which of the following research strategies would be best forWhich of the following research strategies would be best fordetermining whether alcohol impairs memory?determining whether alcohol impairs memory?0%0%0%0%0%Experiment Naturalistic Obse...Survey Case StudyCorrelational study:251.1. ExperimentExperiment2.2. NaturalisticNaturalisticObservationObservation3.3. SurveySurvey4.4. Case StudyCase Study5.5. CorrelationalCorrelationalstudystudy11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 27. Survey Method:Survey Method: Survey MethodSurvey Method ––Researchers useResearchers usequestionnaires or interviewsquestionnaires or interviewsto ask a large number ofto ask a large number ofpeople questions about theirpeople questions about theirbehaviors, thoughts, andbehaviors, thoughts, andattitudes.attitudes. Surveys should be large,Surveys should be large,random samples.random samples. Surveys should be clear,Surveys should be clear,concise, and not too wordyconcise, and not too wordyor too lengthy (Target)or too lengthy (Target)
  • 28. Surveys (cont.)Surveys (cont.) Conducting a survey requiresConducting a survey requiresaa representative samplerepresentative sample, or a, or asample that reflects all majorsample that reflects all majorcharacteristics of thecharacteristics of thepopulation you want topopulation you want torepresent.represent. If you are attempting to surveyIf you are attempting to survey"Americas attitude towards"Americas attitude towardsexercising", then your sampleexercising", then your samplecannot include onlycannot include onlyCaucasian, upper-classCaucasian, upper-classcollege students between thecollege students between theages of 18 and 22 years.ages of 18 and 22 years. This does not representThis does not representAmerica.America.
  • 29. A psychologist studies the play behavior of third grade children byA psychologist studies the play behavior of third grade children bywatching groups during recess at school. Which research strategy iswatching groups during recess at school. Which research strategy isbeing used?being used?0%0%0%0%0%Correlatio... Case Study ExperimentalSurvey Naturalist...:251.1. CorrelationalCorrelational2.2. Case StudyCase Study3.3. ExperimentalExperimental4.4. SurveySurvey5.5. NaturalisticNaturalisticObservationObservation11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 30. Surveys: Positives and Negatives:Surveys: Positives and Negatives: Positives:Positives: Quick and efficientQuick and efficient Can poll large numberCan poll large numberof peopleof people RelativelyRelativelyinexpensiveinexpensive Reliable measureReliable measure(everyone gets the(everyone gets thesame survey)same survey) Negatives:Negatives: Questions may beQuestions may beconfusing or biasedconfusing or biased People may not takePeople may not takeit seriouslyit seriously Sometimes difficult toSometimes difficult togain in depthgain in depthknowledgeknowledge
  • 31. Another way: use interviews:Another way: use interviews: ExampleExample: In the early 1970’s,: In the early 1970’s,researchers found an increaseresearchers found an increasein babies being born within babies being born withdeformed limbs in England anddeformed limbs in England andthe USA.the USA. Researchers decided to useResearchers decided to useEx Post Facto StudiesEx Post Facto Studies ––studies that look at an effectstudies that look at an effectand seek the cause – to try toand seek the cause – to try tofind out what was going on.find out what was going on. They found a strongThey found a strongcorrelation between thecorrelation between thedefects and the mothers thatdefects and the mothers thattook a drug called Thalidomidetook a drug called Thalidomideduring pregnancy.during pregnancy. After the study, researchersAfter the study, researcherswent back tested the drug onwent back tested the drug onrats and found similar results.rats and found similar results.
  • 32. Well done surveys measure attitudes in a representative subset,Well done surveys measure attitudes in a representative subset,or _________, of an entire group, or _________.or _________, of an entire group, or _________.Population;Random...ControlGroup;Expe...ExperimentalGroup...RandomSample;Po...0% 0%0%0%1.1. Population; RandomPopulation; RandomSampleSample2.2. Control Group;Control Group;Experimental GroupExperimental Group3.3. Experimental Group;Experimental Group;Control GroupControl Group4.4. Random Sample;Random Sample;PopulationPopulation:2511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 33. Test Method:Test Method: TestsTests – Procedures used to– Procedures used tomeasure attributes ofmeasure attributes ofindividuals at a particular timeindividuals at a particular timeand place.and place. Can be used to gather hugeCan be used to gather hugeamounts of information quicklyamounts of information quicklyand cheaply.and cheaply. For tests and surveys to beFor tests and surveys to beaccurate measures of behavioraccurate measures of behaviorthey must be:they must be: 1.1. ReliableReliable – Consistent and– Consistent andrepeatable.repeatable. 2.2. ValidValid – The extent to which– The extent to whichan instrument (test, survey)an instrument (test, survey)measures or predicts what it ismeasures or predicts what it issupposed to.supposed to. Educational Testing –Educational Testing –Formative and SummativeFormative and Summative
  • 34. Tests: Positives and NegativesTests: Positives and Negatives PositivesPositives:: Easy to administerEasy to administerand gradeand grade Everyone gets theEveryone gets thesame testsame test Quick resultsQuick results NegativesNegatives:: ExpensiveExpensive Need to continue toNeed to continue toupdate testupdate test Cannot controlCannot controloutside human factorsoutside human factors(sleep, well-being,(sleep, well-being,etc.)etc.)
  • 35. Case Study:Case Study: Case StudyCase Study – In depth– In depthexamination of a specificexamination of a specificgroup OR single person thatgroup OR single person thattypically includes interviews,typically includes interviews,observations, and testobservations, and testscores.scores. This method is especiallyThis method is especiallyuseful for understandinguseful for understandingcomplex or rarecomplex or rarephenomenon. (Genie)phenomenon. (Genie) Clinical psychologistsClinical psychologistsfrequently do case studies.frequently do case studies.(longitudinal kids study)(longitudinal kids study)
  • 36. Case Study: Positives andCase Study: Positives andNegatives:Negatives: Positives:Positives: Very detailedVery detailedinformationinformation Not very expensiveNot very expensive Negatives:Negatives: Not applicable toNot applicable tolarger populationslarger populations Takes a lot time,Takes a lot time,effort, and attention toeffort, and attention todetaildetail
  • 37. Controlled Experiment:Controlled Experiment: PositivesPositives Can show true causeCan show true causeand effectand effectrelationshipsrelationships If done properly, isIf done properly, isconsidered “sound”considered “sound”research by theresearch by theacademic worldacademic world NegativesNegatives CostlyCostly Time consumingTime consuming
  • 38. After detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologistAfter detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologistconcludes that the brain region destroyed is likely to be important forconcludes that the brain region destroyed is likely to be important formemory functions. Which research method did the psychologist use tomemory functions. Which research method did the psychologist use todeduce this?deduce this?CaseStudySurveyCorrelational...ControlledExp...Naturalistico...0% 0% 0%0%0%:251.1. Case StudyCase Study2.2. SurveySurvey3.3. CorrelationalCorrelationalExperimentExperiment4.4. ControlledControlledExperimentExperiment5.5. NaturalisticNaturalisticobservationobservation11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 39. Which of the following research methods does NOTWhich of the following research methods does NOTbelong with the others?belong with the others?0%0%0%0%0%Case Study SurveyNaturalistic Obse... Controlled Experi...Correlational exp...:251.1. Case StudyCase Study2.2. SurveySurvey3.3. NaturalisticNaturalisticObservationObservation4.4. ControlledControlledExperimentExperiment5.5. CorrelationalCorrelationalexperimentexperiment11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 40. Lesson Three: Objectives:Lesson Three: Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Predict the validity of behavioral explanations1. Predict the validity of behavioral explanationsbased on the quality of research design (e.g.,based on the quality of research design (e.g.,confounding variables limit confidence inconfounding variables limit confidence inresearch conclusions).research conclusions). 2.2. Identify how ethical issues inform andIdentify how ethical issues inform andconstrain research practices.constrain research practices. 3. Describe how ethical and legal guidelines3. Describe how ethical and legal guidelines(e.g., those provided by the American(e.g., those provided by the AmericanPsychological Association, federal regulations,Psychological Association, federal regulations,local institutional review boards) protectlocal institutional review boards) protectresearch participants and promote sound ethicalresearch participants and promote sound ethicalpractice.practice.
  • 41. Lesson Three: EliminatingLesson Three: EliminatingConfounding Variables:Confounding Variables: Because we are human, we willBecause we are human, we willalways see some bias inalways see some bias inexperimentation.experimentation. The goal of good research is toThe goal of good research is toeliminate bias.eliminate bias. Experimental BiasExperimental Bias – Occurs– Occurswhen a researcher’swhen a researcher’sexpectations or preferencesexpectations or preferencesabout the outcome of a studyabout the outcome of a studyinfluence the results obtained.influence the results obtained. It is difficult to control for this atIt is difficult to control for this attimes because naturally humanstimes because naturally humansshow favoritism towards certainshow favoritism towards certainpeople or groups.people or groups. The researcher AND thoseThe researcher AND thosebeing experimented upon maybeing experimented upon mayshow bias.show bias.
  • 42. Eliminating Confounding Variables:Eliminating Confounding Variables: Imagine being a part of a studyImagine being a part of a studywhere the researcher kept youwhere the researcher kept youin the dark about what exactlyin the dark about what exactlywas being studied.was being studied. You would probably beYou would probably beinterested in finding out whatinterested in finding out whatwas being studied (so wouldwas being studied (so wouldothers in your group).others in your group). Demand characteristicsDemand characteristics --Those being researched uponThose being researched uponwill gather clues or rumorswill gather clues or rumorssuggesting how they shouldsuggesting how they shouldrespond.respond.
  • 43. Single / Double Blind Procedures:Single / Double Blind Procedures: Single Blind ProcedureSingle Blind Procedure ––Aims to eliminate the effects ofAims to eliminate the effects ofdemand characteristicsdemand characteristicsbecause the participants don’tbecause the participants don’tknow if they are in theknow if they are in theexperimental or control group.experimental or control group. Double Blind ProcedureDouble Blind Procedure ––Neither the experimenter orNeither the experimenter orthe participants know who is inthe participants know who is inthe experimental and controlthe experimental and controlgroups.groups. A second researcher orA second researcher orassistant that doesn’t know theassistant that doesn’t know thehypothesis or grouphypothesis or groupassignment administers theassignment administers theexperiment.experiment. TheThe principal investigatorprincipal investigatorstays away from thestays away from theparticipants.participants.
  • 44. Within Subjects Design:Within Subjects Design: Many research designs use:Many research designs use: Within Subjects DesignWithin Subjects Design – A subject acts as his– A subject acts as hisor her own control groupor her own control group How does this work?How does this work? The subject receives a treatment and thenThe subject receives a treatment and thenbehavior is recordingbehavior is recording The same is recording without the treatmentThe same is recording without the treatment Researchers get to see what difference theResearchers get to see what difference thetreatment made in the subject behaviortreatment made in the subject behavior
  • 45. The method that removes the principal investigatorThe method that removes the principal investigatorfrom knowing who is in the experimental andfrom knowing who is in the experimental andcontrol groups is called the:control groups is called the:Single-blindprocedureDouble-blindprocedureExperimenterexpect...CounterbalancingOperationalresearch20% 20% 20%20%20%:2511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 30301.1. Single-blindSingle-blindprocedureprocedure2.2. Double-blindDouble-blindprocedureprocedure3.3. ExperimenterExperimenterexpectancy effectexpectancy effect4.4. CounterbalancingCounterbalancing5.5. OperationalOperationalresearchresearch
  • 46. Placebo Effect:Placebo Effect: Some experimentsSome experimentsinvolve medical drugsinvolve medical drugsthat need to be testedthat need to be testedsafely on humans.safely on humans. To test the effects of theTo test the effects of thedrugs, the experimentaldrugs, the experimentalgroup will receive the realgroup will receive the realdrug, while the controldrug, while the controlgroup will receive agroup will receive aplaceboplacebo – sugar pill.– sugar pill. PlaceboPlacebo – An imitation– An imitationpill, injection, or patchpill, injection, or patchthat lacks the activethat lacks the activeingredient.ingredient.
  • 47. Placebo Effect:Placebo Effect: Placebo EffectPlacebo Effect ––Experimental participantsExperimental participantschange their behavior inchange their behavior inabsence of any kind ofabsence of any kind ofexperimental manipulation.experimental manipulation. If two treatments are beingIf two treatments are beingtested, the researcher maytested, the researcher mayuseuse counterbalancingcounterbalancing totoassign people to twoassign people to twoseparate groups instead of allseparate groups instead of allpeople getting both drugs.people getting both drugs.(there may be some residual(there may be some residualeffects from the first drug.)effects from the first drug.)
  • 48. How does this work?How does this work? Researches have proposedResearches have proposedthat placebos work by reducingthat placebos work by reducingtension and distress andtension and distress andcreating a powerfulcreating a powerful self-self-fulfilling prophecyfulfilling prophecy.. Individuals think and behaveIndividuals think and behaveas if the drug (in our example,as if the drug (in our example,a sugar pill) actually works.a sugar pill) actually works. The placebo effect is moreThe placebo effect is moresuccessful when administeredsuccessful when administeredby trusted and sincereby trusted and sincereprofessionals.professionals. Mt. Union Experiment - liquidMt. Union Experiment - liquidTiger Woods uses a lot of positiveself talk – He believes he will win.
  • 49. Quasi-Experimental Research:Quasi-Experimental Research: Quasi-experimental researchQuasi-experimental research– Participants are not– Participants are notrandomly assigned.randomly assigned. Maybe you want to study theMaybe you want to study thedifferences between men anddifferences between men andwomen (though thewomen (though theparticipants are randomparticipants are randomselected within that particularselected within that particularsub group)sub group) Other examplesOther examples: young and: young andold, students in one class vs.old, students in one class vs.students in another class.students in another class. This type of research does notThis type of research does notestablish cause and effectestablish cause and effectbecause of the sheer amountbecause of the sheer amountof possible confoundingof possible confoundingvariables.variables.
  • 50. A Quasi-experiment cannot be considered aA Quasi-experiment cannot be considered acontrolled experiment because:controlled experiment because:Subjectscanno...Subjectscanno...Toofewsubjec...Experimenterb...Adouble-blind...20% 20% 20%20%20%:2511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 30301.1. Subjects cannot beSubjects cannot berandomly designedrandomly designed2.2. Subjects cannot beSubjects cannot berandomly selectedrandomly selected3.3. Too few subjectsToo few subjectsparticipate in theparticipate in theprocedureprocedure4.4. Experimenter bias isExperimenter bias isunavoidableunavoidable5.5. A double-blindA double-blindprocedure wasn’t usedprocedure wasn’t used
  • 51. Lesson Four: Ethical GuidelinesLesson Four: Ethical Guidelines By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Identify how ethical issues inform and1. Identify how ethical issues inform andconstrain research practices.constrain research practices. 2. Describe how ethical and legal2. Describe how ethical and legalguidelines (e.g., those provided by theguidelines (e.g., those provided by theAmerican Psychological Association,American Psychological Association,federal regulations, local institutionalfederal regulations, local institutionalreview boards) protect researchreview boards) protect researchparticipants and promote sound ethicalparticipants and promote sound ethicalpractice.practice.
  • 52. Ethical Guidelines:Ethical Guidelines: There have been manyThere have been manypsychological studies inpsychological studies inthe past that would nowthe past that would nowbe considered unethical.be considered unethical. Stanford PrisonStanford PrisonExperiment,Experiment,Harlow’s ResearchHarlow’s Research ononmonkeys, Milgram’smonkeys, Milgram’sshock study.shock study. These studies all yieldedThese studies all yieldedimpressive results, but atimpressive results, but atwhat cost?what cost?
  • 53. Animal Research:Animal Research: The guidelines for animalThe guidelines for animalresearch is less strict.research is less strict. Here is what the APAHere is what the APAsays:says: 1. The animals must be1. The animals must betreated humanelytreated humanely 2. The animals must be2. The animals must beacquired, cared for, used,acquired, cared for, used,and disposed of properly.and disposed of properly. 3. Researchers must3. Researchers mustmake efforts to minimizemake efforts to minimizetheir discomfort, infection,their discomfort, infection,illness, and pain.illness, and pain.
  • 54. Institutional Review Boards:Institutional Review Boards: Before the 1970’s, psychologists conducted research without anyBefore the 1970’s, psychologists conducted research without anyrestrictions.restrictions. Ethics were not a huge consideration. Data was most important.Ethics were not a huge consideration. Data was most important. After Harlow’s Research in the 1970’s, colleges and universitiesAfter Harlow’s Research in the 1970’s, colleges and universitiesstarted to realizes that a watchdog organization was needed instarted to realizes that a watchdog organization was needed inorder to protect both humans and animals from unethical treatmentorder to protect both humans and animals from unethical treatmentduring research.during research. Most psychological research is done at colleges and universities.Most psychological research is done at colleges and universities. Each of these colleges or universities has aEach of these colleges or universities has a Institutional ReviewInstitutional ReviewBoard (IRB)Board (IRB) that must approve a research study before it can bethat must approve a research study before it can bestarted.started. All sections of the experiment must be explained and all forms,All sections of the experiment must be explained and all forms,equipment, etc. must be approved before commencing with theequipment, etc. must be approved before commencing with thestudy.study.
  • 55. APA Guidelines For HumanAPA Guidelines For HumanResearch:Research: The APA states that in order to experiment onThe APA states that in order to experiment onhumans, the following guidelines must behumans, the following guidelines must befollowed:followed: 1.Obtain the informed consent of potential1.Obtain the informed consent of potentialparticipants (can used some deception here)participants (can used some deception here) 2. Protect them from harm and discomfort (can2. Protect them from harm and discomfort (canleave the study)leave the study) 3. Treat information about individual participants3. Treat information about individual participantsconfidentially (storage afterwards)confidentially (storage afterwards) 4. Fully explain the research after the4. Fully explain the research after theexperiment (debriefing)experiment (debriefing)
  • 56. Lesson Five: Objectives:Lesson Five: Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Distinguish the purposes of descriptive1. Distinguish the purposes of descriptivestatistics and inferential statistics.statistics and inferential statistics. ••2. Apply basic descriptive statistical2. Apply basic descriptive statisticalconcepts, including interpreting andconcepts, including interpreting andconstructing graphs and calculatingconstructing graphs and calculatingsimple descriptive statistics (e.g.,simple descriptive statistics (e.g.,measures of central tendency, standardmeasures of central tendency, standarddeviation).deviation).
  • 57. Lesson Five: Elementary StatisticsLesson Five: Elementary Statistics A large amount of dataA large amount of datacan be collected incan be collected inresearch studies.research studies. Now what?Now what? Psychologists need toPsychologists need tomake sense out of all ofmake sense out of all ofthis data.this data. StatisticsStatistics – A field that– A field thatinvolves the analysis ofinvolves the analysis ofnumerical data aboutnumerical data aboutrepresentative samplesrepresentative samplesof populations.of populations.
  • 58. Types of Data Collection:Types of Data Collection: Two types of dataTwo types of datacollectioncollection:: QuantitativeQuantitative – Data that– Data thatis already scored using ais already scored using anumerical quality (surveynumerical quality (surveyresponses)responses) QualitativeQualitative – Data that– Data thatneeds to be turned intoneeds to be turned intonumerical datanumerical data(interview responses,(interview responses,case study data – lookcase study data – lookfor themes)for themes)
  • 59. Types of Scales:Types of Scales: How do we make sense of theHow do we make sense of thedata?data? Many different scales are used toMany different scales are used tohelp clarify the numbers beforehelp clarify the numbers beforethey are computed.they are computed. Nominal ScaleNominal Scale – When numbers– When numbersare used to name something (1 =are used to name something (1 =male, 2 = female)male, 2 = female) Ordinal ScaleOrdinal Scale – When numbers– When numbersare used to rank order somethingare used to rank order something(1 = first, 2 = second)(1 = first, 2 = second) Interval ScaleInterval Scale – When numbers– When numbersare used to show a meaningfulare used to show a meaningfuldifference between other numbersdifference between other numbers(temperature – 32 degrees is 10(temperature – 32 degrees is 10degrees different than 42 degrees,degrees different than 42 degrees,so is 45 and 55.)so is 45 and 55.) Ratio ScaleRatio Scale – When a meaningful– When a meaningfulratio can be made with tworatio can be made with twonumbers. (ratio scale has a real ornumbers. (ratio scale has a real orabsolute zero)absolute zero)
  • 60. Descriptive Statistics:Descriptive Statistics: Data is usually gathered and thenData is usually gathered and thenorganized using bar or line graphs.organized using bar or line graphs. Descriptive StatisticsDescriptive Statistics – Numbers– Numbersthat summarize a set of researchthat summarize a set of researchdata obtained from a sample.data obtained from a sample. Frequency DistributionFrequency Distribution – Data is– Data isorganized to show the frequencyorganized to show the frequencyof each score or group of scores.of each score or group of scores.(how many A’s on a test)(how many A’s on a test) HistogramHistogram – A bar graph that is– A bar graph that iscreated from the frequencycreated from the frequencydistribution.distribution. Frequency PolygonFrequency Polygon – A line– A linegraph that replaces the bars withgraph that replaces the bars withsingle points and connects thesingle points and connects thepoints with a line.points with a line.
  • 61. Measures of Central Tendency:Measures of Central Tendency: After your data isAfter your data iscollected you can alsocollected you can alsofind out more about thefind out more about thedata using measures ofdata using measures ofcentral tendency.central tendency. Normal DistributionNormal Distribution ––with a large number ofwith a large number ofpoints, you will frequentlypoints, you will frequentlyget a bell curve.get a bell curve. If the points are focusedIf the points are focusedto the right or left of theto the right or left of thefrequency polygon youfrequency polygon youhave what’s called ahave what’s called askewedskewed distribution.distribution.
  • 62. Measures of Central Tendency:Measures of Central Tendency: ModeMode - The most frequently- The most frequentlyoccurring score in aoccurring score in adistributiondistribution ExampleExample::2,3,4,5,6,7,7,8,9,7,6,4,5,7,72,3,4,5,6,7,7,8,9,7,6,4,5,7,7 Obviously, seven is the mostObviously, seven is the mostfrequently occurring score.frequently occurring score. You might use this with surveyYou might use this with surveyresearch.research. BimodalBimodal – If two scores– If two scoresappear most frequently.appear most frequently. Multi-ModalMulti-Modal – If three or more– If three or morescores appear most frequently.scores appear most frequently.
  • 63. Calculate the mode for the following set ofCalculate the mode for the following set ofnumbers: 4,5,6,45,1,2,5,6,7,6,8,6,45,6numbers: 4,5,6,45,1,2,5,6,7,6,8,6,45,6644510% 0%0%0%1.1. 662.2. 443.3. 45454.4. 112511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 64. Measures of Central Tendency:Measures of Central Tendency: MedianMedian -- The middle score inThe middle score ina distributiona distribution Half the scores are above itHalf the scores are above itand half are below itand half are below it 1,2,3,4,5 – 3 is the median of1,2,3,4,5 – 3 is the median ofthis numbered set.this numbered set. For anFor an oddodd # of scores – use# of scores – usethe middle #the middle # For anFor an eveneven # of scores –# of scores –halfway between the two #’s.halfway between the two #’s. ExampleExample: 1,2,3,4,5,6 = 3.5: 1,2,3,4,5,6 = 3.5
  • 65. Calculate the Median of the following set ofCalculate the Median of the following set ofnumbers: 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10numbers: 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,1066.5750% 0%0%0%1.1. 662.2. 6.56.53.3. 774.4. 552511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 66. Measures of Central Tendency:Measures of Central Tendency: MeanMean -- The arithmeticThe arithmeticaverage of a distributionaverage of a distribution Obtained by adding theObtained by adding thescores and then dividingscores and then dividingby the number of scoresby the number of scores 1+2+3+4+5 = 15 / 5 = 31+2+3+4+5 = 15 / 5 = 3 I know, you’reI know, you’reimpressed….impressed….
  • 67. Calculate the Mean of the followingCalculate the Mean of the followingnumbers: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10numbers: 2, 4, 6, 8, 103463.140% 0%0%0%1.1. 332.2. 443.3. 664.4. 3.143.142511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 68. Measure of Variability:Measure of Variability: VariabilityVariability – describes– describesthe spread or dispersionthe spread or dispersionof scores for a set ofof scores for a set ofresearch data orresearch data ordistribution.distribution. RangeRange – The largest– The largestscore minus the smallestscore minus the smallestscore.score. ExampleExample (quiz scores out(quiz scores outof 10 pts.):of 10 pts.):5,6,7,7,7,8,8,9,10 – the5,6,7,7,7,8,8,9,10 – therange is 5.range is 5.
  • 69. What is the range for the following set of numbers?What is the range for the following set of numbers?5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,11,155,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,11,158155100% 0%0%0%1.1. 882.2. 15153.3. 554.4. 10102511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 70. Standard Deviation:Standard Deviation: Standard DeviationStandard Deviation ––Indicates the degree toIndicates the degree towhich scores differ fromwhich scores differ fromeach other and varyeach other and varyaround the mean value.around the mean value. ExampleExample:: The red represents aboutThe red represents about68% of population.68% of population. The red and greenThe red and greenrepresent about 95% ofrepresent about 95% ofthe population.the population. The red, green, and blueThe red, green, and bluerepresent about 99% ofrepresent about 99% ofthe people.the people.
  • 71. Correlation Basics:Correlation Basics: Scores can be reported inScores can be reported inmany different ways.many different ways. Sometimes, psychologists useSometimes, psychologists useaa standard score (Z Scorestandard score (Z Score) to) tocompare scores that werecompare scores that wereinitially on different scales.initially on different scales. ExampleExample: A z score of 1 on a: A z score of 1 on aIQ test might equal 115, whileIQ test might equal 115, whilea z score on the SAT mighta z score on the SAT mightequal 600.equal 600. Percentile ScorePercentile Score – Indicates– Indicatesthe percentage of scores at orthe percentage of scores at orbelow a particular score.below a particular score. ExampleExample – If you score at the– If you score at the9090ththpercentile, 90% of thepercentile, 90% of thescores are the same or belowscores are the same or belowyours.yours.
  • 72. Correlation:Correlation: When two traits seem toWhen two traits seem toaccompany each other, theyaccompany each other, theycorrelate.correlate. Correlation coefficientCorrelation coefficient is ais astatistical measure of astatistical measure of arelationshiprelationship Reveals how closely twoReveals how closely twothings vary together and howthings vary together and howwell one predicts the other.well one predicts the other. Correlation does not implyCorrelation does not implycausationcausation – correlation only– correlation onlyindicates that there is aindicates that there is arelationship between variables,relationship between variables,not how the relationship camenot how the relationship cameabout.about.
  • 73. Correlation Vs. CausationCorrelation Vs. Causation You have to be carefulYou have to be carefulassuming that correlationsassuming that correlationsshow cause and effect.show cause and effect. Example: Over the last 26Example: Over the last 26years, there has been a +.88years, there has been a +.88correlation between whichcorrelation between whichprofessional football teamprofessional football team(American or National League)(American or National League)wins the Super Bowl andwins the Super Bowl andwhether the stock market riseswhether the stock market risesor falls.or falls. +.88 is a very high positive+.88 is a very high positivecorrelation.correlation. It indicates only a relationship;It indicates only a relationship;winning a Super Bowl couldwinning a Super Bowl couldnot possibly cause a winningnot possibly cause a winningor losing Stock Market.or losing Stock Market.
  • 74. Research StrategiesResearch StrategiesCorrelation CoefficientCorrelation CoefficientCorrelationcoefficientIndicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)r = +.37The closer the # is to 1.00 or-1.00 indicates the strengthof the correlation.
  • 75. Which of the following numbers indicates aWhich of the following numbers indicates astronger statistical correlation?stronger statistical correlation?.97-.98.05-.030% 0%0%0%1.1. +.97+.972.2. -.98-.983.3. +.05+.054.4. -.03-.032511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030
  • 76. Scatterplots:Scatterplots: ScatterplotScatterplot(scattergrams(scattergrams) - a) - agraphed cluster of dots,graphed cluster of dots,each of which representseach of which representsthe values of twothe values of twovariablesvariables The slope of the pointsThe slope of the pointssuggests the direction ofsuggests the direction ofthe relationshipthe relationship The amount of scatterThe amount of scattersuggests the strength ofsuggests the strength ofthe correlationthe correlation Little scatter indicatesLittle scatter indicateshigh correlationhigh correlation
  • 77. Scatterplots:Scatterplots:Perfect positivecorrelation (+1.00)No relationship (0.00) Perfect negativecorrelation (-1.00)
  • 78. Inferential Statistics:Inferential Statistics: Inferential StatisticsInferential Statistics – Are used to interpret data and– Are used to interpret data anddraw conclusions (make inferences)draw conclusions (make inferences) They tell psychologists whether or not they canThey tell psychologists whether or not they cangeneralize their results to a larger population.generalize their results to a larger population. Statistical SignificanceStatistical Significance – a measure of the likelihood– a measure of the likelihoodthat your results show a real difference rather than justthat your results show a real difference rather than justchance.chance. P < .05 = there is a 1/20 probability of being caused byP < .05 = there is a 1/20 probability of being caused bychance.chance. P < .01 = there is a 1/100 probability of being caused byP < .01 = there is a 1/100 probability of being caused bychance.chance. These results are tabulated by using a computerThese results are tabulated by using a computerprogram equipped withprogram equipped with Meta-AnalysisMeta-Analysis software (SPSS)software (SPSS)
  • 79. Which of these values would be consideredWhich of these values would be consideredmore statistically significant?more statistically significant?p<.14p<.24p<.02p<.030% 0%0%0%1.1. p < .14p < .142.2. p < .24p < .243.3. p < .02p < .024.4. p < .03p < .032511 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818 1919 20202121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 2828 2929 3030

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